The development of a safe and effective malaria vaccine is impeded by the complexity of the Plasmodium life cycle. A vaccine that elicits both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses might be needed for protection against this multistage parasitic infection. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) plays a key role in erythrocytic invasion but is also expressed in sporozoites and in late stage liver schizonts, where it may provide a target of protective cell-mediated immunity (CMI). A Phase 1 trial of a vaccine consisting of recombinant AMA-1 protein and the Adjuvant system AS02A was conducted in 60 Malian adults aged 18-55 years who were randomized to receive either half-dose (25 microg/0.25 ml) or full dose (50 microg/0.5 ml) FMP2.1/AS02A or a control rabies vaccine. Interleukin 5 (IL-5) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production as evaluated by ELISpot and lymphocyte proliferation were measured after in vitro AMA-1 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected on Days 0 and 90. Post-FMP2.1/AS02A immunization mean stimulation indices were significantly elevated as were the number of IL-5 spot forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC, but no difference was noted in INF-gamma production between the AMA-1/AS02A vaccinated group and the rabies group. These results provide evidence that complex immune responses can be induced by this vaccination strategy and add further impetus for the continuing clinical evaluation of this vaccine.
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"The same result was observed at the late day 140 time-point. These allele-specific totals are not subject to any double counting error due to peptide homology between the 3D7 and FVO strains, and these median ELISPOT responses compare favourably with those induced by the same vectors and regimen for the ME-TRAP and MSP1 malaria antigens and are substantially greater than those reported for AMA1 protein-in-adjuvant vaccines , . Responses induced after the ChAd63 AMA1 immunization also compared favourably with those recently reported following a single immunization of healthy adult US volunteers with 1×1010 vp of an AdHu5 vaccine encoding the 3D7 AMA1 antigen , although interestingly in this study the use of a higher dose (5×1010 vp) led to a significant reduction in T cell immunogenicity – an observation not seen here with the same dose of ChAd63. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Traditionally, vaccine development against the blood-stage of Plasmodium falciparum infection has focused on recombinant protein-adjuvant formulations in order to induce high-titer growth-inhibitory antibody responses. However, to date no such vaccine encoding a blood-stage antigen(s) alone has induced significant protective efficacy against erythrocytic-stage infection in a pre-specified primary endpoint of a Phase IIa/b clinical trial designed to assess vaccine efficacy. Cell-mediated responses, acting in conjunction with functional antibodies, may be necessary for immunity against blood-stage P. falciparum. The development of a vaccine that could induce both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses would enable important proof-of-concept efficacy studies to be undertaken to address this question.
We conducted a Phase Ia, non-randomized clinical trial in 16 healthy, malaria-naïve adults of the chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient viral vectored vaccines encoding two alleles (3D7 and FVO) of the P. falciparum blood-stage malaria antigen; apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). ChAd63-MVA AMA1 administered in a heterologous prime-boost regime was shown to be safe and immunogenic, inducing high-level T cell responses to both alleles 3D7 (median 2036 SFU/million PBMC) and FVO (median 1539 SFU/million PBMC), with a mixed CD4(+)/CD8(+) phenotype, as well as substantial AMA1-specific serum IgG responses (medians of 49 µg/mL and 41 µg/mL for 3D7 and FVO AMA1 respectively) that demonstrated growth inhibitory activity in vitro.
ChAd63-MVA is a safe and highly immunogenic delivery platform for both alleles of the AMA1 antigen in humans which warrants further efficacy testing. ChAd63-MVA is a promising heterologous prime-boost vaccine strategy that could be applied to numerous other diseases where strong cellular and humoral immune responses are required for protection.
"Previous studies have shown that the FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine elicits antibodies that inhibit both parasite growth and AMA1 processing in homologous parasites  as well as measurable cellular immune responses . Post-immunization sera from Malian adults who received the 50 µg dose of FMP2.1/AS02A (but not sera from those who received the 25 µg dose) of the malaria vaccine had significantly greater growth inhibition activity against both 3D7 and FVO parasites than did post-immunization sera from the rabies comparator group in the previous Phase 1 trial . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-based malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02(A) in children exposed to seasonal falciparum malaria.
A Phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02(A) is a recombinant protein (FMP2.1) based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum, formulated in the Adjuvant System AS02(A). The comparator vaccine was a cell-culture rabies virus vaccine (RabAvert). One hundred healthy Malian children aged 1-6 years were recruited into 3 cohorts and randomized to receive either 10 microg FMP2.1 in 0.1 mL AS02(A), or 25 microg FMP2.1 in 0.25 mL AS02(A), or 50 microg FMP2.1 50 microg in 0.5 mL AS02(A), or rabies vaccine. Three doses of vaccine were given at 0, 1 and 2 months, and children were followed for 1 year. Solicited symptoms were assessed for 7 days and unsolicited symptoms for 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Transient local pain and swelling were common and more frequent in all malaria vaccine dosage groups than in the comparator group, but were acceptable to parents of participants. Levels of anti-AMA1 antibodies measured by ELISA increased significantly (at least 100-fold compared to baseline) in all 3 malaria vaccine groups, and remained high during the year of follow up.
The FMP2.1/AS02(A) vaccine had a good safety profile, was well-tolerated, and induced high and sustained antibody levels in malaria-exposed children. This malaria vaccine is being evaluated in a Phase 2 efficacy trial in children at this site.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00358332 [NCT00358332].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The necessity of the further development of the dialogue systems model for CAD development is proved. Creation of the user dialogue scripts interaction and the electrical schematic graphic editor and its basic components are carried out. The systematic search of objects, elements in programming and links between them (an interaction matrix method) is done. The usage of the systematically analyzed features and principles of the script development is shown. The Graphical Editor "Schematic 2002" for the "Micro-PC" circuit design training simulator is the example of the usage of the script development.