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Antimicrobial efficacy of caprylyl glycol and ethylhexylglycerine in emulsion

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Abstract

Antimicrobial efficacies of caprylyl glycol and ethylhexylglycerin in an emulsion were evaluated by USP24-NF19. The minimum concentration of caprylyl glycol and ethyl- hexylglycerin inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans within 1 day and Aspergillus niger within 28 days was 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The 1:3 mixture ratio of the caprylyl glycol and ethylhexylglycerin was chosen for further steps on inhibitory effect towards those prohibited microbial in cosmetics by evaluation at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. It was found that the minimum concentration inhibited S. aureus within 3 days, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C.albicans within 1 day and A. niger within 28 days was 1.0%. This developed preservative system offers multifunctional cosmetic ingredients in addition to their emollient efficacies.

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... 1,2-Decanediol exhibits a more powerful antimicrobial activity, but it is not likely to be soluble in water. (S)-3-Butoxypropane-1,2-diol and (S)-3-(hexyloxy)propa ne-1,2-diol that have similar chemical structures to 1,2-alkanedi ols also exhibited similar antimicrobial activities to 1,2-hexane diol and 1,2-octanediol, respectively [12]. In particular, they do not need higher cost as much as 1,2-alkanediols with straight alkyl chains because they can be obtained easily from glycerol. ...
... In the case of (S)-3-(hexyloxy)propane-1,2-diol, there were four preferred conformers g 0 G 0 TTTG 0 G 0 TTt, g 0 G 0 TTTG 0 TTTt, g 0 G 0 TTTGGTTt, and gG 0 GTTTGTTg 0 with DG = 0.00 (30.5%), 0.29 (18.5%), 0.33 (17.5%), and 0.37 (16.4%) kcal/mol, respectively. The first three conformers had in common a bifurcated H-Bond of the O 12 ...
... Glyceryl caprylate is known as multifunctional and acts as a natural preservative, but also as an emollient, emulsifier, and skin penetration enhancer [56,57]. The substance has a good effect on numerous bacteria, yeasts, and molds [58,59]. No evidence of pro-oxidant behavior could be found. ...
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... We also observe that PA-OCT released significantly more drug than PA 4020 . A possible explanation could be the ability of humectants such as caprylyl glycols (octanediol) to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of formulations [47,48]. Further study is warranted to fully elucidate the activity enhancing mechanism of FTP formulations. ...
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The delivery of antimicrobial agents to surface wounds has been shown to be of central importance to the wound healing process. In this work, we prepared film forming wound care formulations containing 3 polymers (FTP) that provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial protection for prolonged periods. FTP formulations comprises of a smart gel matrix comprising of pH-degradable and temperature responsive polyacetals (smart polymer) which allow for the FTP films to be hydrophobic at room temperature, preventing accidental rubbing off, and hydrophilic at lower temperatures, allowing for easy removal. Two FTP smart-antimicrobial films were evaluated in this work: FTP-AgSD (Silver sulfadiazine actives), and FTP-NP (Neosporin actives). The in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial efficacy studies show that FTP-AgSD films are significantly more effective for longer durations against Staphylococcus aureus (3 days), Candida albicans (9 days) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 days) when compared to the cream formulations containing antimicrobials. FTP-NP films showed significantly improved antimicrobial activity for a minimum of 3 days for all pathogens tested. Moreover, when tested ex vivo in porcine skin, FTP-AgSD and FTP-NP showed average improvements of 0.89 log10 and 1.66 log10 respectively over standard cream counterparts. Dermal toxicity studies were carried out in a rat skin excision model which showed a similar wound healing pattern to that in rats treated with standard cream formulations as represented by reduction in wound size, and increase in wound healing markers.
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This review reports cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial activity including synthetic and natural (plant and microbial) origin as alternative for preservatives used in cosmetics as well described mechanism of their action.
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... In addition, Nair et al. [30] reported that caprylic acid and monocaprylin could inactivate common mastitis pathogens, including S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. aureus, and E. coli and potential as alternatives or adjuncts to antibiotics as intra-mammary infusion to treat bovine mastitis. Caprylic compound, such as caprylic glycol has been known about its antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans [31] . Pubmed [32] reported that lauric acid itself had no antibacterial activity, but its combination with gentamicin or imipenem was synergistic against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). ...
Article
Objectives Snow fungus or snow mushroom or white jelly mushroom (Tremella fuciformis ), the edible mushroom, was formulated into hand sanitizer in form of moisturizing alcohol‐based hand rubs (ABHR) gel. Methods The stable base ABHRs were developed. The preferred bases were incorporated with various concentrations of snow mushroom extract. The stable and preferred snow mushroom ABHR was moisturizing and sanitizing efficacies evaluated in 20 human volunteers in a comparison with its placebo. Results The stable hand sanitizer gel bases containing 66.5% of ethanol and 0.3% triclosan were developed and incorporated with the extract of snow mushroom polysaccharide. Of which, the preparations containing 10% of snow mushroom and 0.3% of gelling agent gained the highest preferences as assessed in 20 Thai volunteers. The snow mushroom hand sanitizer was proved to be none irritated in the same group of the volunteers as was the placebo. The snow mushroom gel significantly (P < 0.05) moist the skin better than the placebo at all time of the interval assessment until the end of the study at 180 min. The hand sanitizers were confirmed on their anti‐septic, at which the efficacies of the active and placebo ABHR were comparable (P = 0.90). Conclusions Snow mushroom ABHR gel with its confirmed moisturizing and sanitizing efficacies is presented. It is meetings with the recommendation on hand hygienic improvement to combat the infections of diseases spreading. The preparation can be frequency applied with its proved skin hydrating efficacy co‐contributes in a good condition of hand hygiene.
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Abstract The aim of this work is to develop, optimize and characterize cold process emulsions that are stable at acidic pH. The main surfactant was selected according to the hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) concept and surface tension, whereas polymers were selected by viscoelastic measurements and analytical centrifugation. It was showed that the inclusion of methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer crosslinked with decadiene (PVM/MA) increased the storage modulus (G') of the gels (23.9-42.1 Pa) two-fold and the droplet migration decreased from 3.66% to 0.95%/h. Cetrimide was selected as a preservative based on its microbiological results and additional contribution to the stability of the emulsions. Four emulsions were developed that differed by the co-emulsifier used (PEG-20 glyceril laurate and polyglyceryl-4-isostearate) and the glycol (2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and ethoxydiglycol). Viscoelastic measurements and droplet size/microscopic analysis showed that the structure of PEG-20 glyceril laurate emulsion (η' = 76.0 Pa.s at 0.01 Hz and 32.9 ± 3.7 µm, respectively) was stronger compared to polyglyceryl-4-isostearate (η' = 37.4 Pa.s at 0.01 Hz and 37.8 ± 15.7 µm, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results were in accordance with the latter and showed that PEG-20 glyceril laurate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol corresponded to the strongest structure (|224.4| W °C g(-1)). This cold process allowed a total production savings of more than 17% when compared to the traditional hot process.
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To study the potential for delayed Type IV dermal sensitivity of a new preservative system containing 1,2-hexanediol and caprylyl glycol, 200-subject repeat insult patch tests were performed with a 15% mixture of 1,2-hexanediol and caprylyl glycol (equal parts of the 2 ingredients) in carbomer gel and a cosmetic formulation at an actual use concentration. No delayed Type IV hypersensitivity reactions were observed.
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Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These findings suggest that the use of the ZBF hand rub amongst health care workers may lower the risk of chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials without compromising the efficacy.
Preservativefree and self-preserving cosmetics and drugs: principles and practice
  • J J Kabara
  • D S Orth
Kabara JJ, Orth DS, editors. 1997. Preservativefree and self-preserving cosmetics and drugs: principles and practice. New York: Mercel Dekker;