Host Range and Genetic Relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum Isolates from Fruit Crops and Leatherleaf Fern in Florida

University of Florida, Department of Plant Pathology, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimauma, FL 33598, USA.
Phytopathology (Impact Factor: 3.12). 06/2009; 99(5):620-31. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-99-5-0620
Source: PubMed


Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and Key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (PFD)-affected sweet orange in Florida. Additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from Georgia and North Carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in Costa Rica. Pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of Key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus flowers showed that isolates were highly pathogenic to their host of origin. Isolates were not pathogenic on foliage of heterologous hosts; however, several nonhomologous isolates were mildly or moderately pathogenic to citrus flowers and blueberry isolates were pathogenic to strawberry fruit. Based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region of the rDNA repeat, the glutaraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase intron 2 (G3PD), and the glutamine synthase intron 2 (GS), isolates from the same host were identical or very similar to each other and distinct from those isolated from other hosts. Isolates from leatherleaf fern in Florida were the only exception. Among these isolates, there were two distinct G3PD and GS sequences that occurred in three of four possible combinations. Only one of these combinations occurred in Costa Rica. Although maximum parsimony trees constructed from genomic regions individually displayed little or no homoplasy, there was a lack of concordance among genealogies that was consistent with a history of recombination. This lack of concordance was particularly evident within a clade containing PFD, Key lime, and leatherleaf fern isolates. Overall, the data indicated that it is unlikely that a pathogenic strain from one of the hosts examined would move to another of these hosts and produce an epidemic.

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Available from: Marcia Barquero, Nov 10, 2015
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    • "Many Colletotrichum species can be associated with different hosts and one host can be affected by different species (Damm et al. 2012Damm et al. , 2014 Weir et al. 2012). In a study of MacKenzie et al. (2009), genetically distinct strains of C. acutatum (s. lat.) isolated from strawberry, blueberry, citrus and fern were pathogenic and shown to have differences in aggressiveness with the highest incidence and the biggest lesions being observed on their original host. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although C. acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a dataset of ITS, HIS3, GAPDH, CHS-1, TUB2 and ACT sequences of Colletotrichum strains belonging to the C. acutatum species complex from fruits collected in different regions in Brazil combined with sequences of ex-type and other reference strains of species belonging to this complex. The strains were revealed to belong to C. nymphaeae, C. melonis, C. abscissum and one new species, namely C. paranaense, from apple and peach. Morphological descriptions of the new species and a strain closely related to but diverging from C. melonis are provided. From the data presently available, the most common species on apple fruits in Brazil is C. nymphaeae. In a pathogenicity test, strains of all four species caused lesions on detached apple, peach and guava fruits, except for strain CBS 134730 that did not infect guava fruits.
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    • "acutatum Strawberry Spain ITS MacKenzie et al. (2009) acutatum USA, Costa Rica ITS, GAPDH, GS McKay et al. (2009) acutatum, boninense, gloeosporioides Almond Australia ITS Moriwaki & Tsukiboshi (2009) graminicola Echinochloa Japan ITS, MAT1-2 (HMG marker), SOD2 Pileggi et al. (2009) boninense, gloeosporioides Maytenus ilicifolia Brazil ITS Polashock et al. (2009) acutatum, gloeosporioides Cranberry N America ITS, LSU Prihastuti et al. (2009) "
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    ABSTRACT: A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment.
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    • "Spores survived on fern leaves in large to moderate numbers for 5 d, and small numbers could be isolated up to 36 d when the experiment was terminated. Survival capabilities of pathogenic Colletotrichum species in soil and crop debris has been frequently studied (Eastburn and Gubler, 1990; Freeman et al., 2001; Lipps, 1983; MacKenzie et al., 2009; Nair, et al., 1983; Strandberg, 2003; Timmer et al., 1998; Urena-Padilla et al., 2001; Vizvary and Warren, 1982). A thick thatch of leaf litter is normally present in fern production beds, so pathogen survival in diseased leaves is of primary importance. "

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