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Communities Of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity

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... C'est pourquoi la mise en place d'une recherche collaborative va souvent de pair avec la constitution d'une communauté de pratique (Wenger, 1998;Wenger et al., 2002) au sein de laquelle les acteur·rice·s s'engagent mutuellement dans une entreprise commune (en fonction d'objectifs communs) et partagent un répertoire de ressources . définit la recherche collaborative sur la base de trois idées directrices. ...
... Une communauté d'intérêt « brings together stakeholders from different CoPs to solve a particular (design) problem of common concern », (Fischer, 2001). Ces membres, issus de différentes communautés de pratique (CoPs) (Wenger, 1998) ...
... Les enseignants construisent trois types de scénarios : des scénarios interdisciplinaires qui ont eu pour thème les sept merveilles du monde antique, les grands explorateurs ou bien encore le Louvre ; des scénarios par discipline en mathématique, langues vivantes, français que ce soit pour les enseignements classiques ou les classes SEGPA 64 ; des scénarios dans le cadre de devoirs faits en mathématiques et en anglais pour accompagner les élèves en difficultés. À travers ces différentes configurations, outre une évolution de pratiques individuelles d'enseignants, c'est un apprentissage collectif au niveau d'un établissement et de son réseau, qui fait émerger une communauté de pratiques enseignantes Wenger, 1998;Wenger et al., 2002). Celle-ci stabilise une compétence collective élargie dans l'usage technologique, c'est-à-dire non restreinte à deux ou trois personnes. ...
... It seems like trust is of utmost importance when it comes to these types of collaborations and partnerships. This links well with the concept of communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991;Wenger, 1998). Lave and Wenger (1991) view learning and community as a social activity that develops from multiple experiences and different types of participation (from peripheral to central participation), entitled "situated learning". ...
... Lave and Wenger (1991) view learning and community as a social activity that develops from multiple experiences and different types of participation (from peripheral to central participation), entitled "situated learning". Wenger (1998) discusses the concept of community of practice on the basis that successful learning is the result of an increasingly central participation in a collective and productive activity. Participation is thus described as something that is about a process in which the individual progresses from a peripheral position to a more central position. ...
... Within these spaces, finally, the professional has the opportunity to transform himself by learning a professional practice thanks to those collective dynamics that constitute the vital force of the training space. The training space is in fact offered as a community of practice (Wenger, 1998) within which tacit and explicit knowledge are exchanged, subjected to criticism, reworked and then reconstructed in meaningful and effective ways in relation to the professional tasks of the participants. From this perspective, it is possible to affirm that the partnership is formed through processes based in turn on the partnership itself and that therefore allow the professional to live the experience of that partnership first-hand which should subsequently be capable of promoting the relationship with the assisted person. ...
Chapter
From the years 2015 and 2016, when tens of thousands sought refuge in Europe from war and persecution, the spontaneous engagement in civil society will be remembered above all. In the so-called Summer of Welcome, volunteers, civil society initiatives and organizations especially supported refugee children and young people in many ways. This chapter examines the role of partnerships between schools and local partners, especially civil society organizations, for the social integration of newly immigrated students into the school community. Do the partnerships work in times when newly immigrated children and youth are in particular need of support? Alternatively, do the potential risks of such partnerships become more visible at such times because functioning partnerships are full of prerequisites, as social capital approaches would indicate? The results of an analysis based on an online survey of German school principals of lower secondary schools show that schools are managing changes in existing partnerships carefully and tend to stay with established partnerships rather than to search for new partners. Nevertheless, local partners – especially civil society initiatives – make a substantial contribution to the social integration as well as to supporting the learning of the newly arrived students within the school.
... Assim, para fazerem sentido, a leitura e a escrita de textos específicos demandam experiências e habilidades em práticas próprias do contexto, uma vez que os participantes "produzirão significados diferentes de textos específicos, interagirão com esses textos de maneiras diferentes e os colocarão em 'usos' de diferentes maneiras" 4 (Lankshear & Knobel, p. 2, grifo dos autores, tradução nossa), alinhados às experiências de práticas nas quais essas ações se realizam. A experiência é social, uma vez que ela se dá na relação de interação com os outros para desenvolver a prática (Wenger, 1998). ...
... A condição de letrado em uma prática social corresponde à perspectiva de estar socializado em usar uma linguagem "adequada" dentro de um determinado Discurso 5 , que reconhece "maneiras de combinar e coordenar palavras, ações, pensamentos, valores, corpos, objetos, ferramentas, tecnologias e outras pessoas [...], de forma a assumir e reconhecer identidades e atividades específicas, socialmente situadas" 6 (Gee, 2013, p. 145, tradução nossa). A socialização, portanto, não é uma condição estruturante, mas sempre negociada no interior das comunidades (Wenger, 1998). ...
... A socialização manifesta-se como uma tendência a nos comportar, agir e pensar de determinadas formas, mas não se restringe a isso, já que práticas, identidades e aprendizagens estão sujeitas a mudanças, de acordo com a participação em comunidades (Wenger, 1998). Para o teórico, a aprendizagem está relacionada a mudanças na participação em práticas de comunidades e à constituição de identidades nessas práticas. ...
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Resumo Este artigo teve por objetivo identificar e analisar aprendizagens de professoras/es que ensinam Matemática mediadas pela participação em práticas de letramento docente. Para tanto, utilizamos uma abordagem qualitativa e ferramentas analíticas da Teoria Social da Aprendizagem e do letramento como prática social para promover uma compreensão teórica de aprendizagens de professoras/es ao fazerem usos de práticas de leitura e de escrita em um contexto de reuniões de estudo e planejamento de aulas, para os anos finais do Ensino Fundamental, em uma escola pública. O material empírico foi produzido por meio de observações dessas reuniões, entrevistas com professoras/es e análise de documentos. Os resultados indicam que ocorreram aprendizagens relacionadas à leitura e discussão de textos, à leitura e análise de tarefas e à elaboração de narrativas de aulas. A análise sugere que essas aprendizagens foram constitutivas da organização da própria prática de leitura e de escrita, 1 nelacsil@gmail.com 2 ampo@ufba.br Educ. Matem. Pesq., São Paulo, v. 24, n. 1, p. 352-387, 2022 353 daquilo que se lê e se escreve e de como isso foi realizado naquele contexto e como repercutiu na prática docente. Palavras-chave: Aprendizagens, Práticas de letramento, Formação de professores que ensinam matemática, Participação, Negociação de significados. Abstract This article aimed to identify and analyze the learning of teachers who teach Mathematics mediated by participation in teaching literacy practices. To this end, inspired by a sociocultural perspective of literacy and by constructs of the Social Theory of Learning, we use a qualitative approach to promote a theoretical understanding of teachers' learning, when making use of reading and writing practices in the context of study meetings and lesson planning for the final years of elementary school, in a public school system. The data were produced through observations, interviews, and analysis of documents. The results indicate that there were learnings related to reading and discussing texts, reading and analyzing tasks, and the elaboration of class narratives. The analysis suggests that these learnings were constitutive of the organization of the reading and writing practice itself, what is read and written, how it was carried out in that context, and how it impacted the teaching practice. Resumen Este artículo tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar el aprendizaje de los docentes que imparten Matemáticas mediado por la participación en las prácticas de literacidad docente. Por ello, utilizamos un enfoque cualitativo y herramientas analíticas de la Teoría Social del Aprendizaje y la Literacia como práctica social para promover una comprensión teórica del aprendizaje de los docentes al hacer uso de las prácticas de lectura y escritura en el contexto de 354 reuniones de estudio y planificación de clases para los últimos años de la escuela primaria en una escuela pública. El material empírico se produjo a través de observaciones de estos encuentros, entrevistas con profesores y análisis de documentos. Los resultados indican que hubo aprendizajes relacionados con la lectura y discusión de textos, lectura y análisis de tareas y elaboración de narrativas de clase. El análisis sugiere que estos aprendizajes fueron constitutivos de la organización de la práctica de la lectura y la escritura, de lo que se lee y se escribe y cómo esto se hizo en ese contexto y cómo incidió en la práctica docente. Palabras clave: Aprendizaje, Prácticas de literacidad, Formación de profesores que imparten matemáticas, Participación, Negociación de significados. Résumé L'objectif de cet article était d'identifier et d'analyser l'apprentissage des enseignants de
... We choose to use CoP theory as our guiding theoretical framework because it refers to a group of individuals expanding their knowledge and promoting skills by practising and forming their identity in the community [38,39]. CoP is understood in this article as individuals participating in community activities and gradually constructing their shared identity and gaining knowledge and skills of representative democracy through this participation. ...
... Wenger [38] proposes integral learning as legitimate peripheral participation, which entails the progressive involvement from an outsider to an insider in which a novice enters a community at the periphery and gradually approaches full, legitimate participation as they gain increasing competence in their practice. During this process, participants develop different learning pathways and identities and various forms of membership [40]. ...
... During this process, participants develop different learning pathways and identities and various forms of membership [40]. Membership in a CoP can also translate into an identity as a form of competence [38]. In this way, students participate in voting and elections and construct an identity. ...
Article
p>The role of universities in preparing students to be active citizens within civil society has gained increasing attention. However, only limited research has been conducted on students’ views of universities as sites to learn representative democracy. To address the research gap, this article conducts eight semi-structured interviews with staff, student leaders and students without any positions in a case university. The students are undergraduate and post-graduate from different academic majors. Community of practice theory is employed to help understand students’ views of their experiences of representative democracy at the university. After analysing the interview data, the article finds that student leaders regard their role as mainly representing students and that all students in the study realise the importance of such democratic representation through participation. Importantly, through participation in representative democracy, students, especially student leaders, gain knowledge and skills on voting and elections. Interestingly, students’ sense of belonging is a result of participation in student union, society and club activities, which very likely includes voting and engagement with elections. Learning and belongingness are likely to make students participate more in future democratic representation activities. Although students give credit to the university’s role in promoting representative democracy, there are challenges. Specifically, the university is supposed to promote more participation in voting and elections for first-year students, and there is also concern that the short-term nature of positions in the student union may not allow real changes to be made. The findings shed some light on how students learn representative democracy in universities in neoliberal countries.</p
... Li et al. (2009) untersuchen ebenfalls die Evolution des ursprünglichen Konzeptes der Community of Practice. Als zentrale Werke mit oder von Wenger identifizieren sie die Ausführungen von Lave und Wenger (1991), Wenger (1999) sowie Wenger, McDermott und Snyder (2002). Li et al. (2009) skizzieren dabei, wie sich das Community-of-Practice Konzept von einer sozialen Lerntheorie zu einem Management-Ansatz entwickelte. ...
... Hier wurde die Idee der Com-munity of Practice zwar bereits eingeführt, aber noch nicht vollumfänglich analytisch als eigenes Konzept beleuchtet (Wenger, 1999, S. 11-12). Bevor auf die Ausführungen von Etienne Wenger (1999) zur Community of Practice eingegangen wird, sollen die Kernaussagen der Theorie des sozialen Lernens nach Lave und Wenger (1991) skizziert werden. ...
... Eine detaillierte Betrachtung des Konzepts der Community of Practice nimmt Wenger (1999) in der Publikation "Communities of practice -Learning, meaning, and identity" vor (S. 12). Ausgehend von den Überlegungen zu einer sozialen, durch unterschiedliche Wissenschaftsdisziplinen geprägten Lerntheorie, in welcher Lernen durch Einflüsse von sozialen Strukturen und situierten Erfahrungen auf der einen Achse und soziale Praxis und Identität auf der anderen Achse begriffen werden kann, erfolgt die Entwicklung des Konzeptes vor allem anhand der letztgenannten Achse (Wenger, 1999, S. 12-13). ...
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In diesem Werk werden zwei Perspektiven vereint: Die Gestaltung einer Community of Practice zum Thema der Digitalisierung in der Hochschullehre. Ziel ist es, die Lehrenden miteinander zu vernetzen und einen kollegialen Austausch zum Thema der digitalen Lehre zwischen diesen zu fördern. Dazu müssen entsprechende Implementierungs- und Gestaltungsmaßnahmen ergriffen werden. Die Arbeit zeigt einerseits eine handlungspraktische Vorgehensweise auf, andererseits wird dieses Vorgehen forschungsmethodisch begleitet.
... 1. SRW's most important feature, as García-Guerrero (2008) points out, is that their attention centers on people and their experience. That is why in this paper we won't refer to the public or students, we will talk about participants as Wenger (1999) defines them: people who engage in a process that is both personal and social, combining doing, talking, thinking, feeling, and belonging. The big advantage in this is the ability to adjust the process in real time, to respond to participant's interests, needs, and expectations. ...
... It is an idea that shows great affinity with the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP), coined by Lave and Wenger (1991) while studying apprenticeship as a learning model: groups of people who share a passion for something they do and regularly engage in a process of collective learning about it (Wenger, 2011). Engaging in practice always involves the whole personboth acting and knowing at once-, where the so-called manual is not thoughtless, and mental activity is not disembodied (Wenger, 1999). ...
... Wenger's incorporates identity as a key concept to integrate individualistic and collective learning naturally in the CoP framework (and, for our interests, in the practice of SRW). When participants build identity, they negotiate the meaning of their experience while participating in a social community, which establishes a link between the social and the individual; where each can be talked in terms of the other (Wenger, 1999). That is how SRW's incorporate both the lived experience of the individual and the cultural-historical aspects of the social. ...
Article
Science Recreation Workshops (SRW) are engaging activities intended to create scientific experiences for participants, who play with natural phenomena while they explore, discover, discuss, and learn about them. They take people into a first-hand scientific adventure. SRW’s do not demand a lot of resources to develop, that is why SRW’s groups can operate ‘guerrilla-like’ tactics: with fast-moving and small-scale actions to get people to enjoy and learn science in all kinds of contexts. It is possible to take SRW’s to a wide variety of places: museums, parks, schools, public squares, streets, marginal neighborhoods, and small towns. It could be said that SRW’s present an interesting dichotomy: their versatility allows them to go where other science communication activities cannot reach, but they hardly appear in the literature on informal science education or public communication of science and technology. SRW’s have developed without barely having scholarly discussion about them, but this kind of work poses constraints for their development. Tasks such as improving their activities, training new practitioners, and impact evaluation demand for a solid bedrock. In this article, we intend to characterize SRW’s – alongside the organizations devoted to their development–, in an initial effort to spark discussion about them.
... Summing up, a positive association among social, cognitive, and teaching presences within a COI enhances students' AOD learning experiences. The COI model is conceptually comparable to Wenger's (1999) community of practice (COP) model that focuses on collective improvement of ideas in professional settings. Asoodar et al. (2014) described how the pursuit of newness plays a pivotal role in both models by driving learning processes. ...
... This limitation restricts the generalizability of our findings. Future research can leverage big data to generalize our findings to other settings including organizations and social media because the community of inquiry (Garrison et al. 2010) and the community of practice (Wenger, 1999) theoretical frameworks are conceptually comparable. ...
Article
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This paper presents a theory-informed blueprint for mining unstructured text data using mixed-and multi-methods to improve understanding of collaboration in asynchronous online discussions (AOD). Grounded in a community of inquiry theoretical framework to systematically combine established research techniques, we investigated how AOD topics and individual reflections on those topics affect formation of clusters or groups in a community. The data for the investigation came from 54 participants and 470 messages. Data analysis combined the analytical efficiency and scalability of topic modeling, social network analysis, and cluster analysis with qualitative content analysis. The cluster analysis found three clusters and that members of the intermediate cluster (i.e., middle of three clusters) played a pivotal role in this community by expressing uncertainty statements, which facilitated a collective sense-making process to resolve misunderstandings. Furthermore, we found that participants' selected discussion topics and how they discussed those topics influenced cluster formations. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications are discussed in depth.
... We have drawn on practicebased theories which propose that knowledge is localised, embedded and invested in collective practice and that boundaries are inherent sociocultural differences between distinct collective practices underpinned by shared language, meanings and ways of doing things [28,29]. In particular, we have drawn on Wenger's communities of practice approach [30], Ferlie's uni-professional communities of practice [25] and Gabbay and le May's multi-professional communities of practice [31]. ...
... One of the most powerful forces impacting on the meaning attached to SN biopsy and perceptions of the role of SN biopsy was the existence of professional networks and communities of practice. A community of practice is a group whose shared knowledge, practice and identity creates boundaries that differentiate it from other communities of practice [29,30]. The current study identified several distinct (but sometimes overlapping) communities of practice involved in managing patients with melanoma in Australia, including dermatologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, multidisciplinary teams (i.e. ...
Article
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Background Sentinel node biopsy (SN biopsy) is a surgical procedure used to accurately stage patients with primary melanoma at high risk of recurrence. Although Australian Melanoma Management Guidelines recommend SN biopsy be considered in patients with melanomas > 1 mm thick, SN biopsy rates in Australia are reportedly low. Our objective was to identify factors impacting the acceptance, adoption and adherence to the Australian SN biopsy guideline recommendations. Methods Opinions of Australian key informants including clinicians, representatives from melanoma education and training providers, professional associations and colleges, and melanoma advocacy organisations were collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 29) and from publicly released statements (n = 14 news articles). Data analysis involved inductive and deductive thematic analysis using Flottorp’s determinants framework. Results A complex interplay of contemporary and historical factors was identified as influencing acceptance, adoption and adherence to the SN biopsy guideline recommendations at the individual, guideline, patient, organisational and social levels. Expert and peer opinion leaders have played an important role in facilitating or inhibiting adoption of guideline recommendations, as have financial incentives driven by healthcare-funding policies and non-financial incentives including professional identity and standing. Of critical importance have been the social and knowledge boundaries that exist between different professional groups to whom the guidelines apply (surgeons, dermatologists and primary care practitioners) with adherence to the guideline recommendations having the potential to shift work across professional boundaries, altering a clinician’s workflow and revenue. More recently, the emergence of effective immunotherapies and targeted therapies for patients at high risk of recurrence, the emergence of new opinion leaders on the topic (in medical oncology), and patient demands for accurate staging are playing crucial roles in overcoming the resistance to change created by these social and knowledge boundaries. Conclusions Acceptance and adherence to SN biopsy guideline recommendations in Australia over the past 20 years has involved a process of renegotiation and reframing of the evidence for SN biopsy in melanoma by clinicians from different professional groups and networks. This process has helped to refine the evidence for SN biopsy and our understanding of appropriate adoption. New effective systemic therapies have changed the balance towards accepting guideline recommendations.
... This requires steering the epistemological focus on language, culture, identity, and policy away from linguistics and ideological differences to view them as synthesized entities in a dynamic relationship to explain individual development. Wenger (1998) values the impact of learning on identity, claiming that "learning transforms who we are and what we can do; it is an experience of identity" (p. 215). ...
... However, English has broadened their social space by opening opportunities to interact with people outside of their national and cultural systems. Wenger (1998) argues that learners' imagination links their current practices with broader activities by moving beyond time and space, and that it is a process of self-expansion by forming a new perception of self and the world. ...
Article
Iranian authorities view English language learning as a disturbing influence on national identity. They are concerned about its impact on learners’ identities. Despite the political concern, there is growing interest in learning English in Iranian private schools for personal and social development. This article reports on a study in which six male and two female adult English language learners in Iran were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews provided insights into learners’ identity formation and social practices. The data showed developments in learners’ perceptions of national identity, cultural, and religious practices. The globalization of English has amplified learners’ level of access to the discourse of others, while the level of investment in learning is indispensable in their identity formation. This research argues that English language learning and its associated everyday practices lead to learners’ identity work. This has significant implications for language education in cultures with adverse views toward learning English.
... Similarly, we did not build the capability to prioritise product portfolios in order to launch agile processes but to resolve pressing issues with existing decisionmaking practices. These negotiations created a shared understanding of tasks, established norms, and drove mutual engagement (Wenger, 1999). Third, digital options thinking promotes opportunity-driven rather than problem-driven negotiation of capability gaps. ...
... We have therefore reconfigured architectures and developed cloud solutions to expose rather than hide in-car resources, shared knowledge through innovation contests and innovation arenas, and redesigned contracts to encourage co-creation rather than securing profit margins. By bringing resources into use (without detailed plans for using them to create new capabilities) we created a shared resource repertoire (Wenger, 1999) that allows Volvo Cars to manage the uncertainties of digital innovation in collaboration with others. We have found that these collaborations often materialise outside the boundaries of the firm. ...
Article
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Options thinking is a powerful approach for managing uncertainty and change in digital environments. It is recognised as a structured process for identifying, developing, and realising options into novel products and services. At Volvo Cars, we have learned it can also become a powerful instrument for innovation renewal, although it can be difficult to apply because it challenges existing firm practices. We elaborate this tension by presenting digital options strategizing as a process of applying options thinking to negotiate capability gaps and configure innovation resources. Our clinical study reveals that this facilitates innovation renewal through emergent processes, practice-oriented design, and opportunity-driven management.
... We could not speak the language of a 'mastery' discourse (Cixous, 1975). Yet this positioning was overcome in a 'collective community' of creative resilience (Clover & Stalker, 2007;Wenger, 1998;and Jackson, 2012). It was one of the outcomes of the doctorial research at the institution in which the research was conducted, the University for the Creative Arts (UCA). ...
... Having endured years of feeling our opinions were not valued, the margins are a space from which resistance is possible. and we showed ourselves to be resilient learners, educators, artists, possessing the ability to transform by supporting each other to visualise a creative resilience (Clover & Stalker, 2007;Wenger, 1998). 'Resilience is what breaks the chain of endless reproduction in an education system that rewards the rich with ever more capital' (Hoult, 2012, p. 103). ...
... Examples include course classroom communities, practicum communities, global communities, virtual communities, cohort communities and more. The authors explain the foundation of the community-focus is grounded in and Wenger's (1998) "work on situated learning and communities of practice which suggests that social practice is the primary, generative source of learning". ...
... We use the words "ecosystem" and "communities" to represent the multiple communities and relations that teacher candidates and faculty members are part of and refer to during the preparation of new teachers (James, 2017). These include, but are not limited to: Our focus on communities is grounded in work that suggests that social practice is the primary, generative source of learning Wenger, 1998). Opportunities to dialogue and engage with meaningful and sustained collaborative work are well recognized as ways of encouraging teachers to take up an inquiry stance in relation to their classroom practice as well as supporting the experimentation and enactment of new curricular and pedagogical research Donnell & Harper, 2005;Fullan, 2001). ...
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The School of Education at Trent University rests beside the Otonabee River, surrounded by green lawns, trees and wildlife, “located on the treaty and traditional territory of the Mississauga (Michi Saagiig) Anishnaabeg” (Trent University Michi Saagig Protocol Guide book, 2019, p. 4). The land plays an important role in shaping the learning within our program, where Indigenous knowledge and environmental activism are core themes across the Bachelor of Education. Founded in 2003, the School of Education has designed a professional, scholarly community upon this land, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches to literacy, leadership, and social justice curricula. Given the mandate to expand into a two year program in 2014, we took the opportunity to enrich existing courses, to develop courses that meet contemporary local and global challenges (as well as to imagine those of the future), and to offer students more options for their path of study.
... More specifically, the conceptual lens of 'artefacts of collaboration' sheds light on how built environment professionals interact on a daily base to overcome the 'design-construction' divide. Furthermore, the analysis of the empirical material through the concept reveals how the role and responsibilities of project partners change through the different modes of collaboration, challenging established structures, set boundaries and clearly defined 'communities of practice' (Wenger, 1999) that continue to shape collaborations in construction projects. ...
... The concept of artefacts of collaboration is derived from in-depth insights into the working practices behind design and building processes. By drawing on perspectives of built environment professionals from different 'communities of practice' (Wenger, 1999), working in the design studio, as well as in manufacturing plants and on construction sites, the authors adopt a cross-sectorial focus, which is still rare in academic studies on design and building professional practice (see Grubbauer, 2015). The perspective on both design and construction practice allows analysing how the work with artefacts shapes and transforms collaborations and the roles and responsibilities of project participants across the deep-rooted design-construction divide. ...
Article
This paper explores the dynamic nature of collaborations in construction projects by analysing the artefacts built environment professionals develop, use and transform over the project course. The authors introduce the concept of ‘artefacts of collaboration’ that systematizes different artefacts types, to provide insights into how collaborations emerge and unfold across distinct disciplines and different project stages. Empirically, the concept is derived from 35 in-depth interviews with professionals involved in four large-scale construction projects. Theoretically, the concept is based on a pluralistic approach combining productively the concepts of boundary and epistemic objects to address better the specificities of collaborations in construction projects. More specifically, the concept of artefacts of collaboration allows exploring how collaborations transform across the ‘design-construction’ divide that largely defines the interactions and relationships between built environment professionals. Hereby, through the analysis of artefacts of collaboration the paper reveals different modes of collaboration and how the roles and responsibilities of project partners change through these modes of collaboration.
... From this perspective, learning is situated in social contexts and interactions, and it is achieved through an increase in participation of authentic practices of a community. Moreover, it suggests that newcomers become acquainted with a community of practices (CoP) through participation in peripheral yet legitimate practices, and through interaction with experts (Wenger, 1998). Our analyses applied this theory to address the learning experiences of lower-level students as they share several characteristics with newcomers, such as lower knowledge level and self-confidence. ...
Conference Paper
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Many studies have shown that augmented reality (AR) can improve learning, but little is known about the mechanisms. To investigate this inquiry, we employed a mixed analysis method to approach the data coming from an experimental study. The quantitative findings showed that lower-level students performed better in the post-assessments for AR groups than for control groups. Qualitative analyses were conducted to explore how AR facilitated the lower-level students' learning. The current findings suggested that: the AR's feature of distributed labor, openness, real-time feedback, and operational symbolic items sustained the lower-level students to engage with higher-level students in problem-solving activity inclusively, jointly, and authentically.
... As reviewed above, the model articulated by Desimone (2009) emphasizes the active and collaborative involvement of teacher participants in teacher development activities. This is in line with the idea of a community of practice (Wenger, 1998) in which teacher participants collaborate, mutually support, and share practices with one another (Garet et al., 2001). In the area of collaborative learning, much more researchers have examined how collaboration supports student learning (eg, Roschelle, 1992), but research on teachers' collaborating to learn is still limited (Walkoe & Luna, 2020). ...
Article
An important educational goal for the next generation is the ability to think computationally. Cultivating K‐12 students' computational thinking (CT) requires the capacity building of teachers through teacher development programs. However, if students' learning outcomes were not assessed, it is not known whether the enhancement of teacher capacity could impact on students' learning. This study aimed to examine how a teacher development program changed teachers' content knowledge and collaborative engagement, which in turn influenced their students' learning achievement. The participants were 81 teachers and 3226 students from primary schools. We employed multi‐level modelling to study the relationships between teacher‐level variables and student achievement assessed by a CT concepts test. The teachers' content knowledge and collaborative engagement were significantly enhanced through the program, which in turn had a significant impact on student achievement. Teachers' years of teaching experience, but not their gender or whether they had majored in computer science, could also affect student achievement. The results indicate that a teacher development program can play a significant role in enhancing the teachers' CT content knowledge and collaborative engagement, which can then have a positive effect on student learning. What is already known about this topic The cultivation of students' computational thinking (CT) in K‐12 education requires the capacity building of teachers. A teacher development program can improve teachers' knowledge and attitudes related to CT. Whether the enhancement of teacher capacity can in turn affect students' learning achievement in CT is less studied. What this paper adds We found that a teacher development program could significantly enhance teachers' knowledge in CT and their collaborative engagement in the program. Using multilevel modelling, we found further that the enhancement of teachers' knowledge and collaborative engagement could affect students' understanding of CT concepts positively. Teachers' years of teaching experience, but not their gender or whether they had majored in computer science, could also influence student achievement. Implications for practice and/or policy In designing similar teacher development programs for teachers, collaborative engagement opportunities should be provided as it can have a positive impact on student achievement. Although the majority of teachers do not have a background in computer science, a teacher development program can play a significant role in enhancing their knowledge in CT, no matter they had majored in computer science or not. The significance of the program is not limited to the development of teachers, as the enhancements of teachers' knowledge and collaborative engagement through the program can in turn have a positive impact on students' understanding of CT concepts.
... This leads us to open our field of action and focus on contextualizing the proposals in a more effective and conscious way. This idea of "communities of practice" was initially developed as a way to identify those forms of knowledge production that take place beyond academic or institutional learning environments (Lave & Wenger 1989). In any given formal or informal context, people devise ways of sharing ideas, producing specific arrangements and forms of knowledge that help these communities to deal with practical issues that affect their life. ...
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Practice based research projects in design constitute a relatively young practice and despite the recent growth of books and articles dealing with the subject (Camps & Rowan, 2019; Vaughan ed. 2017; Redström, 2017; Muratovski, 2015), the articulation of practice and theory in these kinds of projects still remains problematic. The following paper explores alternative forms of practice-based research in design capable of engaging with criticality whilst avoiding its tendency towards signalling shortcomes and contradictions without providing ways for reparation. It also deals with how to avoid the shortfalls of objectivity or demonstration but nonetheless not falling into subjectivist practices (Verwoert, 2007). We will be looking into ways to embed design practices in a complex and heterogeneous present, working with pluriverses (Escobar, 2018) and situating practices in more than discursive material worlds.
... Networks, even in the context of large organizations, are often self-organizing and, therefore, independent of direct managerial control (Alvesson et al., 2002;Thompson, 2005). Wenger (1998) also introduced the 'landscapes of practice' concept to explain how different communities of practice interact to develop practice-based knowing. As Pyrko et al. (2019a: 485) explain, NoPs are 'looser social formations' than CoPs but still tend to be connected through work-based activities. ...
Article
Academic engagement with small business and entrepreneurship was facilitated by the availability of European Union (EU) funding, which also stimulated the emergence of a small business and entrepreneurship (SBE) 'community of practice'. Gradually, the SBE community developed into a 'landscape of practice' as small business research moved towards maturity. Furthermore, the SBE landscape of practice has coalesced around three core concepts: entrepreneurial learning, social networks and social capital. EU funding was the catalyst for many SBE academics in the UK to engage with practitioners involved with starting and managing their own businesses. The UK's exit from the EU will inevitably mean that universities will no longer have access to EU Structural Funds. This has major implications for the UK SBE community's engagement with practice as well as for entrepreneurs and business owners who have benefitted from a range of programmes designed to improve the performance of smaller firms.
... Taylor (2013), for example, in her work with adolescent language learners found that family, friends, classmates and teachers were all important in shaping adolescents' identities. Operating within a number of communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991;Wenger, 1998), learners' interactions with others and how they internalise those interactions will influence their own implicit and explicit beliefs about languages and about themselves in relation to their languages. Essentially, and related to social identity theory (e.g. ...
... Hal ini boleh jadi dipengaruhi kesadaran pengguna Facebook dan WhatsApp bahwa yang mengirim informasi adalah orang yang tidak memiliki kompetensi akan kualitas informasi yang dibagikannya. Terlebih hampir sebagian besar pengguna saling kenal secara lebih dekat, terkait latar belakang juga identitas (Wenger, 1998) Identitas diri merupakan susunan gambaran diri individu sebagai seseorang. menurut Michael Hecth dalam Little John, pada teori komunikasi tentang identitas, identitas adalah sebuah penghubung utama antara individu dan masyarakat serta komunikasi merupakan mata rantai yang memperbolehkan hubungan ini terjadi (Littlejohn ,1983) Identitas yang ada adalah kode yang mendefinisikan keanggotan individu dalam komunitas yang beragam. ...
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This research was conducted on WhatsApp and Facebook social media users, the aim of observing the behavior of the users of both social media, related to the issue of the pandemic Covid-19, which is sweeping the world. Indonesia is a country in the risk category, after a number of people with positive Covid-19 found. During the period March 10-17, 2020, conversations of members of the WhatsApp Group Alumni Association of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Hasanuddin University, whose members tended to be heterogeneous, from various professional fields, were also spread throughout Indonesia, with more than 200 members and Lecturer groups FISIP University of Eastern Indonesia (UIT) Makassar, whose members tend to be homogeneous, and only resides in Makassar City. The Facebook group that was observed was a journalist group. It was revealed that Facebook and WhatsApp users were actively disseminating Covid-19 information in the form of religious propaganda, medical information, political responses, humorous humor. On both social media accounts, user behavior appears to be active, continuously informing the Cofid- 19 phenomenon, with various versions, including news links, opinions, analysis of both amateur and expert experts, criticism of the government, to memes and images that sometimes are photos of officials country. Research uses qualitative methods to explore and understand the meaning of messages. The approach and method of analysis used in this study are, content analysis method using quantitative data and qualitative data simultaneously.
... The ways, in which learning occurs, depend on a previous individual experience and the kinds of interaction involved. For example, recent research into workgroups, often called 'communities of practice' (Wenger 1998), illuminates social aspects of learning in the form of skills, information, rules, expectations and dispositions that have an emergent property entailing both explicit and implicit characteristics that are consistent with a certain workgroup. Knight's (2002) exploration of theories that emphasize situated informal qualities of learning as continuing professional development is specifically relevant to this study. ...
... In the context of this study, the definition used is an individual assessment by the headteacher of the point where s/he feels confident and competent in the job, and is effective with regard to the demands of the job. This draws on the definition developed byWenger (1988) and the formation of 'a locus of social selfhood'. ...
Thesis
p>This study contributes to an understanding of the process of transition to primary headship. It examines, from the perspectives of three headteachers, their experiences over the first year as they make the transition to the formal leadership position of headteacher. Their transition is documented through individual case studies in order to highlight the importance of context in school leadership, and analysed further to identify significant emerging themes across the case studies in greater depth. The enquiry has taken place at a time of increasing difficulty in recruitment to headship. As such it presents a relevant contemporary commentary of relevance to practitioners, researchers and policy makers. The study examines, through an interrogation of the literature, factors that influence transition to headship and the two key and inter-related dimensions of the enquiry : the nature of contemporary primary school headship, particularly in the context of school leadership, and the process of transition to headship. This reveals a job rich in complexity and challenge, with the transition of newcomers relatively under researched. Against the background of the literature review, a structure that adopts a grounded theory approach for the research is developed and explained. This qualitative interpretive stance traces the perspectives of the newly appointed headteachers through a total of 12 in-depth interviews. Each interview was reconstructed by the researcher and shared with participants for validation of interpretation to form the basis of the research data. This was then analysed in two stages, firstly to identify the main emerging themes for the case studies, and secondly to identify the main themes for the overall analysis: professional and organisational socialisation; school effectiveness and school improvement and the emotional dimension of headship. The study concludes by reflecting both upon the research findings and outcomes and the identification of the main professional implications of the enquiry.</p
... Finally, inclusion within the profession was hindered by professional bodies (IOP specifically), language and professional culture. poses real challenges for aspiring professionals whose identity as professionals is intricately linked to the communities of practice in which they learn and develop their craft (Barac 2015;Hammond et al. 2009;Wenger 1998). By focussing on race we run the risk of reinforcing racial categories (Steyn and Conway 2010), which is certainly not my aim here. ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to explore the influence of stigma and Whiteness in the identity work of professionals of colour at the meso-level of analysis. The challenges are structured within three elements central to socialisation, the aim of which is to produce an “appropriate” professional. Given that professionals are defined by what they do, access to tasks and work related to developing oneself as a professional are critical to identity development; being denied these opportunities challenges the very heart of professional identity. Findings related to the functional dimension include work allocation, competence and mentoring. In moving up the hierarchy, professionals of colour were challenged by their (in)visibility, and silencing. Finally, inclusion within the profession was hindered by professional bodies (IOP specifically), language and professional culture.KeywordsProfessional identityMeso-contextProfessional spaceIdentity workLanguage
... A community of practiceThe inward trajectory of membership is a key feature of participation in a community of practice.Wenger (1998) lists fourteen additional indicators of a community of practice including "sustained mutual relationships...shared ways of engaging in doing things together...mutually defining identities…[and] a shared discourse reflecting a certain perspective of the world" (p. ...
Thesis
The first years of teaching are extremely challenging as novices simultaneously teach and learn to teach. Research suggests relationships play a meaningful role in helping novices access support and feel supported as they navigate "problems of practice,” enduring issues that teachers must manage to effectively teach and facilitate their students’ learning. This study examines how novice teachers think about and use “professional confidants” – individuals with whom teachers talk about important teaching matters – when managing problems of practice. This is a study of nine first-year and seven second-year teacher fellows in the Alliance for Catholic Education at the University of Notre Dame (ACE), a two-year alternative teacher formation program in which participants are full-time teachers of record in Catholic schools across the country as they earn a master’s degree and teaching certification. ACE teacher fellows’ unique experiences bridge the typical divide between preservice preparation and in-service professional development. ACE presents a case of a well-designed set of supports for novice teachers’ professional, personal, and spiritual formation. By embedding novice teachers within multiple, intentional, layered communities of practice populated with a range of formal and informal support opportunities, the ACE program carefully curates a set of potential professional confidants from which novices can choose avenues for support. Furthermore, ACE anticipates that novice teachers may seek support beyond formal communities of practice. This study uses data from five surveys and two interviews, conducted throughout the 2020-2021 school year, to identify the problems of practice that captured novice teachers’ attention throughout the year. It then looks within institutionally designed support structures at the personal relationships that novice teachers created within and beyond their placement school and ACE contexts to manage those problems of practice. I identified five central categories for the problems of practice participants reported navigating: managing instruction, managing students, managing adult stakeholders, managing contextual factors, and managing themselves. Findings also suggest that novice teachers seek support from a diverse array of confidants whose identities, knowledge, and experience reflect similarities and differences with novices. This study concludes with a model for understanding novices’ interactions with professional confidants with implications for preservice and induction teacher education.
... Another framework that considered social and organizational aspects is that of Clark-Wilson et al. [3], who identified five aspects related to mathematics teacher's PD with respect to integrating technology: (a) the institutional context; (b) the PD programs' design of mathematics teachers; (c) the PD activities of teachers with technologies, as part of formal PD programs or outside of them; (d) teachers' use of technology in their classrooms; and (e) meta-level reflections by teachers and researchers on how digital technologies facilitate PD. The present PD program utilizes the CoI notion related to Wenger's community of practice notion [24]. The notion of a CoI is related to the community whose participants work collaboratively on a joint enterprise to develop their knowledge by examining their practice with questioning attitudes [25]. ...
Article
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The research community still faces challenges with respect to understanding and promoting mathematics teachers’ knowledge related to integrating technology into their instruction. This study’s goals are: (1) to examine the relations between the various components of pedagogical technology knowledge (PTK), (2) to examine whether teachers’ PTK differed significantly after their participation in a professional development (PD) program designed to enhance Community of Inquiry (CoI) practices, and (3) to examine the effect of teachers’ personal characteristics on PTK components and on their development. This study involved 42 middle school mathematics teachers. The data, collected using Thomas and Palmer’s PTK questionnaire, underwent a statistical analysis. Through the quantitative analysis, scores for each PTK component were computed and appropriate statistical tests were run. The results indicate that, aside from knowledge of mathematical content, all the components of PTK and PTK itself demonstrate strong correlations. In addition, the results showed that teachers’ PTK components differed significantly after they participated in a CoI PD program, except for the knowledge of mathematical content component. The background variables had significant effects on some PTK components’ scores and on their development among the participants.
... Comunidades de prática (CoP) são formas de formação coletiva desenvolvidas por Etienne Wenger (1998). Uma Comunidade de Prática tem como principal característica a organização periódica de encontros/reuniões para discussão e planejamento de empreendimentos negociados pelos membros do grupo. ...
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Este capítulo faz parte de um recorte de dissertação de mestrado profissional desenvolvido no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ensino de Ciências da Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (MPEC/UFOP), na linha de pesquisa de Ensino-aprendizagem e desenvolvimento de recursos didáticos. Portanto, outro passo foi necessário: a definição de um produto educacional, como é exigido em uma pesquisa de mestrado profissional.
... Observing and understanding collaboration more deeply is integral to sociocultural theories and perspectives around learning. For instance, within sustained communities of practice (Wenger, 1999) , such as in project-based computing or maker spaces, as learners develop interpersonal relationships and evolving competencies, there are increased opportunities for students to organically synchronize with the work of others "over the air" (Kafai & Harel, 1991), which can enable emergent forms collaboration to occur (Halverson et al., 2018). This emergent collaboration can enable students to move between individual and collaborative goals as they advance their own designs, connecting with others as needed, and diverging to follow their own paths of interest. ...
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This paper presents an implementation of Connected Spaces (CxS)-an ambient help seeking interface designed and developed for a project-based computing classroom. We use actor network theory (ANT) to provide an underutilized posthumanist lens to understand the creation of collaborative connections in this Computational Action-based implementation. Posthu-manism offers an emerging and critical extension to sociocultural perspectives on understanding learning, by pushing us to decenter the human, and consider the active roles that human and non-human entities play in learning environments by actively shaping each other. We analyse how students in this class adjusted their help-seeking and collaborative habits following the introduction of CxS, a tool designed to foster (more inter-group) collaboration. ANT proposes generalized symmetry-a principle of considering human, non-human and more than human entities with equivalent and comparable agency, leading to describing phenomena as networks of actors in different evolving relationships with each other. Analysing collaborative interactions as fostered by CxS using an ANT approach supports design-based research-an iterative design revision process highlighting understandings about design as well as learning-by providing a temporal and informative lens into the relationship between actors and tools within the This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
... This facilitates peer learning and exchange to support AEs in their work, acquisition of knowledge, skills and development of attitudes and beliefs towards their professional practice. Significantly, there is a substantial body of research on the benefits of community of practice to support the professional development of educators (see, for example, Wenger, 1998;Palloff and Pratt, 1999;Andersson et al., 2018) by facilitating educators coming together to learn collaboratively by drawing upon the community's values, capital and wisdom (Tan, 2017). Here Tan (2017) suggests that in the context of Singapore, the government, on its part, could provide the necessary financial, logistical and manpower support through the SkillsFuture movement. ...
Article
This article proposes a framework for capability development of adult educators (AEs) in Singapore. Globalisation, demographic changes and digital innovation, accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic, have accentuated the importance of adult education and changing role of AEs. The immediate implications of these effects on the professionalism of AEs and the significance of their development trajectories are acute. With an increased focus on the need to ensure AEs are current in both their pedagogic and domain competences, we introduce discussions on the need to develop a conceptual framework to generate a deeper understanding of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs and practices of AEs. This framework can be used by practitioners as a tool to facilitate professional reflection and development, and by policy makers to support continued improvements to the quality of adult education. Our overall aim is to promote the importance of varied and continued opportunities for the professional development of AEs at policy, organisational and individual levels.
... The study is grounded in a sociocultural theoretical framework (Vygotsky, 1978;Wenger, 1998), which acknowledges that learning is socially and culturally situated especially through the tool of language and dialogue. The study is also undergirded with the notion of selfefficacy (Bandura, 1977) and the belief that our actions as teacher educators can have an influence on others, specifically on the pre-service teachers in our classes. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this thesis is to evaluate a glottopolitic intervention about valorisation and preservation of occitan culture that mobilizes region, cities councils and civil society: the calandretas schools. Born in Pau in 1979, they are associative and laic schools which teach occitan language in an immersive way and following Freinet's pedagogical concepts. By a global approach of the subject, the study will try to evaluate the impact of the calandretas schools, as a bottom-up language policy on the revitalization of the occitan language and the occitan culture: in the uses, the representations of the people directly involved but also on the social agents and the population in general. The study will take place in three cities of Occitanie. Pyrénées-Méditerranée region : Béziers, Pamiers and Carcassonne. Those three cities have been hosting a Calandreta schools for more than 20 years, they have a steady population and a dynamic associative occitan network. With a critical approach, we aim to analyse the social stakes raised by this kind of glottopolitic action in the context of revitalisation of languages in danger. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the description of the methodological frame and the fieldwork of our investigation. In the second part, we analyse the patrimonialisation of Occitan culture as an anthropological process involved in the transmission of a cultural practice, a social construct and a historicized discourses about languages. We also point out the link between the concept of patrimonialisation and other concept circulating in the field of sociolinguistic: normalisation and revitalization. Finally, we focus on the actualisation of patrimonialisation discourses among the actors of language policy of Occitan. The third part of this work is about the appropriation of the Calandreta's action by the agents of language policies in three medium-sized cities of Occitanie Region in the patrimonial context described int the second part. Through the analyse of institutional or press speeches as well as interviews with agents, we show that environmental and social factors have a big influence on the deployment of grass-roots language policy at the local. The fourth part focuses on the appropriation of the educative, linguistic and cultural project of Calandreta by the parents, the students and the teachers of Calandreta schools. From different kind of qualitative and quantitative data, we show how the period of scolarisation in Calandreta does influence language practises and representations toward a greater use of Occitan language and a better linguistic consciousness We also highlight the limits of this relative revitalisation success. It is the very stake of this thesis to understand the gap between the aim of a language policy and the achievements on the field in terms of modification of practices and representations.
Chapter
In this chapter we develop the conceptual links between urban agriculture and quality of life in order to provide a tool to evaluate whether and how UA can improve urban communities’ well-being. We present the logic of selecting the specific indicators of urban quality of life which we use in our research. These are the QoL dimensions that are most commonly affected by UA activities, according to the literature: cooperation, trust and social cohesion, education, environmental awareness and sustainable consumption, work satisfaction, leisure, physical and mental health, enhanced biodiversity and pleasant public spaces, economic opportunities for local business. Bearing in mind the distinctions between the opportunities and real outcomes of a good life, as well as the external conditions and the individual dimensions of QoL (Veenhoven, 2000), we work with indicators at the individual, local community and city level. Economic benefits, education and environmental awareness are most often studied at the individual and household level; social cohesion and integration at the local community level; environmental quality at the local neighbourhood and city level. We measure these indicators using both self-reporting and unbiased data analyses.
Article
With the goal of exploring a motivating way to approach world language teaching and learning in order to promote lifelong language learning, this article reports on a year‐long, collaborative action research study of two middle‐school German classes that used an imagined communities curriculum. The curriculum, co‐constructed with the classroom teacher, provided a way for the teacher to address the required content while helping students feel more connected with other target language speakers. Study findings show that students' feelings of connection to the target community were influenced by their perceived similarities or cultural differences with German speakers, their perceived language abilities, and their opportunities to communicate with, or be in proximity to, German speakers. Compared to their experiences with a conventional curriculum the year before, 36 of the 41 students found that the imagined‐communities‐infused curriculum activities helped them feel greater connection with, or ability to relate to, other speakers of German.
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Cet article s’intéresse aux énoncés affectifs et axiologiques dans des sessions de coaching individuel sur le jeu vidéo League of Legends diffusées en ligne, en lien avec la notion d’ajustements intersubjectifs. Nous montrons que l’acte d’évaluation s’incarne dans de nombreux types de marqueurs, à la fois lexicaux, syntaxiques et prosodiques, axiologisés en langue ou en discours. À travers une étude quantitative de ces marqueurs en fonction du degré de leur charge méliorative ou péjorative déterminée à partir d’un test de perception, nous montrons que les locuteurs de notre corpus ont chacun leur style d’évaluation. Enfin, nous proposons une analyse qualitative d’un exemple long issu du discours d’un locuteur se démarquant par la densité des marqueurs axiologiques péjoratifs utilisés, et le haut degré de péjoration de ces marqueurs, afin d’observer comment ils fonctionnent en contexte.
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Embora diferentes organizações dedicadas à pesquisa e divulgação da gestão de projetos a reconheçam como fator relevante para o aprimoramento dessa atividade, o registro das lições aprendidas é comumente negligenciado durante ou após o ciclo de vida dos projetos. Apesar destas lições representarem conhecimentos obtidos na vivência de experiências significativas, diversos estudos mostram que o excesso de informações, as dificuldades em estabelecer um formato de registro adequado e procedimentos para avaliá-los e implementá-los e, em última análise, as limitações de tempo - por falta de ou baixa prioridade - dificultam seu registro. Neste cenário e considerando as possibilidades trazidas pelas tecnologias de informação e comunicação com viés semântico, acredita-se que a modelagem desse registro por meio de metadados pode contribuir para sua eficiência e eficácia, valorizando-o como meio de aprendizagem organizacional. Desta forma, o primeiro passo desta pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa, natureza aplicada, objetivos exploratórios, procedimentos bibliográficos e documentais e método indutivo foi obter uma amostra de 54 registros de lições aprendidas em projetos de organizações públicas ou privadas, nacionais ou internacionais. . e com origem em 11 países, totalizando 169 atributos. Depois de analisados, esses atributos fundaram-se em um conjunto de 28 representados por metadados e avaliados pelo Método de Cochran (para determinar sua representatividade) e pelo Teste de Kuden-Richardson 21 (para determinar sua confiabilidade). Os resultados obtidos com essas avaliações revelaram que o conjunto é estatisticamente representativo (permitindo fazer uma inferência estatística a partir dele) e confiável. Por conta disso, a segunda etapa consistiu em realizar a modelagem conceitual, que, a partir desse conjunto, identificou 11 entidades e 12 relacionamentos entre elas, representando-as por meio de um Modelo Entidade-Relacionamento que pode servir para estruturar um banco de dados de lições aprendidas com o projetos.
Article
Background: While ward rounds offer a rich opportunity for learning, the environment is chaotic, and medical students can struggle to maximise this potential. Few studies have focused on the best way to equip students for ward round learning. One proposed tool developed to orient students' learning on the ward round is called the Seek, Target, Inspect and reflect, Closure and clerk (STIC) model. This study examines the effect of using this model on the student experience of ward round learning. Methods: Seven medical students with clinical attachments on medical wards in two rural hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, participated in three sequential focus groups over an 8-week period. Students were asked about learning practices on ward rounds, what factors influenced their learning and how using the STIC model impacted on their experience. Thematic analysis was applied to focus group transcripts. Findings: Students valued learning opportunities from ward rounds but felt the learning potential was largely dependent on the team to which they were attached. Students reported the STIC model promoted greater agency and enabled them to be more self-directed and able to negotiate the chaotic context. Students also valued the focus group discussions about their learning as an avenue to share and better understand their experiences of learning on ward rounds. Conclusion: Student experience of ward rounds can be influenced via (1) structured learning tools (STIC model) to better orient students and (2) facilitated discussions with peers to assist in developing skills of negotiating and directing one's own learning. Both should be more explicitly integrated in medical curricula.
Chapter
This chapter compares the transfer process of translation sensu stricto with that of the documentary film. More precisely, the chapter delves into the basic factors of translation of the corpus: the contexts, agents, and practices of 18 documentaries on Latin American migration aired in the United States by the Public Broadcasting Service series POV over the last three decades. This review sets the scene for the detailed analysis of the fourth factor of these “translations from the real to the reel” in the following 9 chapters: their discourses on migrant motherhood, fatherhood, childhood, biculturalism, citizenship, criminality, queerness, adoption, and fame.KeywordsDocumentary maker as translatorDocumentary film discourseLatinx immigrantPractices of translationModes of documentary representationPublic Service BroadcastingPublic television ecology
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Objective There is a shortage of psychiatrists necessary to meet the clinical needs of children and adolescents. Efforts over the past decade to enhance the workforce have had a limited impact. This study sought to identify the critical components of a medical student mentorship network designed to increase recruitment into the subspecialty.Methods The authors conducted interviews via synchronized videoconferencing of network site leaders and medical students at 14 schools throughout the USA. In addition, they analyzed verbatim transcripts using a thematic-phenomenological qualitative approach.ResultsThe authors interviewed thirty-eight program participants during seven focus group sessions: nine program directors and 29 medical students or graduates, a median of five participants per session. They constructed a framework consisting of two overarching domains, comprised of three themes each: (1) life cycle of a subspecialty mentorship network (Origins, Initiation, and Continuity); and (2) next steps to improve the program (Refining goals, Increasing accessibility, and Defining a path forward).Conclusion Preliminary data have already documented the positive impact of participation in this mentorship program on medical student match rates into psychiatry. The qualitative model of this study provides a blueprint to develop, maintain, and optimize this and similar efforts aimed at increasing the child and adolescent psychiatry workforce.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has dramatically affected the way that healthcare is delivered in the United States and has likewise affected the way that health professions education is taught. This article reports a case study of a cohort‐based health professions education program that was forced to transition from a blended model to a fully virtual synchronous model and the effects of that transition on learners and educators. These courses are grounded in experiential learning, and the program overall aims to develop a community of practice that extends beyond program completion. The authors reflected on online observations as well as their own experiences in these courses. We argue learners were still able to move through Kolb's stages of experiential learning. Analysis also indicates that the transition and the unique stressors of the COVID‐19 pandemic may have expanded and strengthened a burgeoning community of practice.
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The transition from medical school to residency and from residency to fellowship involves working in new settings, with new roles and expectations, and with new colleagues. The task of resident and fellow orientation, therefore, involves introducing trainees to the program’s culture of work, education, and work/personal life balance approach. In this chapter, we present guiding principles for orientation to each of these components and provide sample orientation topics related to these principles. It is this chapter’s goal that the reader will take these ideas and apply them to their local program.
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Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology is now a mature machine learning tool, becoming integrated in the digitisation processes of libraries and archives, speeding up the transcription of primary sources and facilitating full text searching and analysis of historic texts at scale. However, research into how HTR is changing our information environment is scant. This paper presents a systematic literature review regarding how researchers are using one particular HTR platform, Transkribus, to indicate the domains where HTR is applied, the approach taken, and how the technology is understood. 381 papers from 2015 to 2020 were gathered from Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science, then grouped and coded into categories using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Published research that mentions Transkribus is international and rapidly growing. Transkribus features primarily in archival and library science publications, while a long tail of broad and eclectic disciplines, including history, computer science, citizen science, law and education, demonstrate the wider applicability of the tool. The most common paper categories were humanities applications (67%), technological (25%), users (5%) and tutorials (3%) . This paper presents the first overarching review of HTR as featured in published research, while also elucidating how HTR is affecting the information environment.
Conference Paper
This paper shows the co-design and implementation process of a socio-emotional learning experience through bio-material making. Remix The School is the application of a theoretical construct that proposes to bring to formal and informal K12 educational contexts the knowledge accumulated at Iaac Fab Lab Barcelona around Biomaterial Fabrication, through several years of practice, research and pedagogy in postgraduate programs. In this paper we describe the methodology followed based on presenting with equal relevance different stages of the biomaterial development process. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned and propose recommendations sharing key findings for implementing a hybrid training of trainers programme during 2021-2022 academic year.
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
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This paper considers copper production in the Niari Basin, Republic of the Congo, during a period dated to the mid-fifteenth–mid-seventeenth centuries CE. Using a combination of pXRF, OM, SEM–EDS, and FTIR, it assesses the microstructure and composition of slags and technical ceramics from sites associated with two different regional pottery traditions: Moubiri-type at the site of Kingoyi near Mindouli and Kindangakanzi-type at Kindangakanzi near Boko-Songho. Both sites are characterised by the use of refractory domestic pottery as crucibles for copper smelting. Moubiri-type pottery is alumina-rich, while Kindangakanzi-type pottery is formed from a magnesia-rich clay, a crucible type unique in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarities in chaînes opératoires at Kingoyi and Kindangakanzi suggest sharing of knowledge at mining and smelting sites, interactions we reconstruct as a metallurgical constellation of practice comprised of the distinct potting communities of practice (see Supplementary information for abstract in Lingala and French).
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For shared book reading to be effective for language development, the adult and child need to be highly engaged. The current paper adopted a mixed-methods approach to investigate caregiver’s language-boosting behaviours and children’s engagement during shared book reading. The results revealed there were more instances of joint attention and caregiver’s use of prompts during moments of higher engagement. However, instances of most language-boosting behaviours were similar across episodes of higher and lower engagement. Qualitative analysis assessing the link between children’s engagement and caregiver’s use of speech acts, revealed that speech acts do seem to contribute to high engagement, in combination with other aspects of the interaction.
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There are significant challenges for trans and gender diverse people in higher education, both as learners and as members of staff. Our TransEDU research found that 86% of research participants had encountered barriers to their learning or work which they directly attributed to their trans or gender diverse status (Lawrence & Mckendry, Supporting transgender and non-binary students and staff in further and higher education: Practical advice for colleges and universities. Jessica Kingsley, 2019; Mckendry and Lawrence, TransEDU Scotland: Researching the experience of trans and gender diverse applicants, students and staff in Scotland’s colleges and universities. Research report, 2017a). This chapter will therefore explore two strategies, as case studies. Both have the potential to subvert current patterns of isolation, raise awareness and empower students and staff to be allies: the creation of champion groups or networks to advance and implement inclusion work; and the designation of a trained and well-publicised named contact for trans people within institutions.
Article
Shared meaning-making across differences in today’s polarized society requires a socio-political perspective toward conceptualizing and operationalizing collaborative competence. Thus, there is a pressing need for socio-political pedagogies and designs in CSCL to empower students as cultural-historical agents who can communicate and work effectively across different communities. As the initial steps of our larger efforts to conceptualize and operationalize a model of multicultural collaborative competence (MCC), we explore communication patterns associated with productive and dysfunctional shared meaning-making around difficult topics related to identity (e.g., race, gender) during intergroup dialogues in a CSCL context. We also examine how our preexisting, general model of collaborative competence (GCC) aligns with these communication patterns to explore (1) whether GCC is robust enough to capture the socio-political dynamics of difficult dialogues and (2) the ways in which we could modify it to better address the tensions between GCC and MCC goals. We collected the discussion transcripts of four three-person teams over two-time points from an undergraduate Multicultural Psychology course. We first conducted thematic and cross-case analyses to identify the communication patterns and behaviors associated with productive and dysfunctional shared meaning-making processes in the context of difficult dialogues (i.e., MCC). We then employed another set of cross-case analyses to examine the relationship between the multicultural collaborative competencies (MCC) and general collaborative competencies (GCC). We found four main communication patterns associated with MCC: (1) grounding with narratives and aims, (2) exploring differences and commonalities of narratives/perspectives, (3) critical reflection of diverse narratives/perspectives, and (4) providing emotional support to team members. We also found that although the GCC does not cover these communication patterns and associated behaviors, there were some overlaps between the sophistication of multiculturally competent communication patterns and collaboration quality as defined by the GCC.
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