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Moringa oleifera grown and used in many countries around the world is a multi-purpose tree with medicinal, nutritional and socio-economic values. In Senegal and Benin, M. oleifera leaves are dispensed as powder at health facilities to treat moderate malnutrition in children. It established the medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves by local communities in Uganda and identified phytochemicals present in M. oleifera leaves extracts. It used quantitative and experimental methods that established the uses, and identified phytochemicals in M. oleifera leaves. Employed serial extractions, using ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The phytochemicals were qualitatively identified using standard chemicals and standard outcomes. Twenty-four medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves were established. Phytochemicals present included: tannins, steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids and reducing sugars. The local communities in Uganda use M. oleifera leaves to treat common ailments. Presence of phytochemicals in the extracts, indicate possible preventive and curative property of M. oleifera leaves. There is need to standardize M. oleifera leaves use for nutrition and herbal medicine.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(9), pp. 753-757, 4 May, 2010
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.492
ISSN 1996-0875 © 2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in
Ugandan rural communities
Josephine N. Kasolo
*,Gabriel S. Bimenya
, Lonzy Ojok
, Joseph Ochieng
Jasper W. Ogwal-Okeng
Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makererere University College of Health Sciences,
P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Pathology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makererere University College of Health Sciences,
P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences,
P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere University College of Health Sciences,
P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere University College of Health
Sciences, P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
Accepted 23 April, 2010
Moringa oleifera grown and used in many countries around the world is a multi-purpose tree with
medicinal, nutritional and socio-economic values. In Senegal and Benin, M. oleifera leaves are
dispensed as powder at health facilities to treat moderate malnutrition in children. It established the
medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves by local communities in Uganda and identified phytochemicals
present in M. oleifera leaves extracts. It used quantitative and experimental methods that established
the uses, and identified phytochemicals in M. oleifera leaves. Employed serial extractions, using ether,
ethanol and water as solvents. The phytochemicals were qualitatively identified using standard
chemicals and standard outcomes. Twenty-four medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves were established.
Phytochemicals present included: tannins, steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins,
anthraquinones, alkaloids and reducing sugars. The local communities in Uganda use M. oleifera leaves
to treat common ailments. Presence of phytochemicals in the extracts, indicate possible preventive and
curative property of M. oleifera leaves. There is need to standardize M. oleifera leaves use for nutrition
and herbal medicine.
Key words: Phytochemicals, medicinal plant extracts, herbal medicine, Uganda.
Moringa oleifera was massively grown and promoted by
the local media in Uganda in the 1980s as a plant
putatively able to cure a number of diseases including
symptoms of HIV/AIDS.
Industrialists bought the leaves and seeds to use as
raw materials and this promoted its being grown by many
families. At the moment farmers have uprooted the plant
*Corresponding author. E-mail, Tel: 256-772-553088. Fax:
and have remained with a few trees around the
Although M. oleifera is native to the sub-Himalayan
tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan
where it is used in folk medicine (Fahey, 2005), it is now
widely distributed all over the world (Lockelt, 2000). M.
oleifera is referred to as a miracle tree or a wonder
tree (Fuglie, 2001) of significant socio economic
importance because of its several nutritional,
pharmacological (Caceres et al., 1991; 1992; Fuglie,
2001) and industrial applications (Makkar and Becker,
1997; Foidl, 2001). The leaves of this plant contain a
profile of important trace elements, and are a good
754 J. Med. Plant. Res.
source of proteins, vitamins, beta-carotine, amino acids
and various phenolics (Anwar, 2007). With all those
attributes to M. oleifera leaves we wondered why very
few people and media are promoting the use of M.
oleifera leaves in a country where malnutrition among
children below 5 years stands at 15% while 45% children
below 5 years are stunted.
Over a period of two weeks, a cross-sectional study with
quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection used in
surveys was carried out among heads of households aged 18 years
and above in four rural districts of Uganda (Arua, Kapchorwa,
Mbarara and Wakiso), who had lived in the area for more than two
years. They were interviewed in their homes and focus group
discussions were conducted among them at the local councils’
meeting places. Villages from randomly selected sub-counties were
randomly selected and the list of heads of households was
generated. Every fifth person was interviewed until a total of 30
respondents per district were obtained.
The experimental component extracted M. oleifera leaf/powder
sequentialy using ether, ethanol (95% v/v) and distilled water as
solvent (Cowen, 1999). Medicinal phytochemicals in the extracts
were determined using established methods of Cuilei (1964). The
method uses the principle that different phytochemical groups,
reacts with specific to give end point characteristic colour changes
reagents when mixed because colour changes, froth or precipitate.
Data collection for use of M. oleifera leaves
A pre-tested questionnaire, translated into local languages
(Luganda, Runyankore, Lugbara and Kupsabiny) and back
translated to English to ensure consistence of meaning, was used
by trained research assistants to collect data from the participants.
Two focus group discussions per district (one for men and the other
for women) were performed to complement data collected from the
quantitative study. One man and one woman opinion leader from
each community were interviewed to correlate the information
collected from the focus group discussions. Data was also collected
on respondent’s social-demographic characteristics i.e. age, sex,
education level, marital status, distance to the nearest public health
unit and occupation. It also included knowledge and use of M.
oleifera leaves in their homes and communities.
Consent forms which included the nature and purpose of the
research translated into local languages were read to each
participant. The participants consented by signing or thumbing on
the consent form. Permission to conduct the study was received
from the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research and
Ethics Committee. The study was conducted in accordance with
ethical standards for human experimentation established by the
declaration of Helsinki (1965).
Extraction of the leaves
M. oleifera leaves were harvested during the dry season from trees
grown on loam soil in Wakiso district, Uganda. The family and
species of M. oleifera were confirmed by Ms. Olive Wanyanna a
Makerere University botanist and leaves were kept in the University
Herbarium. M. oleifera leaves were air-dried at room temperature in
the Department of Physiology until constant weight was attained.
They were kept away from high temperatures and direct sun light to
avoid destroying active compounds. They were then pounded to
powder with metallic motor and pestle to ease the extraction of
active compounds.
Extraction process
The process followed the already established extraction procedure
of plant samples, using ether followed by ethanol and then distilled
water as solvents (Cowan, 1999; Ciulei, 1964). Serial extractions
were done using 200 g plant powder, in 500 ml diethyl ether (98%)
in Ehlnmeyer flask. The mixture was shaken at two hourly intervals
during day-time for 3 days. The mixture was decant and filtered
using Whatman’s No.1 filter paper in Buchner funnel using a
suction pump. The residue was air dried at room temperature for 3
days and the same procedure repeated using ethanol (95% v/v) for
3 days. Rotary evaporator (BUCHI Rotavapor R-205) was used to
recover the ether and ethanol. Finally 200 g of the dry residue was
soaked into 1,000 ml distilled water at 96°C to prevent fungal attack
and cooled at room temperature. The mixture was shaken hourly to
ease extraction for 12 h. The filtrate was freeze dried at pressure 32
Pa, temperature was started at -47°C and maintained at C for 36
h to dry the extract.
Identification of phytochemical groups in the extracts
The qualitative methods already established to test for classes of
compounds in plant extracts by Ciulei (1964) and Chitravadivu et al.
(2009) were used. The substances that were tested for included:
Alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids, tannins, anthracenosides,
reducing sugars, flavones, saponins and coumarins which are
reported to have biological activities on animal tissues. The dry
extracts of M. oleifera leaves, ether, ethanol and water extracts
were used to determine the compounds.
Test for alkaloids
One milligram of dried extract was dissolved in 6 props of 2%
hydrochloric acid. The solution was divided into 3 aliquots; to the
first portion which acted as a reference, 2 ml of distilled water was
added. To the second test tube, 2 drops of Dragendorff’s reagent
whose Basic Bismuth nitrate, was purchased from Sikuda Lab
distributors, P. O. Box 12553, Kampala, Uganda, and potassium
iodide from Tomas Baker (Chemicals)Ltd, 4/86 Bharat, Mahal,
Marine Drive, Mumbai- 400 002, India were added. A precipitate
indicated presence of alkaloids. To the third portion, 2 drops of
Mayer’s reagent was added and a yellowish white precipitate
indicated the presence of alkaloids (Raffauf, 1962).
Test for steroids and triterpenoids
One milligram of dried extracts was dissolved in 0.5 ml of acetic
anhydride; 0.5 ml of chloroform from Alpha Chemicals, 18 Inman
Rd, Crorner, NSW 20999 Australia, was added. The solution was
pipette into a dry test tube and 1 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid
added at the bottom of the tube. A brown-red ring at the interface
between the two liquids and a green supernatant indicated the
presence of steroids and triterpenoids.
Test for tannins
One milligram of plant extracts was dissolved in 1.5 ml of water; 3
drop of dilute ferric chloride from LOBA CHEMIE PVT. LTD.
Jehangir Villa, 107, Wode House Road, Colaba, Mumai, 400 005,
India, were added. A blackish blue color indicated the presence of
Gallic tannins and green blackish color indicated catechol tannins.
Test for anthraquinones
To 1 mg of the extract, 2 ml of 25% Ammonia solution from UNILAB
Limited, P. O. Box 78151, Nairobi, Kenya, was added and shaken.
A cherish-red solution indicates the presence of emodols
(aglycones of anthracenosides in oxidized form).
Test for saponins
Three drops of dimethylsulfoxide from BDH Laboratories VWR
International Ltd, 14 Media Village, Liscombe Park, Soulbury,
Leighton Buzzard , LU7 0JL, UK, were added to 1 mg of plant
extract, 5 ml of distilled water added and shaken. Presence of foam
which persisted for more than 15 min indicated the presence of
Test for coumarins
One milligram of the extract was dissolved in 2 ml of water. The
solution divided into 2 portions. To first portion, 0.5 ml of 10%
ammonia solution was added. The second portion acted as a
reference. The occurrence of an intense fluorescence under ultra
violet light indicated the presence of coumarins and its derivatives.
Test for flavones aglycones
One milligram of dry plant extract was dissolved in 1 ml of methanol
at 50°C. Metallic magnesium from BDH Lab Supplies (U) Ltd. Plot
7. Bombo Road, Kampala, Uganda and 5 drops of concentrated
hydrochloric acid were added. A red or orange color indicates the
presence of flavones aglycones (Shibata’s reaction or Cyanidin
Test for reducing sugars
One milligram of the extract dissolved in 2 ml of water and 1 ml of
Fehling’s reagent which contained a mixture of Fehlings solution I
and II purchased from Sikuda Lab distributors, P. O. Box 12553,
Kampala, Uganda was added and the mixture heated. A brick red
precipitate denoted the presence of reducing sugars.
Data analysis
Data from the quantitative study was entered into Microsoft Excel
2007 and exported to SPSS 13.0 statistical program for analysis.
The qualitative data was manually analyzed by grouping the
ailments mentioned in the group discussions and in the key
informant interviews.
The findings revealed that most of the participants were
aged 50 - 55 years (78; 65%), there were more males
(93; 77.5%) than females (27; 22.5%), the majority were
subsistence farmers (110; 91.6%) with primary education
level (88; 73.3%). Majority of the participants (109; 90.8%) were
Kasolo et al. 755
in some form of marital union and those that had divorced or
widowed had remarried or cohabiting. Most respondents (63;
52.5%) lived more than 5 km from the nearest public
health unit.
It also found out that there are twenty-four uses of M.
oleifera leaves by rural communities in Uganda, Table 1.
The highest percentage of respondents (108; 90%) use M.
oleifera leaves to treat hypertension and diabetes. A small
number (28; 23.3%) had never used the leaves for
treating any condition and 19 (15.8%) had no knowledge
of its use. There were no traces coumarins in ether,
ethanol or water extracts. However, steroids and
triterpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and saponins
were extracted by all the solvents. Ether and ethanol did
not extract alkaloids while water extracted all the other
phytochemicals (Table 2).
This study has established the fact M. oleifera leaves in
Uganda are used for treatment of twenty-four medical
conditions as shown in Table 1. The respondents are of
low income and live more than 5 km from a public health
facility which makes them susceptible to use of local
herbs as a first line of illness management. They believe
that M. oleifera leaves cure the ailments mentioned and
many of them use it at primary health care level before
seeking help at health facilities. Reports reveal that there
are 43 uses of M. oleifera leaves around the globe
(Fahey, 2005).
Yet in Uganda the leaves are known to treat twenty-
four medical conditions. Out of the twenty-four ailments
six including: impotence, heartburn, bone setting,
asthma, flu, syphilis are only mentioned by the Ugandan
rural communities and not reported by other
communities. This could be due to the different naming of
ailments in different countries and communities for
example: in many of the Ugandan local languages it is
difficult to get different words distinguishing cough, flu,
pneumonia and common cold or malaria and fever.
Despite the documented nutrition attributes to M. oleifera
leaves, very few respondents (13 (10.8%) appreciated its
use in treatment or prevention of malnutrition. There is
inadequate knowledge about the nutritional and medicinal
values of M. oleifera leaves among the Ugandan rural
communities. The communities need to be educated on
the attributes of the leaves in order to prevent
malnutrition among the children. The respondents were
not able to tell whether the leaves cured the ailments or
just caused the relief symptoms. Unlike in the developed
world where herbal medicines are used because they are
considered to be safer than the orthodox medicine, the
Ugandan rural communities use them due to inadequate
access to medical care.
Having used the methods of Ciulei (1964) and latter
adopted by Cowan (1999); Ogwal-okeng (1998) and
Waako (1996) to qualitatively establish phytochemicals in
756 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Table 1. Reported differential uses of M. olefera leaves in
Ugandan rural communities.
Percentage (%)
HIV/AIDS -related symptoms
60 (50.0)
12 (10.0)
External sores/ulcers
13 (10.8)
15 (12.5)
108 (90)
Diabetes mellitus
108 (90)
13 (10.8)
12 (10.0)
13 (10.8)
13 (10.8)
13 (10.8)
12 (10.0)
Heart burn
12 (10.0)
Bone setting
12 (10.0)
Worms in people and cattle
70 (58.3)
Skin disease
13 (10.8)
12 (10.0)
Lactation enhancer
70 (58.3)
Protein energy malnutrition
13 (10.8)
30 (25.0)
12 (10.0)
30 (25.0)
Tea spices
30 (25.0)
30 (25.0)
Never used the plant
28 (23.3)
No knowledge of the use
19 (15.8)
A number of respondents knew more than one use of M. oleifera
Table 2. Phytochemicals present in M. oleifera leaves.
Gallic tannins
Catechol tennins
Steroids and triterpenoids
Reducing sugars
Key -: not detected; +: present in low concentration; ++: present in
moderate concentration; +++ present in high concentrations.
different plant extracts, this study established that ether;
ethanol and water M. oleifera leaves extracts contained:
catechol tannins, gallic tannins, steroids and
triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones,
alkaloids and reducing sugars which have been identified
by other researchers in various plants and in different
parts of plants (Devbhuti et al., 2009; Tijjan et al., 2009;
Hassan et al., 2007; Bennett et al., 2003). None of the
extracts contained coumarins. The findings in this study
agree with earlier studies which also found that, not all
phytochemicals are present in all plant parts and that
those present differ according to the type of the extracting
solvent used (Tijjan et al., 2009; Ayinde et al., 2007).
Flavonoids, which are many in number (Ramo-Tejada,
2002), are strong antioxidants, also found to be effective
antimicrobial substances in vitro against a wide array of
microorganisms by inhibiting the membrane bound
enzymes (Cowan, 1999) . They have been reported to
possess substantial anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic
activities due to their anti-oxidant and -inflammatory
properties (Li-Weber, 2009; Nandakumar et al., 2008;
Hausteen, 2002). They are also active in reducing high
blood pressure (Ayinde et al., 2007; Dhawan and Jain,
Tannins are a group of polymeric phenolic substances
capable of tanning leather or precipitating gelatic from
solution (Scalbert, 1991), causing local tumors(Kapadia
et al., 1978), inactivating and killing microorganisms
(Cowan, 1999; Hausteen, 2005).
On the other hand anthraquinones (9,10-
dioxoanthracene) which are a group of naturally occurring
phenolic compounds are found in M. oleifera leaves and
tend to have laxative effects. Terpenoids and steroids
present in M. oleifera leaves ere described as being
active against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus
(Cowan, 1999), capable of preventing cancer (Raju et al.,
2004), having anti-carcinogenic effects (Yun, 1996).
Rausch et al. (2006) reported Ginseng saponins to have
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis and
immunostimulant properties, which raised speculation
that these compounds could positively affect
neurodegenerative disorders and delay neural aging. The
local communities use M. oleifera leaves as soap due to
the presence of saponins which form froth and act as
M. oleifera leaves also contain alkaloids which are
nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound,
commonly found to have antimicrobial properties due to
their ability to intercalate with DNA of the microorganisms
The presence of glucosinolates in Moringa stenopetala
(Bennett et al., 2003) and that of hypotensive
thiocarbamite glycosides in M. oleifera, (Faizi et al.,
(1995) contributes to the use of the plants in
hypertension. On the other hand, they are also reported
to modify tumorigenisis (Ueno et al., 2009), able to inhibit
carbohydrate-mediated tumor growth (Nangia-Makker et
al., 2002), induced a stress response and apoptosis in
human breast cancer cells.
It is also documented that phytochemicals in plant-
based foods can improve glucose metabolism as well as
enhance the overall health of diabetic patients by improving
lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, improving capillary
function, and lowering blood pressure and cholesterol
(Kelble, 2006; Broadhurst et al., 2000). M. oleifera leaves
having these phytochemicals are able to treat the
ailments mentioned by the heads of households in
Ugandan rural communities.
The rural community in Uganda use Moringa oleifera
leaves to treat common medical conditions but a few use
it for preventing and treating malnutrition. Presence of
phytochemicals indicates possible preventive and
curative properties of M. oleifera leaves. There is need to
carry out more pharmacological studies to support the
use of M. oleifera as a medicinal plant.
Authors are grateful to the staff of the Departments of
Physiology and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College
of Health Sciences Makerere University, Kampala for
their technical assistance and to the Carnegie of New
York Fund.
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... Research findings presented that Moringa administration with IL-6 and NF-κB consistently decreased lung inflammation. This might occur due to the following reasons, such as (1) Moringa acts as a natural antiinflammatory, as moringa has been known to have strong anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation in the body (Howladar, 2014;Kasolo, 2010); Moringa oleifera leaf extract contains antiinflammatory compounds such as isothiocyanate and polyphenols, which can reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators (Cheenpracha, 2010;Jaja-Chimedza, 2017); (2) IL-6 as an inflammatory mediator, IL-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by various cells in the body in response to injury or infection. Overproduction of IL-6 can lead to chronic inflammation, including inflammation of the lungs. ...
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Indonesia is ranked as the most highly polluted country in Southeast Asia and the 26th on the list of the most polluted countries worldwide. Exercising in polluted spaces can have complex effects on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the lungs. The interaction between physical activity and pollution exposure may affect lung health. This study aimed to analyse the different effects of exercise in polluted open spaces and antioxidant administration on lung inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis. The research approach used was a quantitative approach with a comparative descriptive design using random assignment technique. The research sample used male white rats (Rattus Norvegicus) Wistar strain aged 8-10 weeks with a body weight of 200-300 g obtained from Biofarma Animal Breeding Facility. The sampling technique used in this study was random assignment technique. In this study, the number of members of the treatment group was 5, so the total research sample amounted to 5 x 9, namely 45 samples. The results showed that there was a differentiation in the level of inflammation represented by the level of IL-6 and NF-κB and lung mitochondrial biogenesis level represented by PGC-1α, TOM20, and COX IV with moringa administration in physical activities, as indicated by the comparison of the mean values of the inflammatory process and lung mitochondrial biogenesis in the nine treatment groups. The implication of this research is that it is necessary to consider appropriate sport strategies or guidelines for individuals who exercise in a polluted environment to reduce the negative impact on the respiratory system and overall lung health.
... It is used to lower the glucose levels in diabetic patients and blood pressure in others. It is also used to treat ulcers [32][33][34]. All of these activities are attributed to its constituents including alkaloids (moringine, moringinine), nitrile glycosides such as niazirin, glycosides of mustard oil, niaziminin A and B, flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercetin, rutin), phenolic acids (such as chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid), Vitamins and β-carotenes, essential amino acids (such as methionine, cystine and lysine), vanillin, 4-hydroxymellein, β-sitosterol and octacosanoic acid, aurantiamide acetate, 1,3 dibenzyl-urea [32,35,36]. ...
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Most of the breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive recurring with a steady rate of up to 20 years dysregulating the normal cell cycle. Dinaciclib is still in clinical trials and considered as a research drug against such cancers targeting CDK2. The major goal of this study was to identify the potential inhibitors of CDK-2 present in Moringa oleifera for treating hormonal receptor positive breast cancers. For this purpose, in silico techniques; molecular docking, MM-GBSA and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to screen Moringa oleifera compounds and their anticancer potential was determined against CDK-2 protein targets. Among 36 compounds of Moringa oleifera reported in literature, chlorogenic acid (1), quercetin (2), ellagic acid (3), niazirin (4), and kaempferol (5) showed good affinity with the target. The interaction of the compounds was visualized using PYMOL software. The profiles of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and toxicity were determined using SWISS and ProTox II webservers. The MTT assay was performed in-vitro using MCF-7 cancer cell lines to validate the anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera leaf extract. MTT assay results revealed no significant change in proliferation of Mcf-7 cells following 24 h treatment with fraction A (petroleum ether). However, significant antiproliferative effect was observed at 200 µg/mL dose of fraction B (ethyl acetate) and cell viability was reduced to 40%. In conclusion, the data suggested that all the compounds with highest negative docking score than the reference could be the potential candidates for cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2) inhibition while ellagic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin being the most stable and potent inhibitors to treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer targeting CDK-2. Moreover, the data suggested that further investigation is required to determine the optimum dose for significant antiproliferative effects using in-vivo models to validate our findings of in-silico analysis.
... Tanaman ini telah dipelajari khasiatnya untuk kesehatan seperti antijamur, antioksidan, antibakteri, antiradang, diuretik, dan sebagai hepatoprotektor, sehingga beberapa julukan disematkan untuk tanaman kelor, diantaranya The Miracle Tree, Tree for life dan Amazing Tree (Isnan & Nurhaedah, 2017). Bagian tanaman kelor yang banyak dimanfaatkan adalah daun kelor karena mengandung berbagai asam amino yang jarang sekali ditemui pada sayuran (Kouevi, 2013;Kasolo, 2010). ...
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Tanaman kelor (Moringa oleifera Lamk.) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman tropis yang mudah tumbuh di daerah tropis seperti Sulawesi Tengah yang banyak dijumpai ditanam sebagai pagar hidup, ditanam di sepanjang ladang atau tepi sawah yang berfungsi sebagai tanaman penghijau dan dikenal sebagai tanaman obat berkhasiat dengan memanfaatkan seluruh bagian dari tanaman tersebut mulai dari daun, kulit batang, biji, hingga akarnya yang memiliki nutrisi cukup tinggi seperti vitamin A, kalsium, protein, dan zat besi. Pengabdian dilakukan dengan beberapa tahapan, yaitu tahap pertama dilakukan survei tentang produk olahan yang telah diproduksi oleh kelompok mitra (Kelompok Tani Neokola Salara) dan ketersediaan bahan baku tanaman kelor di masyarakat, kemudian dilakukan penyuluhan terkait teori dasar tanaman kelor. Tahap kedua yaitu pelaksanaan pendampingan dan pelatihan kepada Kelompok Tani Neokola Salara membuat teh herbal dan melakukan evaluasi, dimana peserta akan diminta mengisi kuesioner pelaksanaan kegiatan pengabdian. Hasil yang didapatkan pada pengabdian ini yaitu karakteristik responden dalam kegiatan ini secara keseluruhan diikuti oleh perempuan dan memiliki pekerjaan sebagai Ibu Rumah Tangga, memiliki umur pra-lansia dengan jumlah 7 orang, umur lansia dengan jumlah 2 orang, tingkat Pendidikan SMP/SMA/SMK memiliki proporsi terbanyak yaitu 13 orang, Pendidikan SD dengan proporsi terkecil yaitu 2 orang, dan analisis biaya pembuatan teh herbal daun kelor harga yang ditetapkan yaitu Rp. 15.000, dimana harga daun kelor segar untuk perkarton yaitu Rp 800/80g. Hasil pretest menunjukkan bahwa sebagian sudah mengetahui atau sudah mendengar teh yang terbuat dari daun kelor melalui media sosial dan tetangga, serta juga sudah mengetahui cara penyajian teh daun kelor, tetapi masih belum mengetahui cara pembuatan teh herbal daun kelor, dan pada pengujian postest menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruahan sudah mengetahui teh herbal daun kelor dan juga cara pembuatannya serta juga sudah mengetahui bahan tambahan dan takaran dalam satu sachet teh herbal
... It was shaken well for 5 minutes. The formation of stable foam confirmed the test15 .Steroids:Salkowski Test: Approximately 2 mg of dry extract was shaken with 1 ml of chloroform and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid were added along the side of the test tube. A red-brown color formed at the interface indicated the test as positive for triterpenoids16 . ...
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Annona squamosa (sugar apple) is commonly cultivated in tropical South America occasionally in southern Florida as well as in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Barbados, and dry regions of Australia. It was growing in Indonesia early in the 17th century and has been widely adopted in southern China, tropical Africa, Egypt, and the lowlands of Palestine. This plant is a small well-branched tree or shrub that bears edible fruits called sugar-apples, species of the genus Annona and a member of the family Annonaceae is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problem, warm infection, constipation, hemorrhage, antibacterial infection and also has anti-tumor activity. Especially the seeds have another important effect they are medically useful to show many therapeutic activities such as anticancer, and CNS depressant. Hence the present study was taken to test the antimicrobial activity of seeds of Annona squamosa and microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the seed extracts of Annona squamosa was done with methanol using the soxhlation method followed by steam distillation to perform phytochemical screening.
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Moringa oleifera Lam. is a pan-tropical plant well known to the ancient world for its extensive therapeutic benefits in the Ayurvedic and Unani medical systems. The ancient world was familiar with this tree, but it has only lately been rediscovered as a multifunctional species with a huge range of possible therapeutic applications. It is a folk remedy for skin diseases, edema, sore gums, etc. This review comprises the history, ethnomedicinal applications, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, propagation, nutritional and phytochemical profile, dermatological effects, and commercially available cosmeceuticals of Moringa oleifera Lam. Compilation of all the presented data has been done by employing various search engines like Science Direct, Google, PubMed, Research Gate, EBSCO, SciVal, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Studies on phytochemistry claim the presence of a variety of substances, including fatty acids, phenolic acids, sterols, oxalates, tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids, flavonols glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, terpene, saponins, phylates, alkaloids, glucosinolates, glycosides, and isothiocyanate. The pharmacological studies have shown the efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. as an antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atopic dermatitis, antipsoriatic, promoter of wound healing, effective in treating herpes simplex virus, photoprotective, and UV protective. As a moisturizer, conditioner, hair growth promoter, cleanser, antiwrinkle, anti-aging, anti-acne, scar removal, pigmentation, and control for skin infection, sores, as well as sweating, it has also been utilized in a range of cosmeceuticals. he Moringa oleifera Lam. due to its broad range of phytochemicals can be proven boon for the treatment of dermatological disorders.
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Moringa (Moringa oleifera), family Moringaceae also called as a Drumstick tree belongs to a and this is fast growing, drought resistant annual shrub. It thrives in well drained loamy soils and its leaves are taken for preparation of various items. It also contains some medicinally important compounds known as, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids compounds and other glycosides tannins. Nearly other parts of moringa like flowers, seeds, roots and pods, can be used in different industrial applications e.g. cosmetics, animal feed, human food etc. In this research paper it will be discussed methods for processing, preparation of moringa tea and its nutritional importance. It was also covered some health benefits related to human beings and market potential of moringa tea in Indigenous and global market in the upcoming years.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan daun kelor dan lama penyimpanan terhadap jumlah bakteri dan uji organoleptik telur asin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen yang menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial yang masing-masaing dilakukan tiga kali ulangan untuk uji jumlah total bakteri dan organoleptik. Percobaan ini terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor A dan faktor B dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut: Faktor A level persentase jumlah daun Kelor yaitu a1(0%), a2(7%), a3(14%). Faktor B lama Penyimpanan yaitu b1( 6 ), b2 (8 ), b3(10) hari. Hasil sidik ragam, interaksi pemberian daun kelor dan lama penyimpanan pada proses pembuatan telur asin, memperlihatkan pengaruh yang tidak nyata (P>0,05) terhadap jumlah bakteri dan uji organoleptik (aroma, warna kuning telur, tekstur kuning telur, tekstur putih telur, kesukaan), sedangkan untuk uji rasa telur asin memperlihatkan pengaruh nyata (P<0,05). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa: pembuatan telur asin dapat di tambah daun kelor sampai level 14% dengan lama pemeraman 10 hari
Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) consumption in excess can have an impact on a man's fertility and lead to infertility. MSG has the potential to produce free radicals, which can harm cells. Antioxidants can fight off free radicals. Exogenous antioxidants are required to maintain equilibrium since there will be an imbalance if the body produces more free radicals than endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants flavonoids are present in the leaves of the Moringa plant (Moringa oleifera L). It is thought that flavonoids have 4-5 times more antioxidant potential than vitamins. Objectives: To evaluate how moringa leaf extract affects the histopathological profile of MSG-exposed mouse testes. Methods: Only the posttest was used as a control group in this study. 25 male mice were used as the sample, and they were split up into five groups. The treatment group 1 (P1) received 6 g/day of MSG exposure + 300 mg/kg BW/day of moringa leaf extract, the treatment group 2 (P2) received 6 g/day of MSG exposure + 600 mg/kg BW/day of moringa leaf extract, and the treatment group 3 (P3) received 6 g/day of MSG exposure + 1200 mg/kg BW/day of moringa leaf extract. The control group (K-) received only standard feed. The mice were put to death after 30 days. The testes were removed for histological examination using hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the Johnsen scoring criteria were applied to their evaluation. Results: The data were not significant according to the Shapiro-Wilk test in the P3 group (MSG 6 g/day + Moringa Extract 1200 mg/kg BW/day). The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there was no significant difference between the seminiferous tubules according to the treatment group (p = 0.117). Conclusion: Moringa oleifera leaf extract protects the histopathological picture of the testes of male mice compared to the group given monosodium glutamate.
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Methanol extract of the root of Cochlospermum tinctorium was evaluated for antibacterial activities using hole-in-plate bioassay technique against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corynbacterium ulcerans, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella dysentriae using ciprofloxacin (10 μg mL-1) and gentamicin (10 μg mL-1) as reference standards. The extract was active on all the test organisms at concentration of 2000 μg mL-1. The activity of the extract against S. dysentriae was found to be more potent with MIC 100 and MBC 500 μg mL-1. Time kill studies showed that the antibacterial activities were time dependent. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides. These phytochemicals could be responsible for the antimicrobial activities exhibited by the extract and hence justify the ethnomedicinal uses of C. tinctorium.
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Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal, fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of "healthful" food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions. This is the first of four planned papers on the nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties of Moringa oleifera. In this introductory paper, the scientific evidence for health effects are summarized in tabular format, and the strength of evidence is discussed in very general terms. A second paper will address a select few uses of Moringa in greater detail than they can be dealt with in the context of this paper. A third paper will probe the phytochemical components of Moringa in more depth. A fourth paper will lay out a number of suggested research projects that can be initiated at a very small scale and with very limited resources, in geographic regions which are suitable for Moringa cultivation and utilization. In advance of this fourth paper in the series, the author solicits suggestions and will gladly acknowledge contributions that are incorporated into the final manuscript. It is the intent and hope of the journal's editors that such a network of small-scale, locally executed investigations might be successfully woven into a greater fabric which will have enhanced scientific power over similar small studies conducted and reported in isolation. Such an approach will have the added benefit that statistically sound planning, peer review, and multi-center coordination brings to a scientific investigation.
Catechin belongs to a group of flavonoids, which are present in many fruits and plants. Catechin is often employed in model investigations on antioxidant behavior of flavonoids. Recently also some anti-disease properties of flavonoids were reported. In this paper investigations were carried out on alumina/(+)-catechin solution system. FTIR spectra were taken for the catechin samples retaken from its aqueous solutions at pH 3, 5.5 (natural) and 10.5. In other series, the solutions were contacted with an alumina powder during 20 days. Also UV–Vis spectra were taken for similar solutions incubated for 1, 7, 20, 50 and 70 days with and without contact with alumina. It appeared that the alumina essentially accelerated the autooxidation processes occurring in the solutions. The results show that the processes have completed between day 20 and 50, because the UV–Vis spectra for day 50 and 70 overlapped. Moreover, it looks that this is a specific property of alumina, which behaves as a catalyst. Similar experiments with silica showed that during 50 days, this oxide affected the processes only slightly.
Purpose The paper is a review of current research on phytochemicals and how they may alleviate type 2 diabetes by improving insulin activity in the body. Design/methodology/approach Literature searches were conducted to find a link between common household spices and type 2 diabetes. Only common household spices were researched so that any link found between spices and type 2 diabetes could lead to practical home‐based recommendations for changes in a person's diet. Findings Cinnamon, garlic, ginger, basil, oregano, nutmeg, tea, bay leaf, allspice, curry, and others were found to play a role in lowering blood glucose, increasing insulin sensitivity, and increasing glucose synthesis in response to food intake. In addition, these spices may improve blood circulation, decrease platelet aggregation, lower blood pressure, and act as blood vessel protectants, ameliorating the cardiovascular disease often associated with type 2 diabetes. To gain these benefits, only average amounts commonly used in foods are necessary, such as amounts usually sprinkled in foods or amounts used in recipes. At high concentrated doses, the advantages to utilizing spices may be inhibited. Originality/value The findings that phytochemicals in common household spices can improve insulin activity in the body present a more natural way to possibly treat and prevent type 2 diabetes.
3 Abstract: The Qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. We have colleted four medicinally important medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica, Cassia auriculata, Eclipta alba and Phyllanthus niruri for quantitative analysis. The experiment carried out in the selected medicinal plants leaves and roots. The results are discussed with the available literature.
Moringaoleifera grows throughout most of the tropics and has several industrial and medicinal uses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of different morphological parts of this tree as animal feed. The crude protein (CP) content of leaves, soft twigs and stems was 260, 70 and 60 g kg1 respectively. About 87% of the total CP was in the form of true protein in the leaves (60 and 53% in twigs and stems respectively). The leaves had negligible amounts of tannins (12 g kg1 as diosgenin equivalent, which did not show any haemolytic activity. The phytate content of the leaves was 21 g kg1. In leaves, amounts of all the essential amino acids were higher than the amino acid pattern of the FAO reference protein and comparable to those in soyabeans. The CP and lipid contents of the kernel were 370 and 420 g kg1. The kernels and meal are extracted with water and the extract is used for the purification of water in some developing countries. The residues left after water extraction of kernels and meal (designated as extracted-kernel and extracted-meal) had a CP content of 350 and 700 g kgmol/g and 41 g kg1). The leaves of Moringaoleifera and the residue obtained after the recovery of oil and coagulants can be good sources of proteins for animal feeds.
Tannin toxicity for fungi, bacteria and yeasts is reviewed and compared to toxicity of related lower molecular weight phenols. The dependence of toxicity on tannin structure is examined. The different mechanisms proposed so far to explain tannin antimicrobial activity include inhibition of extracellular microbial enzymes, deprivation of the substrates required for microbial growth or direct action on microbial metabolism through inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. A further mechanism involving iron deprivation is proposed. Many microorganisms can overcome plant defences based on tannins. They may detoxify tannins through synthesis of tannin- complexing polymers, oxidation, tannin biodegradation or synthesis of siderophores.