Article

The assessment of group work: lessons from the literature

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Creating a stimulating learning environment through group project work is the subject of considerable pedagogical literature [1][2][3]. The increasing consideration for group-based learning and group work assessment mirrors a change in the wider context in which higher education operates, with increasing emphasis being placed on problem-based and cooperative learning [4]. ...
... This is obviously a non-solution to the bias problem, since lecturers are equally prone to bias, especially if they know students. It was also suggested [3] and observed empirically in this course that student and lecturer assessments tend to achieve significant correlation. ...
... Although the statistical basis for such a claim or any conclusion from the present practice are unclear, observation of about 200 students in the last four years suggests that social and cultural homogeneity might act as more powerful drivers for team aggregation than skill levels. Suggestions for constructing mixed abilities groups [3] appear embraceable but difficult to implement for modules in which there is little chance to screen students' ability a priori. ...
Article
Full-text available
Practical strategies for improving individual engagement and performance within an engineering team project learning environment were applied and evaluated. While methodological refinements were required due to the structural challenges and novelty of the practice, positive outcomes such as a perceived increase in engagement and technical proficiency were recorded. Critical aspects in the current approach are the well-known issue of assessing individual contributions within group performance, and setting a proper regulatory environment to prevent peer-assessment bias or dysfunctions. A novel intra-group mark moderation approach is presented and discussed.
... A jak by měly vzniknout skupiny, které spolu budou pracovat? Zatímco zejména pro mladší děti považují někteří autoři za optimální velikost skupiny dyádu Webb (2009) u vysokoškoláků se považuje za optimální velikost skupiny čtyři až šest studentů (Gibbs, 2009). Co se týká heterogenity skupiny, Soetanto s MacDonaldem (2017) po tři roky sledovali, jak se vyvíjejí pociťované překážky v průběhu času u skupin studentů sestavených učitelem a skupin studentů, kteří si svoji skupinu volili sami. ...
... Autoři studie proto konstatují, že způsob, jakým sestavíme skupiny studentů, ovlivňuje četnost a typ překážek, které budou studenti zažívat. Jiní autoři (Gibbs, 2009;Järvenoja & Järvelä, 2009) upozorňují také na význam sociokulturní a etnické diverzity i diverzity z hlediska dosavadních vzdělávacích výsledků. Někteří přitom poukazují na přínosnost diverzity (Gibbs, 2009), zatímco jiní (Järvalä, 2009) upozorňují na to, že tato diverzita může spolupráci významně komplikovat až znemožňovat. ...
... Jiní autoři (Gibbs, 2009;Järvenoja & Järvelä, 2009) upozorňují také na význam sociokulturní a etnické diverzity i diverzity z hlediska dosavadních vzdělávacích výsledků. Někteří přitom poukazují na přínosnost diverzity (Gibbs, 2009), zatímco jiní (Järvalä, 2009) upozorňují na to, že tato diverzita může spolupráci významně komplikovat až znemožňovat. Ještě jiné studie přicházejí se zjištěním, že to není ani tak kulturní různost, jako míra prožívané důvěry, které ovlivňují vklad do skupinové práce (Poort et al., 2020). ...
Book
Full-text available
The book presents peer learning among part-time students as an essential part of their higher education experience. It summarizes the research that indicates that students' achievement, well-being, and study engagement are related to peer learning. Possibilities for supporting peer learning are discussed. Qualitative research of peer learning among part-time students studying for educational degrees offers descriptions of contextual influences and peer learning situations. Based on patterns of occurrence of peer learning situations, three types of peer learning among part-time students are defined: studying beside peers, studying together with peers, and studying due to peers. Each type brings specific benefits and requires distinct support.
... Thus, the ideal solution is to programmatically assign students to new groups for each round, such that they are not allocated to groups with the same fellow students and, ideally, no two students appear in the same group in more than one round. Furthermore, prior literature suggests that having groups of four to six students is optimal [19][20][21], so this is assumed here. ...
... As previously mentioned, groups of four to six students are optimal [19][20][21]. However, in some cases, this may be either impossible (when the number of participants is too small) or overly restrictive (when the number of participants is perfectly divisible by a number p greater than 2, but outside of this range, it might be preferable to have equal groups of size p rather than unequal group sizes within the desired range). ...
... However, we can achieve 5 rounds of blocks, and the unused pairs can be arranged into a set of 4 groups of size 5. This is an example of an RGDD (20,4,5): ...
Article
Full-text available
The current pandemic has led schools and universities to turn to online meeting software solutions such as Zoom and Microsoft Teams. The teaching experience can be enhanced via the use of breakout rooms for small group interaction. Over the course of a class (or over several classes), the class will be allocated to breakout groups multiple times over several rounds. It is desirable to mix the groups as much as possible, the ideal being that no two students appear in the same group in more than one round. In this paper, we discuss how the problem of scheduling balanced allocations of students to sequential breakout rooms directly corresponds to a novel variation of a well-known problem in combinatorics (the social golfer problem), which we call the social golfer problem with adjacent group sizes. We explain how solutions to this problem can be obtained using constructions from combinatorial design theory and how they can be used to obtain good, balanced breakout room allocation schedules. We present our solutions for up to 50 students and introduce an online resource that educators can access to immediately generate suitable allocation schedules.
... Another solution is to allocate individual grades within a group assignment based on individual contributions. There is debate on the best approach to determine these [21], with a wide range of options being available [14]. Contributions can be tracked by instructors using various systems or tools. ...
... Regarding grading strategies, our findings are in line with the literature, which is not definitive on the practice of assigning the same or individual grades for teamwork. Differentiating between group members' contributions is considered appropriate and fair [14], but it is difficult to determine the best approach to apply this [14,21]. Furthermore, assigning the same grade to all team members is a well-recognized way to structure reward interdependence for the combined efforts of the group so they can be united around a common goal [20]. ...
... Regarding grading strategies, our findings are in line with the literature, which is not definitive on the practice of assigning the same or individual grades for teamwork. Differentiating between group members' contributions is considered appropriate and fair [14], but it is difficult to determine the best approach to apply this [14,21]. Furthermore, assigning the same grade to all team members is a well-recognized way to structure reward interdependence for the combined efforts of the group so they can be united around a common goal [20]. ...
Article
Courses in computer science curricula often involve group programming assignments. Instructors are required to take several decisions on assignment setup and monitoring, team formation policies, and grading systems. Group programming projects provide unique monitoring opportunities due to the availability of both product and process data, as well as challenges in team composition, with students of varying levels of prior programming experience. To gain insights into the experiences and perceptions of students about the assignment setup and grading policies in group programming projects, we interviewed 20 computer science students from four universities. The thematic analysis highlighted factors in group composition that are considered important, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the self-selection of the teams. It also indicated three grading strategies experienced by the students, namely, being assigned the same group grade, individual grades distributed by the instructor, and grade distribution determined by the team, with perceptions about them varying greatly. Several practices for monitoring team contributions were identified. Checking the source code repositories was considered useful in recognizing slacking members, but automated metrics are not always representative of the work distribution. The analysis also uncovered student perceptions on the grading factors for programming assignments, including coding efficiency and skill.
... Teamwork and the ability to collaborate are highly valued employability skills, which higher education institutions strive to develop in their students through the increasing use of assessed group work (Maiden and Perry 2011). Gibbs (2010) meta-analysis of the empirical research into group project work finds strong evidence that it benefits students, with a number of surveys reporting that students often prefer group work to individual work (Gatfield 1999;Barfield 2003;White et al. 2005). Gibbs identifies six areas in which group work has a positive impact: ...
... However, a study for the Higher Education Academy in 2013 found that, whilst students were frustrated by uneven contributions, 80% of survey respondents said they were happy to contribute more than their fair share to a group project if they felt it improved the work or their learning (Bentley and Warwick 2013). Gibbs (2010) suggests it is the environment created by the teacher that seems to have the greatest impact on group work. In the end, he concludes, the most reliable way to minimise dysfunctional behaviour in groups is not through time-consuming mechanisms, but for the teacher to create a 'healthy learning milieu' in which students are supported to understand the value of group work, the assessment system, expected behaviour and the necessary group work skills. ...
... Although the positive impact of group work has been well documented (Gibbs 2010), there is a large body of research reporting dysfunctional behaviour in groups, leading to student dissatisfaction with the experience (Gatfield 1999;Houldsworth and Mathews 2000;Nordberg 2008;Maiden and Perry 2011;Bentley and Warwick 2013). In contrast, these post-graduate students had a very positive attitude towards group work. ...
Article
Whilst group work has many benefits for enhancing collaborative learning, it can cause anxiety in summative assessments when group members do not contribute equal effort. Increasing understanding of student perceptions of group assessment, and in particular their motivation to persevere to overcome the challenges, has the potential to lead to better assessment design and reduce dysfunctional behaviour. This exploratory study borrows from phenomenology to investigate the lived experience of a cohort of post-graduate journalism students at a UK university, who were required to work in small groups to produce a web-based, multimedia journal for a final summative assessment. Using the expectancy-value theory of motivation, this study examines whether students were motivated by the task, and how this might influence their perception of the group assessment experience. The study found that not only was the group motivated by this assessment design, but also, in contrast to much of the literature on group assessment, their experience of group work was defined by harmony, loyalty and an ‘all for one, one for all’ attitude. It is therefore proposed that student groups are less likely to be dysfunctional or dissatisfied with group assessment if the group expects to do well and values the task.
... Despite the well-articulated benefits of group work, Gibbs (2010) notes that most forms of teaching and assessment used in HE promote independent study and a focus on personal achievement. Therefore students need to be encouraged to recognise these wider benefits and supported to engage effectively in group work. ...
... When asked what they like most about group work, some students emphasised gains in confidence, communication skills, learning from each other, sharing ideas and making new friends: I find it useful for boosting confidence, especially when presenting as it is less daunting when you present with a group of people rather than on your own. These findings are in line with other studies (Entwistle and Peterson 2004;Gibbs 1995Gibbs , 2010Jaques 2000;Thomas 2002). For example, Entwistle and Peterson (2004) note that group work can provide conditions for deep learning whereas Gibbs (1995) found that group work promotes the development of a range of skills such as negotiation, communication, respect, empathy and collaboration. ...
... It is therefore important for group work assessment to be accomplished in a careful and pedagogically just manner. Gibbs (2010) notes that assessing group work is a contentious issue which has implications for the level of student engagement. He suggests that tutors should consider whether they are assessing the product or the process of group work, or both (Gibbs 2010). ...
Article
This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students’ voice. In doing so, the views and perspectives of students were sought through a questionnaire. The study is informed by a social capital theory perspective along with the idea of student relational agency within a social network perspective. Data were analysed by using a combination of methods, including SNA, descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The initial findings suggest that students are, on the whole, positive about group work but, at the same time, acknowledge many potential barriers when working in groups. More importantly, a dynamic interrelationship between friendships/peer relationships and group work dynamics was found.
... Group assessments are frequently fraught with tension, as students and staff battle with issues of freeloading: where the workload is not distributed evenly amongst group members and the individual contribution may not be recognised with an appropriate grade (Davies, 2009;Gibbs, 2009;Isaac, 2012). In short, they are seen as unfair. ...
... This process may have the effect of making a valid judgement about the performance of all members of the group, and it may facilitate cooperation, but of course it is not in itself an assessment of working with others. While many other examples exist in the literature (Gibbs, 2009), these groupwork assessment tend to be limited, adjunct to other more heavily weighted individual tasks and carefully circumscribed. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a general tension between the individualised nature of current assessment practices in higher education and a collaborative approach to learning. This results in many dilemmas for educators as they try to balance academic integrity concerns and student preferences with social or collaborative assessment practices, including peer assessment, group assignments and direct assessment of teamwork or collaboration. This paper argues that focussing on singular assessment tasks or experiences tends to lead to marginal effects. Rather, we suggest that the collaborative must be normalised within course structures: experiences of groupwork, peer learning and other forms of working with others should be commonplace and expected. We look to curricula to provide students with assessable tasks from many rich collaborative experiences, avoid issues of perceived and actual inequity and allow for risk and possible failure. We suggest that grading as presently enacted inhibits collaborative processes and that trust needs to be recognised as central and core to collaborative approaches. The challenges of assessing social and collaborative learning require holistic course wide attention that communicates to both students and colleagues that learning necessarily goes beyond the individual.
... Research (e.g. Gibbs, 2009, Ledwith, Lee, Manfredi & Wildish, 1998 shows that monocultural groups move from Tuckman and Jensen's Storm-ing>Forming>Norming>Performing stages more quickly than multicultural groups and therefore the incentive to work in a multicultural group is lower as students are less likely to feel comfortable in more demanding situations and communicate better with peers of similar ethnic backgrounds (Osmund & Roed, 2010, 114). ...
... According to Smith and Bath (2006), the most effective approach to ensure students acquire knowledge and enhance their communication skills at educational institutions is teamwork, as this provides significant advantages to supervisors and teachers to reduce the quantity of their marking, give students opportunities to work collaboratively, enhance the challenge and complexity of tasks given to students to improve their experience of working, and to engage students more effectively (Gibbs, 2009). When compared with face-to-face collaboration for group work projects, the performance of students collaborating online can be significantly better, because the interactions with other members of the group are more meaningful and frequent for students collaborating online, when compared with students involved in learning activities on a face-to-face basis (Tutty and Klein, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online teamwork is an instructional strategy widely used in education courses to ensure active knowledge construction and deeper learning. There is a challenge for online course designers and technology designers to create group environments that encourage participation, and have the ability to enhance positive attitudes toward group work. It is hypothesised that incorporating cultural factors into the design of teamwork technology has the potential to encourage participation and increase students’ positive attitudes towards group work. This paper looks to do exactly that, although the definition of culture in this paper is limited to the individualism–collectivism dimension. The paper summarises our findings from interviews conducted with lecturers and students who have experience with teamwork. It then presents culturally-related design strategies which are identified from cross-cultural psychology literature and our interviews finding. Finally, it demonstrates how culturally-related design strategies are incorporated into the IdeasRoom prototype design
... Self and peer assessment techniques are incorporated to enable individual marking of work conducted in groups. This is to facilitate reflection [2] and promote student engagement and performance [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This year, the College of Engineering and the Built Environment at our institute inaugurated a new Common First Year design project module that helps inform students in the selection of a specific engineering discipline. Each student, prior to selecting their bachelor’s specialism, completes three group-based design projects: a bridge design project (to familiarise students with civil and structural engineering), a RoboSumo project (involving robotics, programming, electrical and electronics engineering), and an Energy Cube project (introducing fundamentals of mechanical, manufacturing and design, and building services engineering). This paper focuses on how the engineering design process was taught via the Energy Cube. It is geared toward third-level engineering educators who want to introduce a structured approach to design (that makes explicit the critical stages and activities of design). The paper explains how “The Informed Design Teaching and Learning Matrix” [1] was incorporated into the Energy Cube project and shows how the Matrix can serve as a valuable tool for design educators. Finally, it presents key observations made by tutors over four separate occasions running the project and the modifications made to improve the students’ experience based on the analysis of class discussions, student performance evaluations, and more than 130 student surveys.
... The scoring rules tell the tutor-assessor how to combine qualitative judgements of the group project's outcome (taking all available evidence into account) with mutual assessments by all group members of each other's commitment and contribution to the group's performance. This sounds simpler than it is, as the many papers and several books over more than fifty years educational research in this area demonstrate [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]. Ironically, a critical and thorough analysis of the roots of the measurement problems in this area hasn't yet been provided. ...
... The main focus of this module was to develop group working and communication skills. While opinions on collaborative work agree that it produces more engaged, higher achieving students (Smith & Bath, 2006;Gibbs, 2009) there are many differing opinions of the use of group work for summative assessments. ...
Article
Leeds Beckett University identified three interlinking graduate attributes which, during a curriculum redesign, were embedded into every course at all levels. This paper describes how a final year module was designed to develop enterprise and employability skills. The students worked in self-selected small groups to devise a new biotechnology product or social enterprise scheme. The assessment comprised a group presentation (which was peer reviewed), an individual report and a written reflection of the process.
... According to Smith and Bath (2006), the most effective approach to ensure students acquire knowledge and enhance their communication skills at educational institutions is teamwork, as this provides significant advantages to supervisors and teachers to reduce the quantity of their marking, give students opportunities to work collaboratively, enhance the challenge and complexity of tasks given to students to improve their experience of working, and to engage students more effectively (Gibbs, 2009). When compared with face-to-face collaboration for group work projects, the performance of students collaborating online can be significantly better, because the interactions with other members of the group are more meaningful and frequent for students collaborating online, when compared with students involved in learning activities on a face-to-face basis (Tutty and Klein, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Although there are various personalised and adaptive eLearning systems developed, a culture factor has been not sufficiently considered in adaptive and personalised learning environments. This paper presents a personalised and adaptive system based on individual differences in cultural backgrounds (individualism and collectivism). A culturally adaptive teamwork system called IdeasRoom is used to implement cultural additions. The IdeasRoom system has adaptations to its interface to include two different versions of design: individualist version (IND) and collectivist version (COL). The paper summarises an initial evaluation of the proposed system. This evaluation of the proposed IdeasRoom system relates to the responses of the participants of the study that involved 52 postgraduate students, so that the version that was not personalised to participants’ cultural backgrounds is compared with the version that was personalised to participants’ cultural backgrounds in terms of their perceptions of usability their preferences of design. The findings show that the participants had perceptions of usability that are shown to be at a higher level when teamwork learning systems are personalised to participants’ cultural backgrounds, which suggests that these results based on identifying users’ cultural backgrounds are of significant importance. Also, this evaluation concludes that participants’ preferences for experiencing a system are matched to their cultural inclinations.
... According to Smith and Bath (2006), the most effective approach to ensure students acquire knowledge and enhance their communication skills at educational institutions is teamwork, as this provides significant advantages to supervisors and teachers to reduce the quantity of their marking, give students opportunities to work collaboratively, enhance the challenge and complexity of tasks given to students to improve their experience of working, and to engage students more effectively (Gibbs, 2009). Teamwork is applied in classrooms in a variety of formats, which include problem-based learning, evidence-based learning, snowballing, jigsaw, buzz groups, as well as the group investigation method (Edmunds and Brown, 2010). ...
Article
Educators within higher education and online course designers face a significant challenge when working within multicultural teams. In current user interfaces, the ‘one size fits all’ approach is a critical limitation of online systems, because cultural differences in design are ignored. This thesis addresses these issues through the design and evaluation of an adaptive approach that is based upon individual differences in the cultural dimension (Individualism and Collectivism). In this research, the design strategies developed for teamwork activities are culturally relevant, as well as being effective and original. Two versions of the IdeasRoom system are designed and presented in this study. One version will appeal more to individualist users (IND version), whilst the second version will appeal more to collectivist users (COL version). Both qualitative and quantitative measures were deployed in order to evaluate the two versions for both individualist users and collectivist users, and include: students’ perceptions of free-riding behaviour, perceptions of fairness toward assessment in teamwork, participation in teamwork, satisfaction with teamwork, perceived usability and preference of design. The findings of this study reveal that students demonstrate greater positive reactions to the system version that recognises their cultural background. In addition, the findings suggest that current team working systems used in a number of educational institutions should consider both collectivist and individualist approaches. Evidence provided in this study emphasises the need for adaptation and personalisation approaches to meet the cultural inclinations of students working within educational teamwork learning systems.
... This exercise not only provided the opportunity for allocating individual marks, but also prompted students to reflect on the learning outcomes of the module. Gibbs (2009) concluded that giving one single overall mark to all members of a team often leads to 'freeloading' which means that the potential benefits of group work are lost and that students may feel their marks are 'unfair'. He encourages using secret peer assessment because it "produces a greater spread of marks and more distinction between individuals" (Gibbs, 2009, p. 9). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to describe a problem based learning module, called the “Energy Cube”, offered by Dublin Institute of Technology that is designed to teach mechanical, building services and manufacturing engineering concepts to first year engineering students. The Energy Cube project gives students hands-on experience in areas ranging from heat transfer, lighting and energy efficiency to industrial and product design. In the Energy Cube, students design and construct (using cardboard, clear plastic, and glue) a model of a building that admits as much daylight as possible while being energy efficient and aesthetically pleasing. The students, working in teams of four, complete most of the work within six four-hour blocks allotted for the project. Each week, students are given specific goals: (1) generate design specifications, (2) create an evaluation matrix and use it to select two preliminary designs, (3) choose one final design and make detailed construction drawings, (4) construct the final model, (5) test performance of models and record results, (6) submit and present a final report that includes recommendations for improvement. Performance tests determine what percentage of available ambient light reaches the interior and how much heat (generated by an incandescent light bulb) is retained over a 30-minute period. Quality of construction is measured using an air tightness test. The teaching team, comprised of engineering and design educators, assesses aesthetics subjectively. Individual contributions are evaluated using attendance records and peer assessments. Student feedback, via a survey, was positive regarding teamwork and team-building. It also showed a good balance among the diverse learning outcomes.
... Sex is defined as a dummy variable representing the respondents' sex where one is equal to female and zero for male. Studies show that student performance and behaviour differ according to sex (Ballantine & McCourt Larres, 2007;Takeda & Homberg, 2014), but Gibbs (2009) argues that these differences are not found in all studies. Peer assessment score is defined as weighted average grades (in %) awarded to each student based on group members' ratings. ...
Conference Paper
The paper investigates how students manage the dynamics of group work and whether or not their assessment of their peers’ work improve their engagement. The study uses a sample of 165 level 4 non-accounting students enrolled on an accounting and finance for business module to explain empirically the impact of peer assessment on students’ engagement when they are given a group task. Our study shows that student peer assessment encourages participation and engagement with the group work. It also shows positive formative effects on student achievement and attitudes. This study can open up avenues for further investigation of peer assessments especially in group works and where there is limited resources to effectively manage the groups to engage in the set task. In particular, this study will increase the awareness of the significant contributions of peer assessment in managing student engagement in modules and/or assessments for large cohorts. Compared with previous literature on peer assessment, this study focuses on the assessment of the entire learning journey within a group rather than the final output. The emphasis is on students’ responsibility for becoming and remaining engaged in the learning process, which makes group work more manageable for both students and academic staff.
... There is generally, a lot of research on various aspects of group work assessment such as the benefits of group work, its challenges as well as students' views about group activities (Bentley & Warwick, 2013;Gibbs, 2009). Research reveals that students are aware of the various benefits of group work and are appreciative of group assessment (Bentley & Warwick, 2013;Hall & Buzwell, 2012;Hassanien, 2011;Jones, 2011;Mills, 2003). ...
... From an early age, we engage in group play which over time teaches us how to navigate the intricacies of a much more complex social system. Throughout the education system, from primary school to university, we further engage in group activities and develop a wide range of skills such as communication and critical thinking (Gokhale 1995), enhanced information retention and deepened learning (Oakley et al. 2004) and ability to tackle more challenging tasks (Gibbs 2009). Group work not only contributes to students' personal development and their learning experience, but it also prepares them for their future professional life by allowing them to play to their strengths and better their weaknesses, developing professional accountability, as well as tolerance and respect for each other (Mello 1993;Jaques 2000;Ruel et al. 2003;Dolmans et al. 2001;Bourner et al. 2001;Maguire and Edmondson 2001;Johnson et al. 2007). ...
Article
Group work is an essential aspect of our personal, educational and professional development, yet it is not a common method of assessment in Politics and International Relations departments at British Universities. This study explores how instructors can effectively engage students in assessed group work to help them develop an appropriate mix of skills by focusing on collaborative learning and scaffolding. It draws on primary sources collected from a final year Politics and International Relations module at a top-ranking British University. Group work assessment is discussed in relation to three points of comparison: cooperative and collaborative learning, formative and summative assessment, and individual and group achievement rates. The key findings suggest that (a) students have the ability to learn collaboratively with minimum “scaffolding” in place and prefer being empowered to self-manage their respective groups and arising problems and (b) formative group assignments and intermediary feedback are perceived by students as key in supporting group performance. The findings and proposed recommendations provide a guide for educators interested in diversifying their assessment methods and supporting students’ development.
... other groups of students. The lack of these abilities is more evident, as students have even less experience of evaluating other people's work (Gibbs, 2009). In this vein, the research ofLindblom-Ylänne, Pihlajamäki and Kotkas (2006) concluded that students faced various difficulties when engaging in assessment, especially challenges such as being objective towards oneself or too critical towards a peer. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine how students grade themselves in comparison with their peers and teachers. Results were formed from a sample of 169 first-year students signed up to the course “Introduction to Management”, run by the School of Business at the University of Iceland and based on a cooperative learning strategy. Irrespective of whether students were evaluating their individual or group work, the mean outcomes suggest that their own grading is much higher than that of their peers, and higher again than their teachers. These results suggest that the self-interest of the Homo economicus was clouding objectivity, and it is also likely that the inexperience of the new undergraduates in such grading approaches played a role. Future research should not abandon the idea of self-assessment as a means of developing critical capacities among students, but rather seek to explore whether these results are replicated in other educational settings, such as different disciplines and sub-disciplines, and whether more experienced students, such as third-year undergraduates, demonstrate similar behavioral responses.
... A recent review of the literature around group assessment, undertaken by Gibbs (2009) highlighted the issue of fair and equitable assessment: ...
Article
To encourage increased student attendance and engagement in a third-year economics unit, the curriculum was redesigned to incorporate continuous assessment throughout the semester. A component of group project marks were allocated to peer assessment, in an attempt to address concerns about free-riding colleagues sharing a common mark. This study investigated the consistency of marks awarded to peers within teams, and the acceptance by students of marks awarded by peers. Students were asked to provide ratings and explanatory comments for each of their group peers. Focus groups were conducted to determine students’ acceptance of this strategy. Eighty student ratings were compared to determine consistency of assessment. Within groups, students who received higher marks from their peers generally awarded marks to their peers across a wider range, whereas students who received lower average grades often awarded the same mark to all team members. These results might indicate that students who were attending class regularly and/or contributing at a higher level were more discriminating in the marks awarded to their peers. Similarly, non-contributors (as identified by their peers) assigned the same or similar grades to each of their peers, possibly due to a lack of knowledge about their peers’ contributions.
... Moreover, to demonstrate student acquisition of the aforementioned ILOs and to ensure that students were graded fairly, all students completed a mixture of group and indi-2 VOLUME xx, 2020 vidual assessments. Both group and individual performances were then reflected in the overall project grade, as suggested in the literature [24]. Students were therefore required to submit: (a) an individual laboratory notebook (10% of the final grade), (b) an individual 500-word reflection report (25%), (c) a 5000-word team report (25%), (d) a 30-minute oral presentation (25%) and (e) a live demonstration of the rover (15%). ...
Article
Full-text available
Today’s engineering industries require graduates with a broad range of soft skills, which include teamwork, communication and integrity. Therefore, more accreditation bodies now recommend team-learning activities to be embedded in their engineering programmes. However, hardworking students often find group projects demotivating, especially if their contributions are not accurately reflected in their individual grades. To address these issues, we demonstrate that Electronic Laboratory Notebooks can be used to promote student collaboration and teamwork on a group project. They can also help instructors assess student contributions fairly. During our investigations, we noticed that students have used Electronic Laboratory Notebooks as social interaction tools that enable text, data, images and recorded audio to be exchanged. Consequently, the aim of this manuscript is to describe the experiences of 58 transnational undergraduate students in using six different software products for a team-based learning activity. According to our investigations, Electronic Laboratory Notebooks had a positive impact on supporting Team Based Learning in a new electronic engineering course. The outcomes of our investigations can help create effective teaching and learning resources for undergraduate students in Electronic Engineering. They can also help engineering faculty make informed decisions regarding the introduction of Electronic Laboratory Notebooks in undergraduate research activities.
... other groups of students. The lack of these abilities is more evident, as students have even less experience of evaluating other people's work (Gibbs, 2009). In this vein, the research ofLindblom-Ylänne, Pihlajamäki and Kotkas (2006) concluded that students faced various difficulties when engaging in assessment, especially challenges such as being objective towards oneself or too critical towards a peer. ...
Article
Full-text available
The transparency of the data analysis process is one of the main criteria for the empirical reliability of qualitative biographical research based on the life history method (LHM). The aim of the paper is to examine the transparency of the data analysis process used in published scientific papers based on LHM. The results show that the data analysis process is not fully transparent. Two kinds of analysis process were mainly used in research with LHM: categorical content analysis and portrayal. Our aims in this paper were first to develop an overview of how empirical data had been analysed by other researchers using LHM, and second to examine and discuss the transparency of the process. We use LHM to investigate teachers’ values in relation to societal values in order to answer the question of how societal values affect teachers’ lives. The sample is comprised of teachers from Estonia, which has experienced a rapid change from an ideology- to a market-based society, providing us with a unique opportunity to analyse the relationship. Among other things, LHM enables us to examine the ‘hidden history’ of those whose story differs from recorded history.
... Sex is defined as a dummy variable representing the respondents' sex where one is equal to female and zero for male. Studies show that student performance and behaviour differ according to sex (Ballantine & McCourt Larres, 2007;Takeda & Homberg, 2014), but Gibbs (2009) argues that these differences are not found in all studies. Peer assessment score is defined as weighted average grades (in %) awarded to each student based on group members' ratings. ...
... Scholars such as Winchadee (2005) opine that cooperative learning encourages students' interaction in small groups aimed at achieving specified group objectives. Further benefits of GW include knowledge sharing among students of different levels of academic performance and backgrounds (Badache, 2011;ElMassah, 2015), enhancing students' understanding (Johnson, 2005;Hendry and Davy, 2005), improving learning and achievement levels (G€ omleksi'z, 2007;Al-Sheedi, 2009), restructuring students' previous opinions and thinking about the same issue in different ways (King, 2002), raising students' cognitive skills and helping them retain knowledge longer than earlier (Hull,1985), polishing students' communication skills that facilitates learning from other group members (Smith and Bath, 2006;Gibbs, 2009), supporting critical thinking, interactive and debating skills (Dawson, 2011;Totten et al., 1991;Johnson and Johnson, 1986), engaging students and allowing them to showcase their responsibility for their own learning (Badache, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Group work (GW) as a collaborative learning method for university students is a much-researched topic in the literature. However, a fairly neglected area is that of students' perceptions of the same. This study purports to bridge this gap in the extant literature via identifying the determinants of these perceptions. Design/methodology/approach Using primary data gathered from a sample of 443 university students, the study applies the structural equation modeling (SEM) to estimate the impact of both personal traits and past experiences on the students' perceptions. Findings The SEM results reveal that students' perceptions of GW are determined by their relevant past experiences not by their personalities. This position is contradictory to other relevant studies undertaken thus far. Practical implications Accordingly, the study stresses the need for educators to create positive group experiences among students and to convert their past negative experiences into positive ones. Originality/value Whilst group work holds significant learning benefits for students, negative perceptions about this rich method could eventuate in students refraining from participating in the same. By isolating the determinants associated with students' negative perceptions of GW, this study provides educationists with a strong case for developing suitable interventions aimed at enhancing students' positive perceptions of GW, and resultantly further maximizing its potential benefits.
... But as just mentioned, group work assessments usually explore the by-product of the group work rather than the skills related to the activity. Aspects of peer evaluation can be built into the assessment to provide feedback to students on their group work by other group members (Davies 2009;Gibbs 2010;Mello and Voelkel 2017). While this approach helps to deal with mark fairness (Fellenz 2006), it also give the students the power to assess their peer skills and this practice has its own limitations. ...
Article
A longstanding challenge for educators in Higher Education is the need to prepare students for their career journey after graduation. While theoretical foundations are needed, students should be able to apply knowledge in new contexts and be able to demonstrate and evidence life- and employability-skills valuable to employers. Many degrees provide students with the opportunity to develop transferable skills, for instance through giving presentations and working in teams. Nevertheless, students are not always able to reflect on their skills development, and on the connection between theory, practice and their learning. Authentic assessments can create links between theory and practice preparing students for the workplace. However, it is common to see the product of a particular activity being assessed, and not the process through which the product was produced. This may encourage students to value the end product over skills development, and therefore not appreciate how their University experiences prepare them for the workplace. Science students can struggle with self-reflection, and therefore may find it difficult to articulate and evidence skills during job applications. We present different ways to foster self-reflection when transferable skills are embedded and assessed in the curriculum. However, we claim that the process of reflection should be taught and supported and new ways of assessing students are needed to help them develop their ability to self-reflect.
... The positive impact of group work on the learning experience of students in higher education is widely documented (see, for example, the meta-analyses of Springer, Stanne & Donovan 1999;Gibbs 2009), with students perceiving a wide variety of benefits ranging from deeper learning to increased communication and teamwork skills being (Volkov & Volkov 2015). Research has also shown that the observed correlation between student satisfaction with group work and effective group performance (Springer, Stanne & Donovan 1999) depends on a positive student perception of group work. ...
Article
How students perceive group work is closely correlated with the benefits of group work experience. However, a great variety of influences affect student perceptions of group work. This study quantifies the impact of various influences on the effective working, learning assistance and enjoyment of group work. This is done by analysing 206 responses to a survey of students in a course in actuarial science. A mixed ordered logit model is used to explicitly quantify the effect of various exogenous and endogenous influences on perceptions of group work. Student perceptions of group work are most heavily influenced by course design decisions regarding the scaffolding provided to groups, the expectation about whether or not they will enjoy group work, and their role undertaken in the group, including their level of effort (but not quality) relative to other group members. Implications for teaching practice are discussed.
... Team-Peer-Assessment (TPA for short) has a long tradition (cf. Dochy et al. 1999;Falchikov 1986;Falchikov 1993;Falchikov and Goldfinch 2000;Gibbs 2009;Strijbos and Sluijsmans 2010;Topping 1998;Van Rensburg 2012). One of the most cited approaches has been described in a paper by Sharp (2006) (see Sect. 2). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Teamwork in educational settings for learning and assessment has a long tradition. The reasons, goals and methods for introducing teamwork in courses may vary substantially. However, in the end, teamwork must be assessed at the group level as well as on the student level. The lecturer must be able to give students credit points or formal grades for their joint output (product) as well as for their cooperation in the team (process). Schemes for such multicriteria quantitative assessments appear difficult to define in a plausible way. Over the last five decades, numerous proposals for assessing teamwork processes and products on team and student level have been given using diverse scoring schemes. There is a broad field of empirical research and practical advice about how team-based educational assessment might be set up, implemented, improved, and accepted by staff and students. However, the underlying methodological problems with respect to the merging of several independent measurements have been severely underestimated. Here, we offer an entirely new paradigm and taxonomy of teamwork-based assessment following a rigorous fuzzy-algebraic approach based on two core notions: quasi-arithmetic means, and split-join-invariance. We will show how our novel approach solves the problem of team-peer-assessment by means of appropriate software tools.
... Group work is now more commonly used for the purposes of assessment and a recent review has highlighted the widely recognised benefits and challenges of using group work in assessment (Gibbs, 2009) . Students may not readily see the importance or relevance of collaborative working, and may have concerns about other students 'freeloading' if marks are awarded to a group as a whole, when they feel they have made more of a contribution than others . ...
... 3. Teachers should always design interactive activities that encourage all students to take an active role in the process of participation in different groups. In this context, [9] indicated that teachers should design different activities that are completely adequate in size and complexity to recall the collective knowledge of all the group's members. 4. Teachers should monitor the work of all students in all groups. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to isolate factors that hamper the practice of group work assignments in a foreign language classroom. The study was conducted in SodoBer Secondary School in the case of grade nine. To attain this objective, Mixed Method Research Design was used. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used. The participants of the study were seven purposively selected English language teachers from grade nine. In addition, one hundred forty-four grade eleven students were randomly selected for the study. The required data for the study were collected using a questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and focus group discussion. The result indicated that teachers and students did not realize the practice of group work assignments because various factors hampered the practice of group work assignments in the foreign Language classroom in SodoBer Secondary School. These include students’ poor background experience, students’ poor participation, the reliance of low achievers on high achievers, unpunctuality, and lack of sufficient materials. Moreover, the findings pointed toward that many English language teachers did not check the participation of the students properly because the students have a lack of interest and motivation; large numbers of the students in the classroom, students are less effective in language ability and teachers overloaded work. Based on the findings suitable recommendations were made. Keywords: Group work, factors, assignment, assessment, Isolation
Article
Dans cet article conclusif, les transformations actuelles de l’EEE sont interrogées selon trois axes. Les limites et les dérives observées dans ce domaine conduisent tout d’abord à remettre en question une approche de la qualité de l’enseignement normative et généralisante dont les effets déformants et les dangers ne sont pas à minimiser. Est soulignée ensuite l’importance à accorder aux situations particulières et la nécessité d’une approche écologique de l’EEE, à savoir prenant en compte les caractéristiques et dynamiques propres à chaque milieu ainsi que les emboîtements de contextes dans lesquels elle se trouve prise. Enfin, dans une logique pédagogique, il est considéré comment l’EEE, s’inscrivant dans un ensemble plus large, constitue un vecteur d’amélioration de l’enseignement non seulement en le stimulant mais en participant à ses transformations.
Article
Full-text available
Group assignments introduce the students to be effectively work in teams. Students demonstrate their knowledge while learning to appreciate the perspective of others. The aim of this study is to explore the nursing students' perception of group assignments It is descriptive correlational study using self-administered questionnaire consist of 14 items assessed the perception of group assignment. The sample size was 230 nursing student from colleges of nursing in governmental and private universities in Jordan. The overall mean of students' perception was 3.63 which is neutral. There is no relationship between student perception of group assignments and the academic year as the p value = (0.699) greater than 0.05. In conclusion, this study serves nursing programs in identifying the specific factors that adds difficulties to the students' abilities to work in teams so as to build their competencies that will serve them in their future career because team work considered as a vital nursing care delivery system in many facilities.
Article
Purpose Little is known about how experiential entrepreneurship education approaches contribute toward enhancing the engagement of students in the learning process. Using a purposive and convenience sample of individual student reflective journals, the purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate how the process of constructive misalignment enhances the level of student engagement through a team-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective journals, an individual “performance assessment” element of three Masters-level courses (courses 1, 2 and 3) that included an “active” group business ideas generation presentation and a report. These texts were analyzed through content analysis that critically evaluates and summarizes the content of data and their messages. Findings While expected learning outcomes included teamwork and communication, the higher levels of active learning and student engagement related to innovation and generating a business idea was much more modest. Rather, the study finds that significant learning opportunities were apparent when students experienced unexpected aspects of constructive misalignment, such as linguistic–cultural challenges, nonparticipation and freeriding. Originality/value Building on Biggs’ (2003) model of constructive alignment in course design and delivery/assessment, this paper elucidates various unexpected and surprising aspects. It suggests that constructive misalignment could provide major learning opportunities for students and is thus more likely in these team contexts where entrepreneurship students experience constructive misalignment. Educators should, therefore, continue to design experiential entrepreneurship courses and their performance assessments through team-based approaches that achieve higher levels of engagement as well as more active learning.
Chapter
In our rapidly changing world, the need for engineers has never been greater; even through the current economic downturn; companies in the United Kingdom cannot find enough local engineering applicants to fill their vacancies. That should be good news for the employability of our engineering graduates but it’s not as simple as that, as more and more our engineering graduates have to differentiate themselves from the competition by demonstrating their transferable skills; this in general is true for other countries of the EU, US, Canada and Australia and to a lesser extent for China and the Asian subcontinent where personal connections still play a major role in finding employment. In the Centre of Doctoral Training (CDT) in Advanced Metallics, jointly run by the Universities of Sheffield and Manchester, a coordinated effort has taken place in the design of a Diploma in Personal and Professional Skills that CDT cohorts of students undertake in parallel with their PhD studies. This Diploma involves the cultivation of a multitude of skills that professional engineers use on their daily tasks such as communication, networking, leadership, project management, time management, problem solving, arranging and facilitating meetings, dealing with conflict, or Health and Safety issues, protection of Intellectual Property, ethical issues, to name but a few. In the process of embedding some of these skills to the professional conscience of our CDT students, we have devised with the help of industrial partners a Problem Based Learning (PBL) experience in the form of a two week long exercise at participating SMEs. During this time, the groups of students have to deal and solve ‘real problems’ set by the participating SMEs, under realistic conditions and strict time deadlines. The students are given little support by the academic staff and as much information as required by their SME counterparts and quickly learn the value and use of good communication, networking, group task allocation, time and project management, as they set out to deliver solutions to the problems posed. The students act as ‘consultants’ to the SME companies over the period of two weeks, at the end of which they deliver their solutions to the scrutiny of academic supervisors, SME managers and their peers, in the form of a formal report and presentations. Over the last three years that we have delivered the SME PBL exercise, we have seen increased motivation on the part of the students, development of professional attitudes towards their task, and the practical use of the transferable skills that the Diploma sets out to deliver. A harmonious synoptic learning experience appears to have developed through this exercise bringing together the embedding of transferable skills in a clearly identifiable contextual situation that generates engagement and motivation for the students and satisfaction and confirmation to staff and industrial partners that the newly trained cohorts of engineers will have the skills so much sought after by the UK industry.
Chapter
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a rise in the integration of curriculum from different disciplines in Higher Education (HE) in response to the multidisciplinary nature of the skill set required by modern job market. In cases where the curriculum is delivered to students from the same discipline, it is intuitive for students to easily identify with its relevance. However, the aforementioned will not be as obvious in situations where a curriculum is taken by multidisciplinary groups of students. Consequently, there is a risk of student disengagement. This chapter evaluates how to enhance student engagement in modules thought to multidisciplinary groups in HE. The chapter presents an action research which uses mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative research to improve student engagement in a real-world module taken by Computing, Electrical & Electronics Eng., and Mechatronics Eng. students at University of Northampton. By using a problem-based learning strategy as an intervention, student engagement has been significantly improved with evidences in grade distribution and satisfaction.
Article
Studies of cooperative learning have focused largely on specific interventions within individual modules. The aim of this paper is to examine the student perceptions of their cumulative experiences at the end of a four-year undergraduate programme, during which cooperative learning work was implemented in a piecemeal manner, and explore how gender and academic ability impact on those experiences. Data was collected using a survey methodology. Students emphasised the process of cooperative learning, including peer learning and social support, rather than the deliverable outputs of group work. Both male and female students reported difficulties, such as dysfunctional interpersonal relationships and organisational challenges; however, these appear to have had a stronger impact on female students. Academic ability influenced the type of benefit students perceived as gained, with higher academic ability students emphasising social aspects and leadership skills. The results suggest that repeated exposure to cooperative learning had benefits, in terms of social benefits, peer learning and transferable skills, even where the manner of its implementation did not conform to the ideal framework for cooperative learning.
Article
Active, student-centered pedagogies such as project-based learning (PjBL) can offer significant potential for engaging undergraduates with complex sustainability issues. Driven by institution-wide curriculum changes and informed by educational theories and evidence from previous studies, a trial PjBL activity was designed and delivered on three separate occasions, to three different student groups, at a university in the United Kingdom. In these trials, students from geography, Earth, and environmental science (GEES) programs worked in small (5 to 6 people), multiple-discipline teams to explore a single research question focused on a global sustainability issue. The perceptions and experiences of the trial participants (students and faculty) were investigated using data from surveys and interviews, and the findings applied to designing a new, multiple-disciplinary module focused on energy and climate change. In general, all participants engaged positively with the PjBL approach, although issues around the nature and extent of support available to the students and appropriate methods of assessing PjBL outputs emerged as requiring further consideration. The findings demonstrate that a single research question need not constrain the approach students take when completing a PjBL activity and identify clear potential benefits in terms of developing students’ wider professional skills. This study also highlights the value to curriculum developers in trialing new pedagogic approaches, as the opportunity to “have a go” enabled potential issues for learners and instructors to be identified and mitigated prior to the final module design and implementation.
Chapter
Already several years ago, we integrated team-based projects into our university courses. Because we perceive grading all team members with the same mark or the same number of points as inappropriate, we tried to find another way to evaluate the teamwork. In an effort to fairly evaluate the contributions of particular team members to a joint project, we started to use a peer review within the team. Students evaluated the contribution of each team member in percentage and were also supposed to justify their rating with verbal comments. As they were not really willing to write comments or open answers to teachers’ questions, we had to find another way to allow them to express their opinion of the teammate’s work. Therefore, we involved gamification in the team assessment and started to use badges. In the last course run, we expanded our badge set to include negative badges. This paper presents the preliminary results of our research on how students awarded negative badges, whether they did not misuse them, whether giving negative badges was related to the team relationships, and whether the negative badges fit in team evaluation.
Article
In this article we aim to elucidate some pedagogical aspects of interprofessional workplace learning, using the learning strategies of the Centre for Interprofessional Workplace Learning, Norway (TVEPS) as a case. We find the Expansive Learning Theory well suited for a creative interaction with the learning strategies at our interprofessional training centre. The Expansive Learning Theory focuses on learning over a substantial time horizon, but also opens for micro-cycles of learning over a shorter time of hours or days, which mirrors the learning system of TVEPS. As the social premises for learning are both situated and in change, human learning as a social process is diverse and in continuous change. Expansive Learning Theory focuses the interprofessional team learning at the workplace rather than on individual learning. Thereby such team learning is regarded as situated at the workplace premises physically, interpersonally, administratively and social-historically. The interprofessional student team’s learning process creates an object, a construct within the physical, ethical, social, administrative, or theoretical domain. In the TVEPS learning system, the object is the patient care plan which the student team produces, by working on resolving contradictions in the zone of proximal development. By debriefing the object (the care plan) with the staff, the object is developed further in creative interplay. New objects may be developed, as changed care or change in administrative systems at the workplace. By linking these concepts, Expansive Learning Theory can function as an analytical tool for understanding interprofessional learning activity at the workplace.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore teachers' management and assessment strategies of free-riders, and the challenges they faced in the process at selected secondary schools in Ethiopia. To address these objectives, a concurrent mixed-methods design was adopted. 146 teachers were selected for the questionnaire survey while four teachers were selected for follow-up interviews. To decide teachers' management and assessment levels of free-riders, a one-sample t-test was used at (α = 0.05) while the qualitative data were described based on their themes. The results showed teachers infrequently used some assessment strategies even if they offered the same marks for an unequal contribution. As well, teachers attempted to apply various management strategies although they fall short of sharing the tasks with individual members. Also, workload, class size, lack of sufficient skills, and failure to report free riders were some of the challenges teachers faced in the management and assessment of free riders.
Chapter
Recently, there has been a rise in the integration of curriculum from different disciplines in higher education (HE) in response to the multidisciplinary nature of the skillset required by modern job market. In cases where the curriculum is delivered to students from the same discipline, it is intuitive for students to easily identify with the relevance the module. However, the aforementioned will not be as straightforward in situations where a curriculum/module from a particular discipline is taken by multidisciplinary groups of students. Consequently, there is a risk of disengagement of student groups from one or more of those disciplines. This report evaluates a strategy to enhance student engagement in modules taught to multidisciplinary groups in HE. For this purpose, a real-world case study of a module taken by Computer Science, Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Mechatronics Engineering Students at University of Northampton is used. Firstly, the report reviews the key problems in relation to student engagement. A review of recent literature is then presented to evaluate the state-of-the art approaches. An action plan/intervention is then proposed in response to the problem statement and findings from literature. Furthermore, an initial study based on an evaluation of the implemented action plan is then presented before a final conclusion remark.
Article
Full-text available
In Gruppen arbeiten zu können, ist eine der wichtigsten Fertigkeiten, die in der Ausbildung trainiert und in die Arbeitswelt mitgenommen werden können. Ein großer Teil aller komplexeren Vortrags-und Schreibaufgaben in Schule und Universität kann von Gruppenarbeit profitieren. Ein Problem von Gruppenarbeit ist jedoch, dass Lernende individuelle Anerkennung ihrer persönlichen Leistung erwarten und Lehranstalten individuelle Noten aus administrativen-28-Gründen verlangen, die Kursleitung aus der Beurteilung des Ergebnisses aber nur eine einzige Note für die ganze Gruppe hat. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die seit den 1990er Jahren entwickelten verschiedenen Möglichkeiten zur individuellen Benotung von Gruppenmitgliedern unter Einbeziehung gegenseitiger Bewertung (peer assessment). Auf dieser Grundlage wird eine neue Methode vorgestellt, die aufgrund der Kombination aus summativer Evaluation durch Kursleiter mit formativer Bewertung durch Mitglieder der eigenen Arbeitsgruppe zu fairen, validen und reliablen individuellen Noten führen kann. Die gesamte Verwaltung von der Gruppenverteilung über die Peer Bewertung bis hin zur Berechnung der individualisierten Noten erfolgt über ein webbasiertes Computerprogramm. Durch eine für Smartphones optimierte Benutzeroberfläche wird maximale Benutzerfreundlichkeit erreicht, der Verwaltungsaufwand auf ein Minimum reduziert und die erfolgreiche Kommunikation formativer Rückmeldungen an die Gruppenmitglieder sichergestellt. Schlüsselwörter Gruppenarbeit; individuelle Noten; peer assessment; Methodik; Fremdsprachenunterricht-29-1. Problemaufriss
Article
Full-text available
Students in higher education are increasingly expected to work in small groups on projects over several weeks or longer. Where these make an important contribution to their marks, the application of games theory shows that the best strategy for the students may not be that which promotes teamwork and co-operation. Furthermore, putting students into groups can randomly disadvantage some students relative to others, producing serious unfairness in assessment.
Article
Full-text available
Meta-analyses indicated that cooperation is more effective than interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, that cooperation in intergroup competition is superior to interpersonal and individual efforts in promoting achievement and productivity, and that interpersonal competition and individual efforts do not differ in effects on achievement and productivity.
Article
Full-text available
This study empirically identifies which teacher-controlled (contextual) variables have the greatest impact on whether the student will have a great team experience or a miserable one. The results indicate that the clarity of instructions to the team, the longevity of the team experience, and self-selection of teammates all positively affect team experiences. The level of management education, the team size, and the percentage of the course grade associated with team performance did not differ across best and worst team experiences. Contrary to previous empirical findings and conventional wisdom, the use of peer evaluations was negatively associated with good team experiences. Further insights from the data and implications for the use of student teams are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
DOI: 10.1080/135625100114885 Overcoming the potential dilemma of awarding the same grade to a group of students for group work assignments, regardless of the contribution made by each group member, is a problem facing teachers who ask their students to work collaboratively together on assessed group tasks. In this paper, we report on the procedures to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project using peer assessment procedures. Our findings demonstrate that the method we used resulted in a substantially wider spread of marks being given to individual students. Almost every student was awarded a numerical score which was higher or lower than a simple group project mark would have been. When these numerical scores were converted into the final letter grades, approximately one third of the students received a grade for the group project that was different from the grade that they would have received if the same grade had been awarded to all group members. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that peer assessment can be usefully and meaningfully employed to factor individual contributions into the grades awarded to students engaged in collaborative group work. Author name used in this publication: Winnie Cheng
Article
Using “World Series Shares” to Fight Free Riding in Group Projects* - Volume 31 Issue 4 - Robert Maranto, April Gresham
Article
The interaction process and performance of culturally homogeneous and culturally diverse groups were studied for 17 weeks. Initially, homogeneous groups scored higher on both process and performance effectiveness. Over time, both types of group showed improvement on process and performance, and the between-group differences converged. By week 17, there were no differences in process or overall performance, but the heterogeneous groups scored higher on two task measures, Implications for management and future research are given.
Article
Concerns relating to the reliability of teacher and student peer assessments are discussed, and some correlational analyses comparing student and teacher marks described. The benefits of the use of multiple ratings are elaborated. The distinction between gender differences and gender bias is drawn, and some studies which have reported gender bias are reviewed. The issue of ‘blind marking’ is addressed. A technique for detecting gender bias in cases where student raters have awarded marks to same and opposite sex peers is described, and illustrated by data from two case studies. Effect sizes were found to be very small, indicating an absence of gender bias in these two cases. Results are discussed in relation to task and other contextual variables. The authors conclude that the technique described can contribute to the good practice necessary to ensure the success of peer assessment in terms of pedagogical benefits and reliable and fair marking outcomes.
Article
The use of peer assessment as a way of differentiating between individual students on a group project is discussed. A new style of peer appraisal questionnaire for the students to complete is introduced, together with the detailed description of a method of calculating a ‘peer assessment factor’ from these questionnaires. This factor allocates to an individual group member a percentage of the mark awarded to the group's project submission. The results obtained when this scheme was used on a large first year course are discussed, together with some possible modifications and their effects. Examples of the appraisal questionnaire and the calculations are included
Article
Group Modelling is expanding in the UK and has provided a suitable medium for Communication training at Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology. The CNAA has approved a scheme in which 10% of the marks in Mathematical Models and Methods course are peer awarded. The criteria which students use are not cited explicitly because the scheme wishes to reflect the shift from staff‐sponsored instruction to self/peer sponsored perception of relationships and the tender of solutions. The scheme provides the opportunity to measure what happens outside class contact hours and is proving an effective method of group assessment.
Article
Quantitative self-assessment studies that compared self- and teacher marks were subjected to a meta-analysis. Predictions stemming from the results of an earlier critical review of the literature (Boud & Falchikov, 1989) were tested, and salient variables were identified. Factors that seem to be important with regard to the closeness of correspondence between self- and teacher marks were found to include the following: the quality of design of the study (with better designed studies having closer correspondence between student and teacher than poorly designed ones); the level of the course of which the assessment was a part (with students in advanced courses appearing to be more accurate assessors than those in introductory courses); and the broad area of study (with studies within the area of science appearing to produce more accurate self-assessment generally than did those from other areas of study). Results of the analysis are discussed and differences signaled by the results of the three common metrics examined. The distinction between relative and absolute judgment of performance is drawn. It is recommended that researchers give attention to both good design and to adequate reporting of self-assessment studies.
Article
This article complements two previous papers which presented quantitative data about methods of peer assessment within a group project. The previous quantitative papers indicated that holistic peer assessment supports the purposes of summative group assessment better than category-based peer assessment. The qualitative findings presented here support this notion. Student attitudes towards the two methods of peer assessment were more supportive of the holistic approach than the category-based approach. This article raises the question as to whether the method of peer assessment has some influence on the extent to which students work cooperatively in a group setting.
Article
This paper reports the results of an experiment which compared a holistic and category-based approach to peer assessment of contributions to a group project. Students undertook a group assignment and assessed each other's contributions using the two approaches. Holistic peer assessment yielded a much greater number of groups who awarded each member equal marks than the category-based peer assessment used in the study. The holistic approach also produced a greater proportion of students with a large gain and a large loss of marks than the category-based method. The paper argues that the holistic approach supports the purposes of summative peer assessment methods within group project work better than the category-based approach. However, it is argued that the category-based approach is useful for formative assessment.
Article
As the demand for group projects in higher education has increased in recent years, it is necessary to device an assessment method that results in fair grading of project group members. An attempt has been made to apply an existing peer assessment approach from Goldfinch to engineering student group projects. The results confirm the validity of the approach. However, the existing approach has a number of problems owing to the inevitable bias introduced by individual students during the peer assessment process. A new normalisation process is introduced to iron out the inherent shortcomings of the existing peer assessment method. The experience gained so far has led us to believe that this peer assessment method with normalisation can be used as a tool to assess individual marks of a group project.
Article
A survey was undertaken of all universities in the UK to establish the extent and nature of group learning and group assessment on undergraduate computing courses. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected about the amount and control of group learning and assessment, methods of marking group assessments and tutors’ attitudes to group learning and assessment. The results are presented, analysed and discussed. The survey shows that group learning and group assessment have established themselves to varying extents in the vast majority of computing courses for which responses were received and points to the need for more research into methods of group assessment which can demonstrate reliability.
Article
This paper presents the results of an experiment which compared secret and agreed peer and self-assessment of contributions to a group project. Students undertook a group assignment and assessed their own and each other's contributions both in secret and in open agreement within the group. The secret assessments led to a higher spread of individual marks within the group than the agreed assessments. There was a tendency for students towards the top end of the group to under-assess themselves in comparison with the assessment by their peers and for students towards the bottom end of the group to over-assess themselves. This trend was more marked for the secret assessments than for the agreed ones. The paper argues that the fairest way to conduct such assessments is to perform the peer assessments in secret and to ignore the self-assessment element in any final summative assessment. However, it is also argued that an open discussion between students about each other's contributions should take place before such secret assessments are undertaken.
Article
This paper surveys the different methods of assessing groups of students which have been reported in the literature and describes some novel methods which have been used at the University of Sunderland. It relates the work of Schechtman to peer assessment in a group setting, discusses some observations on self‐assessment and raises some questions for debate and future research.
Article
During student presentations the oral communication skills of final year BSc pharmacology students were assessed by their peer group and by a group of academic staff. That there was agreement between staff and peers about the absolute and relative quality achieved in the presentations is indicated by the significant positive correlation between the two sets of marks awarded to individuals and the agreement about which presenters constituted the top and bottom quartiles of the mark list. The standard of presentation achieved by a student was not related to the marks given by that student (i.e. assessment was independent of a student's own communication skills). There was a significant correlation between students' communication skills and their performance in written tests but a number of individuals exhibited marked differences in these two abilities.
Article
Some studies of peer assessment in higher education are reviewed, and found to focus on either assessment of a product such as an examination script, or of the performance of a particular skill, often in a medical or dental setting. Classroom performance studies focus mainly on interpersonal skills or group dynamics. Many examples where mean peer assessments resembled lecturer assessments were found, and the overwhelming view seems to be that peer assessment is a useful, reliable and valid exercise. Student evaluations of peer assessment suggest that they also perceive it to be beneficial. However, some students expressed a dislike of awarding a grade to their peers, particularly in the context of a small, well established group. A study which attempted to capitalize on the benefits of peer assessment while minimizing the problems is described. In this study, the emphasis was on critical feedback, rather than on the awarding of a grade, though this was required also. Results indicated a close correspondence between lecturer and peer marks, as in previous studies. Feedback was perceived to be useful, and the scheme of Peer Feedback Marking (PFM) rated as conferring more benefits than the more usual, lecturer marked method. The main strength of PFM seems to be related to the enhancement of student learning by means of reflection, analysis and diplomatic criticism.
Article
The concept of capability is discussed in relation to life both inside and outside the education system. Criteria of capability are elaborated, and the extent to which these criteria are met by a traditional system of education considered. Suggestions are made as to how the skills of capability ‐ competence, confidence, coping, creativity and cooperation — may be better promoted in higher education. A group film making project designed to increase student autonomy in learning and promote the skills of capability is described. Problems of group project assessment are discussed. The historical background to, and development of, a self and peer process assessment questionnaire are described. The outcome of the project in terms of both product and process are discussed and the perceived benefits of the project elaborated. The process analysis exercise is itself evaluated. Modifications to the self and peer process assessment questionnaire are proposed and suggestions made for possible future uses.
Article
This study sought to explain the contribution imbalance between minority and majority members of multicultural task groups in terms of differences in personal characteristics outside of racial or ethnic identity. Business students who volunteered to participate in a decision-making exercise were assigned to four-person groups on the bases of sex and minority status. A total of 41 multicultural groups were formed. Aftenvard, participants individually completed questionnaires on the experience and their personal characteristics. Low comnmnunication competetce, low inasculinity, and highfemininity were associated both with minority status and with low contribution to decision making. As a block the personal variables explained more variance in contribution to decision making than did minority status alone. In addition, high contributing minorities appeared to be motivated by needs unlike those of high contributing nonminorities. The implications of these findings for facilitators of multicultural groups are discussed.
Article
ABSTRACT Two-hundred-and-ninety secondary school students from Years 7, 9 and 11 completed questionnaires relating to motivational goals, metacognitive awareness, need for affiliation, social anxiety and feelings towards group work. Factor analysis revealed three attitudes towards participation in group work: a preference for group environments, a preference for individual work environments, and a sense of discomfort in group environments. Students reporting a preference for group work also indicated higher levels of sociability, lower levels of social anxiety, stronger mastery and performance goals, and greater levels of metacognitive awareness. Students expressing a preference for individual work environments reported lower levels of sociability and higher levels of social anxiety, but were not differentiated on any of the cognitive measures. Students reporting discomfort in groups similarly reported enhanced levels of social anxiety combined with lower levels of sociability, but also indicated lower levels of metacognitive awareness. Results are discussed in the context of current theoretical and empirical work on group-based learning.
Article
Concerns about the use of peer ratings for assessment purposes are manifold. The issues which are raised by practitioners and researchers, and findings based on recent studies addressing these issues, are outlined. One of the most persistent criticisms is that peer ratings in group settings are prone to bias, resulting in unfairness of mark outcomes. The bias is seen to arise as a result of friendships and social interactions accompanying group task activities. Support for the belief that the validity and fairness of peer ratings are vitiated by 'relational effects' is found in the literature on small group behaviour and interactionist theory. Empirical studies in these two areas operationalise relational effects in what is termed 'reciprocation' - the tendency for two people who are involved in rating each other to be influenced in their rating behaviour by social interactions between the two. The effect of this on rating outcomes, referred to as 'reciprocity effects', is seen to be a major source of bias. The study reported here analyses a data set of multiple peer ratings which had been used as part of the assessment for a subject in community medicine. The analysis is based on cell-by-cell correlation analysis of reciprocal (rater/ratee) pairs, enabling an estimate of the proportion of the variance in scores accounted for by 'reciprocity effects'. The effect was found to be negligible, accounting for only 1% of the variance. Implications for practitioners and for small group behaviour research are discussed.
Article
Forty-eight quantitative peer assessment studies comparing peer and teacher marks were subjected to meta-analysis. Peer assessments were found to resemble more closely teacher assessments when global judgements based on well understood criteria are used rather than when marking involves assessing several individual dimensions. Similarly, peer assessments better resemble faculty assessments when academic products and processes, rather than professional practice, are being rated. Studies with high design quality appear to be associated with more valid peer assessments than those which have poor experimental design. Hypotheses concerning the greater validity of peer assessments in advanced rather than beginner courses and in science and engineering rather than in other discipline areas were not supported. In addition, multiple ratings were not found to be better than ratings by singletons. The study pointed to differences between self and peer assessments, which are explored briefly. Results are discussed and fruitful areas for further research in peer assessment are suggested.
Article
The efficiency and effectiveness of learning outcomes in groupwork and in peer assessment is well attested in the higher education literature. However, there is little evidence that any quantitative measures of student satisfaction have been undertaken with the group process and peer assessment. In this paper a peer assessment method is explained and a study detailed which was undertaken on a cohort of 261 students to measure student satisfaction of the assessment process. It was found that there were high levels of student satisfaction with groupwork and in the adopted assessment method. Further analysis revealed that there were no effects on the levels of satisfaction of students with the independent variables gender and age. Yet, there was a fairly significant difference in the levels of satisfaction of students having work experience favouring those without. Finally, there was found to be a substantial difference in the levels of satisfaction between Australian and international students with international students expressing higher values. It is recommended that this study be extended to other subjects and disciplines.
Article
Any student assessment procedure should meet a number of criteria. It should be -valid, reliable, practicable and fair, and useful to students. The prevailing authoritarian model of assessment in higher education is examined and its disadvantages elaborated. Results of some previous studies of self assessment are discussed. The present study attempts to meet Percival and Ellington's criteria, and addresses itself to a number of important questions concerning the comparability of self and peer group assessment with traditional methods; the extent of over‐ or undermarking by students, the relationships between accuracy of grading and age or overall ability, and the possible effects on learning or personal development of self and peer group assessment procedures. Details of the implementation of the scheme are recorded, and results presented and discussed. In terms of both product (the correspondences between self or peer and tutor assessment) and process (the evaluation by students of the effects of the scheme), the scheme appears to be successful. Implications and plans for future studies are elaborated.
Article
The advantages and problems of project work in geography are outlined. The origins of the large‐scale ‘Project’ at Salford are seen in the need for a new curriculum, and in the University's ‘education for capability’ objectives, which led to the Project being placed at the philosophical core of the new degree course in 1987. The Project has subsequently been translated into the department's ‘Enterprise’ scheme. The structure of the Project is outlined, with particular reference to group size and working, student control, task selection, staff input, geographical and professional skills, assessment, and problems. Three tasks are outlined, and student reaction is assessed.
Article
The results from a controlled experiment in methods of group formation for a group assessment exercise on a second‐year systems analysis and design module are presented. The experiment was undertaken in response to analysis of module results from the previous 3 years. In the group assessments the members of each group received the same group grade. The experiment compared the performance of streamed and mixed‐ability groups. The results are analysed and discussed. It shows that high ability students obtain considerably lower grades in mixed‐ability groups than in streamed groups whereas the reverse is the case for students at the lower end of the ability range. The study also indicates that lower ability students do better in subsequent examinations after having worked in mixed‐ability groups than those in streamed groups whereas the reverse is the case for higher ability students. The implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
In an optometry subject which utilised group projects, students complained that awarding the same mark to all group members was often not a fair reflection of individual effort. Accordingly, an examination was made of procedures for assessing the contribution of an individual to a group project. A classification system for such schemes is given. One subject in the optometry course used a system which modified the group mark by a two‐part weighting factor. A detailed evaluation and critique of this scheme is given. A simpler scheme with a one‐part multiplicative weighting factor was derived from the best elements of the initial scheme. The simplified scheme is described and examples of the calculations given. Its use in another subject in the same course is described and evaluation data presented.
Article
One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group project. Team members' evaluations were part of the grade, worth 10 to 20% of the project grade. All evaluations were confidential, and other students never saw the evaluations. A behaviorally anchored scale was designed and used to discourage ratings based merely on personality. A behaviorally anchored scale is an approach to evaluating performance that encourages the rater to evaluate a subject's performance, rather than irrelevant characteristics such as personality or liking. The scale developed for this study was based on student opinions about the important task and social behaviors in team work. The sample included 3 psychology classes and 1 aeronautical engineering class, for a total of 142 students in teams ranging from 3 to 6 members. Results indicate that students can make evaluations of team members and give them grades other than all "A's". The distribution of grades given by the students was somewhat high for the psychology students, but was more typical for the engineering students. Ratings by students did make sense, and the correlations between the behaviorally anchored scales and the overall teams ratings were significant. Student ratings of team work were different and independent from their project grades. The value of the team work rating scales is to improve both the accuracy of grading and to give the teams a way to control social loafing. (Contains three tables and nine references.) (SLD)
Article
A collection of essays examines ways in which teachers in higher education can enable students to become more autonomous in their learning: that is, how students can learn without the constant presence or intervention of a teacher. The introduction by David Boud discusses the trend in education towards a more autonomous learner, and provides an overview of the book's structure. Part I provides a general orientation toward the issues discussed in detail in later chapters. Chapters in Part I include: "Toward Student Responsibility for Learning" (David Boud); "Changing Basic Assumptions about Teaching and Learning" (M. L. J. Abercrombie); and "Assessment Revisited" (John Heron). Part II (Case Studies) includes: "Reducing Teacher Control" (J. P. Powell); "Independent Study: A Matter of Confidence" (Harry Stanton); "One-To-One Learning" (David Potts); "Parrainage: Students Helping Each Other" (Marcel Goldschmid); "Student Autonomy in Learning Medicine: Some Participants' Experiences" (Barbara Ferrier, Michael Marrin, and Jeffrey Seidman); "Preparing for Contract Learning" (Mary Buzzell and Olga Roman); "Student Planned Learning" (John Stephenson); and "A Decade of Student Autonomy in a Design School" (Barrie Shelton); Part III (Reflections) offers: "Putting into Practice: Promoting Independent Learning in a Traditional Institution" (Malcolm Cornwall) and "Moving Towards Independent Learning" (J. P. Powell). References and an index are provided. (LC)
Article
This paper focuses on the perception of undergraduate geography and environmental science students of individual and group assessments, and compares this perception with their performance in these assessment types in practical classes. Results show that students may instinctively prefer individual assessment but they perform best, and achieve greatest perceived development of key skills, in group assessments. This paper suggests that a combination of individual and group assessment (linked to learning outcomes) can most effectively be used in the delivery, practice and testing of key skills. More innovative group tasks and clearer marking criteria will help develop the role of group work in practical classes.
Article
This report advises of refinements to the peer assessment technique detailed in Goldfinch & Raeside's paper of 1990. This technique is used to assign individual marks to the members of a team who have been working on a group project. The improvements include a way of easing the administrative burden of the technique for the lecturer, and a safeguard against an observed problem whereby over‐generous students effectively penalised themselves.
Article
Despite the fundamental importance of multicultural group work activities in the curriculum, previous literature has shown that home and international students do not spontaneously mix and would rather be involved in monocultural work groups. One of the major causes for this lies in the home students' belief that assessed multicultural group work has a detrimental effect on their individual average mark. Using data from a large cohort enrolled on a first-year business studies programme of a UK university, this study employs regression analysis to empirically investigate the extent to which this belief is supported by the data. The results suggest that the performance of culturally mixed groups is neither a function of the individual ability of the least able group member, nor of the average ability of the members of the group. Instead, in this context, the group work mark is more likely to reflect the ability of the most able group member. The data also indicate that assessed multicultural group work has, on average, a positive rather than negative effect on the individual average mark of all students, evidence consistent with the synergistic effects expected to emerge in multicultural groups.
Article
The outcomes of 148 studies of whether men and women differ in how easily they are influenced are examined meta-analytically. The analysis indicates that (a) women are more persuasible and more conforming than men in group pressure situations that involve surveillance by the influencing agent. In situations not involving surveillance, women are also more conforming, but this effect is vulnerable to the "file-drawer" problem discussed by R. Rosenthal (1979). Effect-size estimates show that the sex difference in influenceability is generally small. The present article also describes a study with 83 male and 118 female undergraduates that supported the hypothesis that sex of researchers is a determinant of the sex difference. 79% of the authors of influenceability studies were male, and men obtained larger sex differences in the direction of greater persuasibility and conformity among women. In studies authored by women, there was no sex difference. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that group members exert less effort as the perceived dispensability of their efforts for group success increases. The resultant motivation losses were termed "free-rider effects." In Exp I, 189 undergraduates of high or low ability performed in 2-, 4-, or 8-person groups at tasks with additive, conjunctive, or disjunctive demands. As predicted, member ability had opposite effects on effort under disjunctive and conjunctive task demands. The failure to obtain a relationship between group size and member effort in Exp I was attributed to a procedural artifact eliminated in Exp II (73 Ss). As predicted, as groups performing conjunctive and disjunctive tasks increased in size, member motivation declined. This was not a social loafing effect; group members were fully identifiable at every group size. Exp III (108 Ss) explored the role that performance feedback plays in informing group members of the dispensability of their efforts and encouraging free riding. Results are generally consistent with those of Exps I and II. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research on 3 methods of peer assessment: peer nominations, peer ratings, and peer rankings. Each method is evaluated in terms of its practicality, reliability, validity, freedom from bias, and acceptability. Among the conclusions drawn are that peer assessment can be reliable and valid and that it is best used as part of a multisource approach to performance assessment. Peer nomination has been the subject of the most research and appears to have the highest validity and reliability. Peer rating is the most useful of the 3 methods for feedback purposes but also produces the least valid, reliable, and unbiased measurements. Peer ranking has been the least researched of the 3 methods but is by nature the most discriminating method and can incorporate nonmetric scaling advances that might establish it as the all-purpose method of choice. (69 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Students often enjoy learning in teams and developing teamwork skills, but criticise team assessment as unfair if there is equal reward for unequal contributions. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation in four subjects of the Self and Peer Assessment Resource Kit (SPARK), a web–based template which aims to improve learning from team assessment tasks and make the assessment fairer for students. Students benefit because the web–based template improves confidentiality and the potential for accurate assessment of relative contributions. Academics benefit through the potential for improving student learning from teamwork tasks, and saving time by automating the process of calculating self and peer adjustments of assessment grades, especially attractive for large enrolments. Benefits accrue to the institution and wider academic community because the template suits a range of group assessment situations. Based on experiences gained over five years of developing, evaluating and implementing SPARK, this paper aims to illustrate the potential benefits of the template to potential users and more critically, to use what was learned from implementing the template across a range of subjects to alert others to key issues for evaluating and disseminating educational technology innovations.
Article
The group approach to learning is widely accepted by higher education researchers as an effective teaching and learning tool. While there are numerous instructional, learning and social communication advantages for both students and teachers using group projects in the college classroom, a need exists for a better understanding of group projects from the student's perspective. The purpose of this investigation was to measure students' perceptions of group grades and group satisfac-tion on group projects in the college classroom. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management classes participated in this study. The major findings of this study revealed that: (i) the less group grade experience that a student has, the more likely they are to agree that everyone in the group deserves the same group grade; (ii) students who work part-time are more likely to think that a group grade is a fair assessment of their contributions than students who work full-time; (iii) older students are more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle and younger age students. It is recommended that this study be extended to include comparison groups, graduate students and other disciplines.
Article
The use of group work, in which three or more students jointly produce a piece of work for summa-tive assessment, is an established aspect of teaching and learning in higher education. Opinions vary however about whether their marks should vary according to the respective contributions they made to the work. This paper is based on the assumption that if adjustments are to be made, they should be made on sound statistical grounds. Current methods for adjusting student marks do not allow the size of the adjustments to be controlled and empirical data are presented which show that very large adjustments can occur. This paper presents a method for deriving final student marks from a single tutor mark and ratings which students make of each other's contributions. The method incor-porates a mechanism for directly controlling the size of the adjustments made. It is demonstrated using data from students following a degree programme in computing. A spreadsheet has been written which undertakes the calculations necessary to apply the method.
Article
Student self-assessment occurs when learners make judgements about aspects of their own performance. This paper focuses on one aspect of quantitative self-assessments: the comparison of student-generated marks with those generated by teachers. Studies including such comparisons in the context of higher education courses are reviewed and the following questions are addressed: (i) do students tend to over- or under-rate themselves vis--vis teachers?, (ii) do students of different abilities have the same tendencies?, (iii) do students in different kinds or levels of course tend to under- or over-rate themselves?, (iv) do students improve their ability to rate themselves over time or with practice?, (v) are the same tendencies evident when self-marks are used for formal assessment purposes?, and (vi) are there gender differences in self-rating? The paper also discusses methodological issues in studies of this type and makes recommendations concerning the analysis and presentation of information.
Article
Case studies are presented of the out-of-class behaviour of two contrasting class groups of university students from departments with very different learning environments. One group displayed avoider behaviour, by working together to minimise the amount of work each individual had to do. The other class consisted of more coherent groups of students who socialised together and worked to reach a better understanding of conceptual material; we labelled this engager behaviour. The cases show that both the levels of social coherence of the groups and the out-of-class group learning approaches were strongly influenced by: the curriculum, the type of teaching, the nature of the assessment, the relationship between teachers and students, and the environment within the respective departments.
Article
As reported in summary form by W. Moede (1927), an unpublished study found that in a rope-pulling task, while collective group performance increased somewhat with group size, it was less than the sum of the individual efforts (IE). IE decreased as group size increased. The present 2 experiments with 84 undergraduates investigated this effect using clapping and shouting tasks. Results replicate the earlier findings. The decrease in IE, which is here called social loafing, is in addition to losses due to faulty coordination of group efforts. The experimental generality, theoretical importance, widespread occurrence, and negative social consequences of social loafing are examined, along with ways of minimizing it. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper presents and illustrates an approach to the study of marking biases based on multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis. This is applied to the marks awarded by two independent markers to the final year dissertations of 197 female and 58 male psychology undergraduates. One of the two markers had supervised the work on which the dissertation was based on a one-to-one basis. The results suggest that about 30 per cent of the variance in the supervisor's mark is attributable to influences which are specific to the supervisor, orthogonal to the merit of the project as assessed by the two markers jointly, and general across each of the four marks awarded by the supervisor. The most plausible interpretation of these influences is that they represent a contamination of the supervisor's mark by personal knowledge of the student. These biases in the supervisor's marking were found to have more influence for male than for female students and to elevate the marks of males relative to those of females to a small but significant extent. It would be unwise to overgeneralize from these findings, but they demonstrate the potential value of this method of studying marking biases.
Helping and achieving: compatible or competing goals for men and women in medical school?
  • G Bean
  • L Kidder
Bean, G. & Kidder, L. (1982) Helping and achieving: compatible or competing goals for men and women in medical school? Social Sciences and Medicine, 16, pp. 1377-1381.