Immunogenicity of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) Compared to the Licensed 7vCRM Vaccine

ArticleinThe Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 28(4 Suppl):S66-76 · May 2009with21 Reads
Impact Factor: 2.72 · DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318199f8ef · Source: PubMed
Abstract

The immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was assessed and compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM). Healthy subjects (1650) were randomized to be vaccinated with 3 doses of PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (Prevenar/Prevnar) at 2-3-4 months of age and a fourth booster dose at 12-18 months. Serotype-specific pneumococcal responses (GlaxoSmithKline's ELISA with 22F-inhibition) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured 1 month after primary and booster vaccinations. The primary objective to demonstrate noninferiority of PHiD-CV versus 7vCRM (in terms of percentage of subjects with antibody concentration >or=0.2 microg/mL) for at least 7 of the 10 vaccine serotypes was reached as noninferiority was demonstrated for 8 serotypes. Although, noninferiority could not be demonstrated for ELISA responses against serotypes 6B and 23F, a post-hoc analysis of the percentage of subjects with OPA titers >or=8 suggested noninferiority for the 7 serotypes common to both vaccines including 6B and 23F.Priming of the immune system against all vaccine serotypes was confirmed by robust increases in ELISA antibody levels ( approximately 6.0-17 fold) and OPA titers ( approximately 8-93 fold) after a fourth consecutive dose of PHiD-CV. PHiD-CV induces ELISA and functional OPA antibodies for all vaccine serotypes after primary vaccination and is noninferior to 7vCRM in terms of ELISA and/or OPA threshold responses. Effective priming is further indicated by robust booster responses.

    • "Serotype 19A was also one of the more commonly isolated serotypes in Filipino children under 5 years of age [27]. A case-control study of PCV7 effectiveness and studies comparing immunogenicity of PCV10 and PCV7 suggest a potential cross-reactivity effect of PCV10 against serotypes 6A and 19A, due to the contained antigens in PCV10 against serotype 6B and 19F [55, 56] . However , cross-reactivity results of PCV10 based on the COMPAS were not significant (cross-reactive serotypes IPD [6A, 9N, or 19A] -99.5% {95% CI: -2,100.2–81.9} "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is lacking in other previous studies. A cost-utility analysis was conducted. A Markov simulation model was constructed to examine the costs and consequences of PCV10 and PCV13 against the current scenario of no PCV vaccination for a lifetime horizon. A health system perspective was employed to explore different funding schemes, which include universal or partial vaccination coverage subsidized by the government. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in Philippine peso (Php) per QALY gained (1 USD = 44.20 Php). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. With universal vaccination at a cost per dose of Php 624 for PCV10 and Php 700 for PCV13, both PCVs are cost-effective compared to no vaccination given the ceiling threshold of Php 120,000 per QALY gained, yielding ICERs of Php 68,182 and Php 54,510 for PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. Partial vaccination of 25% of the birth cohort resulted in significantly higher ICER values (Php 112,640 for PCV10 and Php 84,654 for PCV13) due to loss of herd protection. The budget impact analysis reveals that universal vaccination would cost Php 3.87 billion to 4.34 billion per annual, or 1.6 to 1.8 times the budget of the current national vaccination program. The inclusion of PCV in the national immunization program is recommended. PCV13 achieved better value for money compared to PCV10. However, the affordability and sustainability of PCV implementation over the long-term should be considered by decision makers.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "PCV13 covers an additional three—3, 6A and 19A (i.e., six more than PCV7) [12]. Evidence shows that their safety and immunogenicity profiles of these higher valences vaccines are similar to that of PCV7 and they do not interference with other vaccines in young children [11,12]. Since these two higher valence vaccines differ in serotypes covered , NTHi protein carrier, and unit price per dose, their impact as a public health intervention could differ. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) versus the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) to the National Immunization Schedule in Peru for prevention of pneumococcal disease (PD) in children <5 years of age. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (version 2.0) was applied from the perspective of the Government of Peru. Twenty successive cohorts of children from birth to 5 years were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were pneumococcal pneumonia (PP), pneumococcal meningitis (PM), pneumococcal sepsis (PS) and acute otitis media from any causes (AOM). Measures included prevention of cases, neurological sequelae (NS), auditory sequelae (AS), deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). A sensitivity analyses was also performed. For the 20 cohorts, net costs with PCV10 and PCV13 were US$ 363.26 million and US$ 408.26 million, respectively. PCV10 prevented 570,273 AOM; 79,937 PP; 2217 PM; 3049 PS; 282 NS; 173 AS; and 7512 deaths. PCV13 prevented 419,815 AOM; 112,331 PN; 3116 PM; 4285 PS; 404 NS; 248 AS; and 10,386 deaths. Avoided DALYs were 226,370 with PCV10 and 313,119 with PCV13. Saved treatment costs were US$ 37.39 million with PCV10 and US$ 47.22 million with PCV13. Costs per DALY averted were US$ 1605 for PCV10, and US$ 1304 for PCV13. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. PCV13 has an extended dominance over PCV10. Both pneumococcal vaccines are cost effective in the Peruvian context. Although the net cost of vaccination with PCV10 is lower, PCV13 prevented more deaths, pneumococcal complications and sequelae. Costs per each prevented DALY were lower with PCV13. Thus, PCV13 would be the preferred policy; PCV10 would also be reasonable (and cost-saving relative to the status quo) if for some reason 13-valent were not feasible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Vaccine
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    • "No available data as of July 2014 have been reported on the impact of PCV10 in nonvaccine eligible populations. PCV10 has been shown to be immunogenic in a number of primary and booster vaccination studies7172737475, and also to reduce vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage [76]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals <2 years and ≥50 years of age, as well as those with other specific risk factors, are especially vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Conjugate vaccines have been developed against encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae to provide improved immune responses. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has significantly reduced the burden of vaccine-type pneumococcal diseases in children, including invasive disease and pneumonia and acute otitis media. There have also been significant declines in antimicrobial resistance in 7-valent vaccine serotypes and carriage of S. pneumoniae in the post-PCV7 era. Two to three years after the introduction of PCV13, there is emerging, global evidence of a reduced burden of pneumococcal diseases in children, including declines in IPD (UK and Germany) and nasopharyngeal carriage of PCV13 serotypes (Portugal and France). The functional immunogenicity of PCV13 in individuals ≥50 years of age has been demonstrated in clinical trials in comparison with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and for children and adults 6 to 49 years of age. Between 2011 and 2013, PCV13 received market authorisation by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for these additional age groups and is now available in Europe for the prevention of pneumococcal disease in all age groups.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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