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Abstract

Cybercrime is a kind of crime that happens in "cyberspace", that is, happens in the world of computer and the Internet. Although many people have a limited knowledge of "cybercrime", this kind of crime has the serious potential for severe impact on our lives and society, because our society is becoming an information society, full of information exchange happening in "cyberspace". There studies indicating cybercrime in present scenario, cybercrime and their laws and cybercrime during adolescent. As the Internet, mobile phones, and other computer technologies have flourished, criminals have found ways to use them for old-fashioned goals such as theft, fraud, intimidation, and harassment that's why cybercrime is becoming even more serious. Elderly is that vulnerable group who has been deprieved from any information regarding latest technologies and innovation especially in the world of computers and internet . The purpose of the present study is to assess the knowledge of cybercrime among elderly.
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 7, July-2013 1463
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http://www.ijser.org
Knowledge of Cybercrime among Elderly
Nabat Arfi
, Shalini Agarwal
Abstract
Cybercrime is a kind of crime that happens in "cyberspace", that is, happens in the world of computer and the Internet. Although many people
have a limited knowledge of "cybercrime", this kind of crime has the serious potential for severe impact on our lives and society, because our
society is becoming an information society, full of information exchange happening in "cyberspace". There studies indicating cybercrime in
present scenario, cybercrime and their laws and cybercrime during adolescent. As the Internet, mobile phones, and other computer technologies
have flourished, criminals have found ways to use them for old-fashioned goals such as theft, fraud, intimidation, and harassment that’s why
cybercrime is becoming even more serious. Elderly is that vulnerable group who has been deprieved from any information regarding latest
technologies and innovation especially in the world of computers and internet . The purpose of the present study is to assess the knowledge of
cybercrime among elderly.
Keywords: Cybercrime, Internet, Knowledge, Elderly.
1. Introduction
The Internet is a global system of interconnected
computer networks that use the standard Internet
protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide.
Computers are used to commit crime and users
become the target of crime every day. Besides the
magnitude and scope of the threat, one of the
greatest challenges in fighting computer crime
resides in the fundamental nature of the
computing world. A lot of us have a limited
knowledge of crime occurring in "cyberspace",
known as cybercrime, which happens on computer
and the Internet, however, cybercrime has a severe
potential for remarkable impact on the lives of
individuals and our society. Cybercrime is a kind
of crime that happens in "cyberspace", that is,
happens in the world of computer and the Internet.
Although many people have a limited knowledge
of "cybercrime", this kind of crime has the serious
potential for severe impact on our lives and
society, because our society is becoming an
information society, full of information exchange
happening in "cyberspace".[1]
Author name is currently pursuing masters degree
program in Department of Human Development &
Family Studies in Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar
University Lucknow,U.P., India ,Mobile-
919044890612. E-mail: nabat.arfi@gmail.com
Co-Author name is Assistant Professor in
Department of Human Development & Family
Studies in Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Lucknow,U.P., India.
2. Types of Cybercrime
Crimes committed through the use of computer,
internet in the mobile systems are known as
cybercrimes. Here are some common cybercrimes
to look out for.
2.1. Child pornography the use of computer
networks to create, distribute, or access materials
that sexually exploit underage children.
2.2. Cyber laundering electronic transfer of
illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding
its source and possibly its destination.
2.3. Cyber stalking express or implied physical
threats that creates fear through the use of
computer technology such as email, phones, text
messages, webcams, websites or videos.
2.4. Cyber terrorism premeditated, usually
politically-motivated violence committed against
civilians through the use of, or with the help of,
computer technology.
2.5. Cyber theft is using a computer to steal. This
includes activities related to: breaking and
entering, DNS cache poisoning, embezzlement and
unlawful appropriation, espionage, identity theft,
fraud, malicious hacking, plagiarism, and piracy.
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2.6. Spam - Unsolicited mass e-mail, known
colloquially as “spam”, is more than annoying:
spam messages can be used to trick people into
giving up sensitive personal information (known
as “phishing”), or as carriers for computer worms
and viruses. [2]
3. Types of cybercrime against elderly
3.1. Health Care Fraud or Health Insurance Fraud-
Medical Equipment Fraud: Equipment
manufacturers offer “free” products to individuals.
Insurers are then charged for products that were
not needed and/or may not have been
delivered.“Rolling Lab” Schemes: Unnecessary
and sometimes fake tests are given to individuals
at health clubs, retirement homes, or shopping
malls and billed to insurance companies or
Medicare.Services Not Performed: Customers or
providers bill insurers for services never rendered
by changing bills or submitting fake ones.
3.2. Telemarketing Fraud-
If one is of age 60 or olderand especially an
older woman living aloneone may be a special
target of people who sell bogus products and
services by telephone. Telemarketing scams often
involve offers of free prizes, low-cost vitamins and
health care products, and inexpensive vacations.[3]
4. Reason of Cybercrime
Hart in his work “ The Concept of Law” has said
‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is
required to protect them’. Applying this to the
cyberspace we may say that computers are
vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and
safeguard them against cyber crime. The reasons
for the vulnerability of computers may be said to
be:
4.1. Easy to access- The problem encountered in
guarding a computer system from unauthorised
access is that there is every possibility of breach
not due to human error but due to the complex
technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key
loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice
recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool
biometric systems and bypass firewalls can be
utilized to get past many a security system.
4.2.Complex- The computers work on operating
systems and these operating systems in turn are
composed of millions of codes. Human mind is
fallible and it is not possible that there might not
be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take
advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the
computer system.
4.3.Negligence- Negligence is very closely
connected with human conduct. It is therefore very
probable that while protecting the computer
system there might be any negligence, which in
turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and
control over the computer system.[4]
5. Problem of Cybercrime against Elderly
5.1. Fraud Committed by Strangers-
5.1.1. Investments- Because many seniors live on
fixed incomes, they often want to increase the
value of their estate and ensure they have
sufficient funds to meet basic needs. In investment
scams, offenders persuade the elderly to invest in
precious gems, real estate, annuities, or stocks and
bonds by promising unrealistically high rates of
return. The investments often consist of fake
gemstones, uninhabitable property, or shares in a
nonexistent or unprofitable company.
5.1.2. Charity contributions- Playing on some
seniors' desire to help others, offenders solicit
donations to nonexistent charities or religious
organizations, often using sweepstakes or raffles to
do so.
5.1.3.Loans and mortgages- Seniors may
experience cash flow shortages in the face of
needed medical care or home repairs. Predatory
lenders may provide loans with exorbitant interest
rates, hidden fees, and repayment schedules far
exceeding the elderly's means, often at the risk of
their home, which has been used as collateral.
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5.2.Financial Exploitation by Relatives and
Caregivers-
Unlike strangers, relatives and caregivers often
have a position of trust and an ongoing
relationship with the elderly. Financial exploitation
occurs when the offender steals, withholds, or
otherwise misuses their elderly victims' money,
property, or valuables for personal advantage or
profit, to the disadvantage of the elder. Their
methods can include the following:
simply taking the elder's money,
property, or valuables;
borrowing money (sometimes
repeatedly) and not paying it back;
signing or cashing pension or social
security checks without permission;
misusing ATM or credit cards, or
using them without permission;
doling out the elder's money to
family or friends; and
forcing the elder to part with
resources or to sign over property.
[3][4]
6.Factors contributing to financial crimes
against Elderly
Understanding the factors that contribute to your
problem will help you frame your own local
analysis questions, determine good effectiveness
measures, recognize key intervention points, and
select appropriate responses.
6.1. Underreporting-
Researchers agree that elder fraud is dramatically
underreported, which is problematic for several
reasons. First, the failure to report means that the
assistance of police, adult protective services,
family members and others is not mobilized to
stop the abuse. Second, even if intervention is not
necessary, the underreporting of these crimes
makes it very difficult for problem-oriented efforts
to proceed because of a lack of information on the
targets, methods and perpetrators. Finally, the lack
of reporting may encourage the offenders to
victimize others. Many elderly victims do not
report fraud because they feel ashamed, or they
fear others will think they cannot care for
themselves, which may trigger placement in a
nursing home or long-term care facility.
Significantly, many victims are not aware of
support resources or do not know how to access
them. In the case of financial exploitation, many
victims have close ties to the offender and may feel
protective. They may want to stop the exploitation
and recover their assets, but not want the offender
punished. In addition, many victims believe they
are at least partially to blame.
6.2. Victim Facilitation-
In contrast to victims of most other forms of crime,
consumer fraud victims have a participatory role
that is critical to a successful transaction. Victim
compliance can fall along a continuum. At one end
is the completely uninvolved victim, as in the case
of identity theft or credit card fraud. Toward the
middle is the victim who makes a purchase or
financial arrangement that is not well-informed or
well-researched. At the far end is the repeat victim.
Even after victimization, many people repeat high-
risk behaviors.
The following are key moments that put the victim
at risk in the typical fraud transaction. They have
clear relevance to points of intervention:
The victim makes the initial contact,
or takes steps that lead to the initial
contact, indicating receptivity to the
pitch.
The victim provides information
about him- or herself that helps the
offender to carry out the fraud.
The victim allows the conversion of a
business relationship to one of trust,
and waives customary safeguards.
[4]
7. Mode and manner of committing
cybercrime
Unauthorized access to computer systems or
networks / Hacking- This kind of offence is
normally referred as hacking in the generic sense.
However the framers of the information
technology act 2000 have no where used this term
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so to avoid any confusion we would not
interchangeably use the word hacking for
‘unauthorized access’ as the latter has wide
connotation.
7.1. Email bombing- This kind of activity refers to
sending large numbers of mail to the victim,
which may be an individual or a company or
even mail servers there by ultimately resulting
into crashing.
7.2. Data diddling- This kind of an attack involves
altering raw data just before a computer
processes it and then changing it back after the
processing is completed. The electricity board
faced similar problem of data diddling while
the department was being computerised.
7.3. Salami attacks- This kind of crime is normally
prevalent in the financial institutions or for the
purpose of committing financial crimes. An
important feature of this type of offence is that
the alteration is so small that it would
normally go unnoticed. e.g. the Ziegler case
wherein a logic bomb was introduced in the
bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents from
every account and deposited it in a particular
account.[1]
8. Factors that contribute to increased
risk of Elderly
8.1. Lack of computer skills- Though many seniors
are very computer savvy, many more are not.
Often their computers are not properly secured.
Even when you have installed security software, it
is critical that you set up automatic updates, turn
on a firewall, use secure password, and so on.If
one feel that he/she is unble to set up
your computer security, it may be well worth
hiring a computer technician from a reputable
company to review the settings for security and fix
any problems one may have. Make sure that one
have checked the company through the Better
Business Bureau and that whoever comes to your
home is fully licensed and bonded.
8.2.Lack of Internet skills- Though many seniors
are cutting edge users of Internet services, most of
them are beginners when it comes to computer
technology.Just spending more time online will
help you feel more comfortable with the ins and
outs of navigating online and interacting on Web
sites. Once you familiarized yourself with the
tricks scammers and some less reputable
companies use, one can simply avoid them. There
are many Web sites, books, and courses offered for
every level of user. Many of these courses are
offered at low cost through colleges across the
state.
8.3.More Trusting- Elderly have a wealth of
experience in judging the character of people you
meet in person, but have probably developed
fewer skills for assessing the character of the
people and companies you meet online. Elderly are
typically more trusting and respectful of official
looking material than younger generations, so are
more apt to fall for scams. And you are more
worried about notices that claim there is a problem
with your information that might somehow sully
your good name.[3]
9. Cybercrime laws and Agencies
Important Sections Related to Cyber Crimes:-
Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008-
Sections under IT Act (2008)-
Sec 65. Tampering with Computer Source
Documents
Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals,
destroys or alters or intentionally or knowingly
causes another to conceal, destroy or alter any
computer source code used for a computer,
computer programme, computer system or
computer network, when the computer source
code is required to be kept or maintained by law
for the time being in force, shall be punishable with
imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which
may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both.
Sec 66. Computer Related Offences
If any person, dishonestly, or fraudulently, does
any act referred to in section 43, he shall be
punishable with imprisonment for a term which
may extend to three years or with fine which may
extend to five lakh rupees or with both.
66C Punishment for identity theft
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Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of
the electronic signature, password or any other
unique identification feature of any other person,
shall be punished with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend to three
years and shall also be liable to fine which may
extend to rupees one lakh.
66E Punishment for violation of privacy
Whoever, intentionally or knowingly captures,
publishes or transmits the image of a private area
of any person without his or her consent, under
circumstances violating the privacy of that person,
shall be punished with imprisonment which may
extend to three years or with fine not exceeding
two lakh rupees.
66F. Punishment for cyber terrorism
(1) Whoever with intent to threaten the unity,
integrity, security or sovereignty of India or to
strike terror in the people or any section of the
people by-
(i) denying or cause the denial of access to any
person authorized to access computer resource; or
(ii) attempting to penetrate or access a computer
resource without authorisation or exceeding
authorized access; or
(iii) introducing or causing to introduce any
Computer Contaminant.
and by means of such conduct causes or is likely to
cause death or injuries to persons or damage to or
destruction of property or disrupts or knowing
that it is likely to cause damage or disruption of
supplies or services essential to the life of the
community or adversely affect the critical
information infrastructure specified under section
70, or
Section 383. Extortion
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of
any injury to that person, or to any other, and
thereby dishonestly induces the person so put in
fear to deliver to any property or valuable security,
or anything signed or sealed which may be
converted into a valuable security, commits
"extortion". [7]
HELP CENTRES:
1.INDIA-
Centre for Cyber Victim Counseling: The mission
of the CCVC is to: Help you to understand the
nature of the crime that has been committed
against you; help you take action against the
offender; to provide counseling for the trauma you
have gone through, and to help you to understand
the present legal scenario and to connect you with
the appropriate police service, if needed.
2. INTERNATIONAL-
Cyber Law Enforcement.org: This organization has
four goals: (1) To unite police officers worldwide
and educate them on cybercrime, cyber law,
investigative techniques and how they interact. (2)
To provide investigative assistance to police
departments when requested. (3) To provide
online help and education for victims of cyber
stalking, cyber harassment, pedophile, hacking,
and virus attacks as well as access to support
groups and online counseling. (4) To standardize
relations and communications between police
departments, Internet Service Providers, Legal
system contacts and victim advocacy groups
worldwide.[6]
11. Prevention from Cybercrime
1.to prevent cyber stalking avoid
disclosing any information pertaining to
oneself. This is as good as disclosing your
identity to strangers in public place.
2.always avoid sending any photograph
online particularly to strangers and chat
friends as there have been incidents of
misuse of the photographs.
3.always use latest and up date anti virus
software to guard against virus attacks.
4.always keep back up volumes so that
one may not suffer data loss in case of
virus contamination
5.never send your credit card number to
any site that is not secured, to guard
against frauds.
6.always keep a watch on the sites that
your children are accessing to prevent any
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kind of harassment or depravation in
children.
7.it is better to use a security programme that gives
control over the cookies and send information back
to the site as leaving the cookies unguarded might
prove fatal. [9]
12. References
[1] Bowen, Mace (2009), Computer Crime,
Available at: http://www.guru.net/, Visited:
07/09/12.
[2] Mali P. (2010), “ Types of cybercrime and cyber
laws in India”, Journal of Law, 10(1):1.
[3] Bick B.J. (2011), “Internet crime and the
Elderly”, New Jersey Law, 2(4):1-2.
[4] Campbell R.J. & Wabby J. (2003), “The Elderly
and the Internet: A case study”, The Internet
Journal of Health, Vol.3, Issue.1.
[5] Knowledge of internet.
http://www.internetworld.com. Accessed on
September 2012.
[6] Cyber report index. http://www.cyber
index:cyber reporting organization.com.html.
Accessed on October 2012.
[7] Cyber laws.
http://delhicourts.nic.in/ejournals/CYBER%20L
AW.html. Accessed on October 2012.
[8] Cyberlawtimes (2009), Available at
http://www.cyberlawtimes.com/forums/index.
php?board =52.0, Visited: 10/11/12.
[9] Cyber Trust and Crime Prevention, Mid-Term
Review, November 2005 – January 2009,
Available at:
http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/bispartners/fores
ight/docs/cyber/ctcp_midterm_ review.pdf,
Visited: 10/11/2012.
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... These tools include online advertisement websites, social media websites, dating websites, marriage websites, bulletin boards, and emails (Button et al., 2014;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Maras, 2016). A substantial body of literature has suggested that the age factor plays a pivotal role in online fraud victimisation (Fredrickson et al., 2005;Arfi & Agarwal, 2013;Norris et al., 2019). Scholars have identified that due to the lack of self-control, young adults, particularly those in the age range between 18 to 25 years old, are more likely to become victims of online fraud (Roberts et al., 2012). ...
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... With regard to age, scholars report that older adults are more likely to be vulnerable to online threats such as phishing, fraud, targeted attacks ( Cho et al., 2016 ;Morrison et al., 2020 ;Shao et al., 2019 ). Older individuals appear to be less knowledgeable about technology, less prepared for cybersecurity, and less engaged in online activities ( Arfi and Agarwal, 2013 ;Morrison et al., 2020 ;Vines et al., 2015 ;Yucedal, 2010 ). Building on the LRAT claims on proximity to crime, individuals are expected to be less prepared for cybersecurity, when they get older. ...
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The increase of people's online presence creates additional cybersecurity threats. Cybersecurity preparedness is increasingly important to minimize and mitigate cybersecurity-related victimization. This study explores how cybersecurity preparedness is shaped by socio-structural factors across thirty European samples. We analyzed survey items measuring purchase behavior, user's security settings, software settings, and trust in websites from the 2014 Eurobarometer (N=26,879). The findings of latent class analysis show three groups based on members’ cybersecurity preparedness: uninformed users, disciplined users, and cautious users. The determinants of cybersecurity preparedness were examined using two-level hierarchical logit modeling. While sociodemographic factors modestly contribute to cybersecurity preparedness at an individual level, country-level economic status (GDP per capita) and cybersecurity preparedness (Global Cybersecurity Index) appear to be significant for individual-level cybersecurity preparedness. In countries with higher cybersecurity preparedness and economic status, individuals tend to show a higher level of cybersecurity preparedness. Implications for government agencies and corporations are discussed.
... All internet users are vulnerable, but in different manners Within research, specific groups of internet users are often considered to be more vulnerable than others. For example, older internet users are believed to be excellent targets due to their believed lack of internet skills and tendencies to be more trusting (Arfi & Agarwal, 2013;Tripathi et al., 2019). Also younger internet users are feared to be more vulnerable, due to their lack of online safety education and adolescents' inclination to engage in risky behaviors (Sheng et al., 2010). ...
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Capítulo sobre Metodologia de Modelagem e Avaliação das condições individuais de egressas do sistema prisional.
Types of cybercrime and cyber laws in India
  • P Mali
Mali P. (2010), " Types of cybercrime and cyber laws in India", Journal of Law, 10(1):1.
The Elderly and the Internet: A case study
  • R J Campbell
  • J Wabby
Campbell R.J. & Wabby J. (2003), "The Elderly and the Internet: A case study", The Internet Journal of Health, Vol.3, Issue.1.
Computer Crime, Available at: http://www.guru.net
  • Mace Bowen
Bowen, Mace (2009), Computer Crime, Available at: http://www.guru.net/, Visited: 07/09/12.
Internet crime and the Elderly
  • B J Bick
Bick B.J. (2011), "Internet crime and the Elderly", New Jersey Law, 2(4):1-2.
cyber index:cyber reporting organization.com.html. Accessed on
  • Cyber
  • Index
Cyber report index. http://www.cyber index:cyber reporting organization.com.html. Accessed on October 2012. [7] Cyber laws. http://delhicourts.nic.in/ejournals/CYBER%20L AW.html. Accessed on October 2012.
Available at http://www.cyberlawtimes.com/forums/index. php?board =52
Cyberlawtimes (2009), Available at http://www.cyberlawtimes.com/forums/index. php?board =52.0, Visited: 10/11/12.