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Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture

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... The book concludes with two Romanian authors. Andrei Terian advocates the analytical and historiographic usefulness of the concept of 'socialist modernism' in denominating and describing the paradigm that prevailed in Romanian and other Eastern European literatures between 1960/1965and 1980 In doing so, the paper follows a three-pronged line of reasoning. Firstly, Terian provides a diachronic overview of this period with a view to unraveling the motives behind the writers and communist politicians' conviction that modernism was a trend whereby they could effectively express their interests following the fall of socialist realism. ...
... A number of his contemporaries also devoted themselves to the rural environment, eg. Miško Kranjec (1908-1983), Ivan Potrč (1913-1993), Anton Ingolič (1907), Ciril Kosmač (1910-1980 and others, so Viktor Kudělka later describes the rural theme as one of the traditional ones in the Slovenian environment (Kudělka 1973, 229). ...
... We have placed the observed children's interactions at the nexus of play, folklore, and children's peer cultures. According to Brian Sutton-Smith (1997) and Johan Huizinga (2009), play is as much a quest for excitement, uncertainty, and disorder as it is a search for order, control, and cognitive harmony. The vignettes of children's interactions through word play showed how children play with order and disorder, chaos and the cosmos, and explore the limits of what is allowed and actually possible (Sutton-Smith 1997;Huizinga 2009;Henricks 2009). ...
... According to Brian Sutton-Smith (1997) and Johan Huizinga (2009), play is as much a quest for excitement, uncertainty, and disorder as it is a search for order, control, and cognitive harmony. The vignettes of children's interactions through word play showed how children play with order and disorder, chaos and the cosmos, and explore the limits of what is allowed and actually possible (Sutton-Smith 1997;Huizinga 2009;Henricks 2009). ...
Article
This article examines children’s creative production of and participation in a shared peer culture. Focusing on material on preschool children’s use of counting-out rhymes, faecal humour, and word play gathered in two Slovenian kindergartens by means of participant observation and video ethnography, the article demonstrates the importance of social participation in peer groups from an early age and the alliances, conflicts, and power hierarchies involved. Focusing on how children create and participate in children’s culture through interaction with other children in a peer group, ethnographic material is complemented by archival material on children’s folklore in Slovenia. By bringing together folkloristics and anthropological and sociological studies of children and childhoods, this article aims to bridge the gap between these disciplines to gain a more nuanced understanding of children’s worlds, and the role children’s folklore plays in the creation of and participation in children’s peer cultures.
... Here, originality describes something to be novel, unique, or uncommon, whereas effectiveness is heavily dependent on the context and can mean usefulness, fit, appropriateness, or value [89]. In the context of video games, play is frequently described as a creative process as it stimulates creative thinking by providing players with situations that can be approached in novel and uncommon ways [9,45]. The unstructured and spontaneous nature of play can be an enabler of creative thought processes [11]. ...
... Playfulness has been identified as a facilitator of creativity as it can be open and unstructured in nature and lets players explore novel and interesting solutions for situations presented by games [9,11,45]. A game genre that is especially open in its structure is city-building games as it offers a blank terrain for players to fill with streets, buildings, and other environmental details in a creative way [7,85]. ...
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The use of procedural content generation (PCG) in the context of video games has increased over the years as it provides an economical way to generate game content whilst enhancing their variety and replayability. For city-building games, this approach is often utilized to predefine map layouts, terrains, or cityscapes for the player. One core aspect of facilitating enjoyment in these games comes from creative expressivity. PCG, in this context, may support creativity by lowering the technical complexity for content creation, or it may hinder creativity by taking away control and freedom from the user. To examine these potential effects, this paper investigates if PCG has an impact on players' creativity in the context of VR city-building games. We present a VR prototype that provides varying degrees of procedural content: No PCG, terrain generation, city generation, and full (city + terrain) generation. In a remote user study, these conditions were compared regarding their capability to support creativity. Statistical tests for equivalence revealed that the presence of PCG did not affect creativity in any way. Our work suggests that PCG can be a useful integration into city-building games without notably decreasing players' ability to express themselves creatively.
... xperiences can generally be considered instances of time in which the person having the experience rapidly switches between moments of immersion and moments of much lesser intensity (Caru and Cova 2006). When we look at play experiences, the immersion is a vital part, in which play experiences are often very intense, bracketed in their own time and space (Gordon 2009), with the player becoming fully absorbed in the activity (Huizinga 1949). ...
... de Valk, Bekker, and Eggen (2015) describe this first step into a play experience as the "invitation," by which the person entering the play experience is "invited" to play, either by other players or by an object that elicits the sense of playfulness and the link to the play activity. The fact that the feature most commonly ascribed to play is the freedom and spontaneity (see, e.g., Huizinga 1949;Sicart 2014;Caillois [1958] 1961) also indicates that for a person to start playing, they have to be instantly enticed by the play situation. An object can support such invitation by communicating that it affords play and by eliciting curiosity. ...
... Thus, the following section discusses a number of concepts related to board games, as well as their conceptualisation, pedagogical use and possible contributions to the development of CT. Huizinga (1949Huizinga ( /1980, author of the classic Homo Ludens: A study of the play-element in culture, argues that "play is older than culture, for culture, however inadequately defined, always presupposes human society". In this regard, Silva and Kodama (2010) highlight the presence of play in the cultural life of various peoples, as well as its importance for children, who by playing from an early age, create opportunities for the development of various skills. ...
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Computational Thinking (CT) has been highlighted as a key competence of the 21st century. The literature has pointed to the use of unplugged activities, including board games (BG), as a strategy to promote the development of Computational Thinking. Recently, new modern board games (MBG), referred to as Eurogames, have aroused the interest of researchers who have underlined their unique design and mechanics. To investigate the impact of the use of MBG on CT development, a systematic literature review (SLR) was structured using the PRISMA protocol as a reference. The focus was centred on the analysis of empirical studies based on the use of board games in school settings to promote CT skills. This paper opens with the presentation of several essential concepts, among which CT and Eurogames are included, followed by the results of the SLR, focusing on the analysed articles, the theoretical frameworks supporting the studies, the research contexts and methods, the data collection instruments and the results reported by the authors. Out of 85 articles, 11 studies published between 2011 and 2021 were analysed. The results suggest that game mechanics, typical of Eurogames, reveal the potential to promote CT. However, the use of these resources requires further exploration.
... As Johan Huizinga argued in his Homo Ludens (Man the Player) from 1949, play is furthermore connected to aesthetics in that beauty is related to order, and play both demands order (a set of rules which must be obeyed for the play situation to be maintained) and creates order (as when a puzzle is solved): "Into an imperfect world and into the confusion of life it [play] brings a temporary, a limited perfection." [8] Indeed, physics also seeks order (e.g., laws of nature) within rules-for example, the rule that experimental results must be reproducible for others. As we shall see, finding or understanding such order is closely connected to the notions of beauty and the joy of insight. ...
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This essay explores the relations between aesthetics and motivation, primarily in quantum physics, focusing on the notions of play, beauty, and the joy of insight. The motivating role of these notions is examined both historically among the quantum pioneers and contemporarily, based on a series of interviews, among physicists associated with the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. This essay explores the relations between aesthetics and motivation, primarily in quantum physics, focusing on the notions of play, beauty, and the joy of insight. The motivating role of these notions is examined both historically among the quantum pioneers and contemporarily, based on a series of interviews, among physicists associated with the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen.
... Finally, such a cultural and historical universal as a game in the broadest sense, gets the most pronounced manifestations in music. Although the present research views on art no longer rule out the involvement of the listener, the "bearer of late culture", in the "sacred game of musical experience" (Huizinga, 1949), thus noting his authority to interpret what is heard, our attention is still focused on the performer."Facultasludendi" -the ability (chance) to play, most purely embodied only in music, has an essential agonal component. ...
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The article presents the results of a study aimed at analyzing the role of intrinsic motivation in the process of mastering the piano. The study used various methods to identify the facts of the influence of intrinsic motivation on the process of mastering the piano for students of music educational institutions and for people who chose a different path in further education. The study revealed a number of interesting facts that will help to look at the problem of motivation in the context of internal motives for mastering such a musical instrument as the piano. TÍTULO: PAPEL DA MOTIVAÇÃO INTRINSECA NO PROCESSO DE DOMÍNIO DO PIANO O artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo destinado a analisar o papel da motivação intrínseca no processo de domínio do piano. O estudo utilizou vários métodos para identificar os factos da influência da motivação intrínseca no processo de domínio do piano para estudantes de instituições de ensino musical e para pessoas que escolheram um caminho diferente no ensino superior. O estudo revelou uma série de factos interessantes que ajudarão a analisar o problema da motivação no contexto dos motivos internos de domínio de um instrumento musical como o piano.
... i. a specific spatial arrangement, usually architectural, containing a stage (Führer & Schoene 2022: 255-58), some sort of actualised or virtual magic circle (Huizinga 1955), ...
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In this presentation, the notions of transfer and media are contemplated drawing inspiration from Elleström's medium-centered communication model. An alternate point of entry is suggested, that of the media product, resulting in challenging 'transfer'. The theatrical dimension of communication is traced.
... The challenge lies in integrating it into the classroom to make learning more fun [20]. Gamification allows using games or game elements in non-game situations to motivate the targets toward a specific point of interest [21][22][23]. In [24], the authors propose a pyramidal model in which the elements that make up gamification are organised hierarchically, explaining the existing relationship between all of them. ...
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Recent societal changes have meant that education has had to adapt to digital natives of the 21st century. These changes have required a transformation in the current educational paradigm, where active methodologies and ICT have become vehicles for achieving this goal, designing complete teaching sequences with STEM approaches that help students to learn. Under a gamified approach, this document addresses a didactic proposal in geometry focused on STEM disciplines. This proposal combines tools such as AR, VR, manipulative materials, and social networks, with techniques such as m-learning, cooperative-learning, and flipped-learning, which make methodological transformation possible. The research was carried out during two academic years under an action research framework. It departed from a traditional methodology and, in two cycles, methodology was improved with the benefits that gamification brings to STEM proposals in Secondary Education. The data gathered in the experiment were analysed following a mixed method. Learning produced, strategies employed, successes and errors, and results of a questionnaire are presented. Evidence shows an improvement in academic performance from 50% fails to 100% pass, most of the students ended up motivated, participation was of the whole group, more than 80% showed positive emotions, and thanks to the cooperative-learning, group cohesion was improved.
... När skidåkningen började utvecklas som tävlingsform, offrades flera av dess ursprungliga nyttofunktioner på sportifieringens altare. Tävlandet tar aktiviteten till en ny dimension, det skapar sina egna ändamål och bedrivs för sin egen skull utan att längre tjäna de materiella (transport-och yrkesrelaterade) intressen som skidandet från början är sprungna ur (jfr Huizinga 2004, Carlsson & Lidström 2020. ...
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This article aims to analyse the emergence and early development of modern ski sport in Sweden by using the concept of sportification. Focus is directed towards a specific cross-country skiing competition, held in Stockholm in February 1879. Since skiing contests organized by sport clubs were still unknown at the time, some confusion arose regarding what competitive skiing was and what purposes it served. One of the competitors was particularly disappointed. Her name was Anna Lucia Kant, an experienced skier of Sámi descent. In terms of how the contest was organized, she did not consider herself to have had the opportunity to prove her skills. She therefore encouraged the sport club to organize another event in which she could demonstrate her skiing techniques which were suitable for transportation in road less terrain rather than for competition. In light of the concept of sportification, these two events revealed a contradiction that arose when modern competitive skiing emerged out of skiing as a traditional means of transportation. Another finding of this article is that cross-country skiing became more socially exclusive and male-dominated as the sportification process proceeded during the late 19th century. For example, when the first skiing contest was organized in 1879, men and women of different ethnic and national backgrounds competed side by side. However, this changed as cross-country skiing became more rationalized, bureaucra tized and regulated during the turn of the century. Keywords: cross-country skiing, sportification, history of sport, Sámi history, ethnicity
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This chapter presents the concept of Playful Publics on TikTok. In May 2021, the popular video-sharing platform became a powerful agent in the Israel-Gaza warfare giving rise to various participatory behaviors cultivated by TikTok’s culture of memes. The platform’s recommendation feed (“For You”) was swamped with memetic videos created by Palestinian and Israeli TikTokers who participated within the platform’s performative framework for content creation - the #challenge. As a driver of virality, the #challenge is a play-based collaborative task governed by a set of performative rules in which users are encouraged to coopt a competitive mission initiated by randoms. A multimodal analysis identified unique #challenge videos harnessing playful vernaculars of resistance, resulting in two visibility strategies. The first was the artistic use of features like the duet challenge (#StandUp), where a Palestinian TikToker “hijacked” an Israeli video of a soldier lip-syncing national songs while calling others to imitate his version of the video to articulate a political claim against the “stolen lands.” The second was a violent and mobilized manifestation of TikTok’s rivalrous mechanism of play resulting in the #Hit&Run challenge inviting both sides in a terrorizing call-to-action to hit and run random Israelis\Palestinian in the streets of Israel. Those trends are part of #challenges showing how networked crowds on TikTok are rendered into Playful Publics with algorithmic motivation to translate their social-political sentiments into memetic structures, becoming both weapon and medium in a battlefield dominated by Playful vernaculars of content creation. TikTok’s affordance of play calls for further interrogation while pushing Playful Publics to extend normative frameworks and revise moral questions dealing with their present and future online participatory cultures.
Thesis
Carl Schmitt has recently become a popular figure in humanities scholarship. In this turn, contemporary culture has amplified Schmitt’s insights about sovereignty, states of emergency and political decisions. His ideas have particularly disturbed and excited literary theorists, who use his writings as a methodological resource for approaching 21st century literary fiction. This type of critical work does not fully take into account Schmitt’s own encounters with, and exercises in, literature, art and cultural criticism. Concomitantly, nor does it understand his relationship to the literary cultures of his time and the artistic context within which he wrote his major philosophical works. In Europe and America, Schmitt’s life as a writer, stretching from the 1910s to the 1970s, is dominated by the aesthetic revolution of modernism. Using this framing, my thesis asks: Does Schmitt’s concept of sovereignty— of ‘he who decides on the exception’—transform understandings of modernism? If so, how does this transformation attend to genres, forms and styles in ways that answer questions about sovereignty? How is sovereignty depicted in modernist literature? In response, this thesis analyses three works by definitive authors of literary modernism: Virginia Woolf’s Orlando (1928), William Faulkner’s The Wild Palms (1939) and Samuel Beckett’s “Ping” (1967). It argues that these fictions respond to questions of sovereignty through their deployment of various, ironic aesthetic and representational techniques. Woolf’s mocking satire of melancholy ironizes sovereign authority as epoch-defining. Faulkner’s genresplicing, contrapuntal novel identifies failure as a contingent response to absolute sovereignty. Beckett’s prose short explores the relationship between anticipation and the human search for sovereign representation. The methods I am exercising in this thesis speak within continuing and ever more complicated debates about sovereignty.
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The paper starts from the observation that, in Croatia, traditional sports and games (TSG) are not sufficiently recognized as heritage and consequently not used as a resource for sustainable development planning. In modern societies, under the influence of globalization processes, TSG have lost the significance they had throughout the history. In Croatia, they most commonly “live on” either owing to various written records or through sport and cultural events held primarily because of the enthusiasm of individuals and not because of good sustainable development governance. TSG could become one of sustainable development planning resources if their integral significance is considered and potentials for reuse in everyday life recognized. The results will depend on the planning and governance abilities of all stakeholders. TSG should not be considered merely as a segment of sport or culture, but also as factor contributing to the education on local culture, health, local economy and ecology, etc.
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The aim of this study is to determine the playfulness of 60-72-month-old preschool children and to examine their playfulness in terms of the variables of the frequency of playing outside and the way they play (alone, with adults, or with peers). Furthermore, the change in the frequency of children's playing during the pandemic and the interventions of parents in their children's plays were examined. The descriptive survey method was used in the research. The sample of the study consists of 60-72 months old preschool children and their parents. A total of 132 children and their parents were reached. The General Information Form and the Children's Playfulness Scale adapted to Turkish by Keleş and Yurt (2017) were used as data collection tools. Since the data is not normally distributed, non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied. As a result of the analysis, no significant difference was found in the playfulness of the children in terms of the variables examined. On the other hand, it has been determined that the frequency of children playing outside has decreased during the pandemic, and parents are actively involved in their children's plays.
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Dijital teknolojinin ipleri eğlence dünyasının tasarımı olan oyuna konumlandırılmıştır. Dijitalleşen oyunun hızla artan payı inovasyonun ticari değere dönüşümünü elverişli kılmıştır. Bu bölümde dijital oyun ekonomisi mercek altına alınarak pazarının büyüklüğü ve ihracat potansiyeli performans ve rekabet perspektifinden değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun pazarının kısaca gelişimi incelenmiştir. Dijital oyunların değer zinciri değerlendirilirken Porter yaklaşımı ile bağ kurulmuştur. Küresel ticarette dijital oyun pazarı uluslararası işletmeler, sanal pazarlar çerçevesinde değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun pazarına ilişkin uluslararasılaşma sürecinin getirdiği ticari başarı ve ihracat potansiyeli vurgulanmıştır. Link: https://acikkaynak.gim.org.tr/img/dijital-oyunlar-2.pdf
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Video games are now recognized as an important part of our culture and history. However, this redefinition of the cultural value of video games has received scant academic attention. In this paper I explore the transformation video games have, and are undergoing by: 1) drawing on the event of the first excavation searching for video game history in the Alamogordo Landfill in New Mexico and 2) interviews with collection and exhibition experts in charge of video games in two U.S. museums: MoMA, New York and MADE, Oakland. Results explore how video games have gone from trash to treasure as exemplified by the excavation of the 1982 Atari game E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial. As video games enter museums they become valued using traditional western ideals on how cultural heritage is defined, based on ideals of age, materiality, monumentality, and aesthetics. Yet, the interactivity imperative of video games makes new evaluation structures relevant.
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The article proposes and discusses the term of ‘ludotopian dissonance’ in reference to flawed open-world design in computer role-playing games (cRPGs). Much like ludonarrative dissonance, this concept shall address a paradox of narrative credibility – this time, however, narrowed to the gameworld itself rather than to gameplay or storyline. This case study of Cyberpunk 2077 ’s world-building is supplemented with reflection upon the idea of openness or ‘openworldlness’ (‘what makes a given imaginary world truly open? Is it possible? Or is it viable for video games?’), as well as with research on explorable imaginary worlds (predominantly from the angle of transmedial narratology and interdisciplinary world-building studies). The aim of the article is to reiterate the necessity of design worlds that do not only serve as a container for storytelling, but also provide the players with an inhabitable, performative ludotopia which does not produce any dissonances between the credible storyworld and incredulous gameworld.
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The “and one!” is an iconic play constituted by the rules of basketball. It occurs when a player is fouled in the act of shooting and makes the shot anyways. The offensive player then receives a free-throw attempt worth one additional point. This paper explores the powerful meaning of this moment in pickup basketball where, counterintuitively, players don’t shoot free throws and so have no opportunity for an added point. Through a close-up ethnographic study of one pickup game in Santa Monica, California I argue that the “and one!” moment resonates (McDonnell et al. McDonnell et al., Sociological Theory 35:1–14, 2017) with a whole series of performative moments through which players generate charismatic character statements. I describe the performance of charisma in the formation of teams, in the organization of a sequence of games, in the flow of play, and in the “and one!” moment itself. By exploring the everyday texture of this pickup game I also argue that the play is woven into the broader cultural meaning of pickup basketball. When the basketball apparel company AND1 used the emotional authenticity of the “and one!” moment to symbolize the cultural and racial authenticity of “streetball,” they gave the play a public and iconic layer of meaning.
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The right to play is a multifaceted right and in its very nature crosses boundaries. Whilst human rights are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent, this article explores unique aspects of economic, social and cultural rights. It examines the ways in which the right to play applies to these categories of rights through looking at the nature and impact of play. The article argues that the right to play should be established and understood as an economic right, a social right and a cultural right, enabling discussion on the right to play to move forward to address its implementation.
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In the sense of phenomenology, actions are special cases of acts of consciousness. Within semiotics, first Jan Mukařovský and then A. J. Greimas have established, in different terms, a distinction between instrumental actions and actions which carry their meaning in themselves. But this is insufficient to account for the variety of actions which comprises everything from the creation of artefacts, dance, sporting events, theatre, rituals, and much else. Already those actions mentioned relate in different ways to instrumentality and intrinsic meaning, as well as to (depictive) iconicity and plasticity. In this paper, I will be particularly concerned with dancing, especially classical ballet, trying to delimit it from sporting events and theatre. Apart from the sign function and the spectacular function, I will notably have recourse to what I have elsewhere term secondary (depictive) iconicity as well as to plasticity. In the process, I hope to be able to throw some light also on the nature of sport, by comparing and contrasting it to dance, as well as to the theatre as well as, more incidentally, to some other types of action. In a wider perspective, my ambition is to contribute to a general inquiry into the semiosis of actions.
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Alienated, but happy. It is precisely the fascination (pathos) that technology and innovation, regardless of their purpose, exercise on human beings. For an even more connected and integrated/integrating herd/apparatus/social, but where each individual—this is the magic of techno-capitalism, argues Lelio Demichelis—must believe that they are kings of their personal, narcissistic and Promethean and Pygmalionesque world. It is necessary to instil in each person cumulative doses of will to power and domination; according to procedures, knowledge and repeated and reiterated normalizations that generate pleasure (pathos), because in an age that has made of creativity/innovation its mantra, this is in all cases made possible through the old behavioural technique of repetition, standardization and homologation that generates pleasure until it produces addiction. So, alienation exist, but is well masked. Theodor W. Adorno wrote: “Freedom has been transformed into a mere pretext for being able to better administer human beings”.
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What aesthetic qualities do we find restorative in our environments? I explore this in the context of staycations, favourite places, nature, urban environments, and the ideal or optimal environment. The data was sourced from social media and print media; a qualitative survey (N=308); and via a literature review. This thesis contrasts and bridges theories in environmental and everyday aesthetics with empirical findings in environmental preference studies, to critically examine current knowledge about environmental preferences and restoration, and to fill gaps and identify new directions for research. The main conclusions are that environmental preferences are influenced by the research method; the term “restorative” warrants expansion; and environmental preferences significantly depend on the subject’s expectations, earlier experiences and the interactional possibilities that are available in places. We are not passive recipients of sensory input but actively seek to attain positive influences and alter our surroundings to affect our mood and well-being.
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In 2020, the annual seminar at Art History in Aarhus was dedicated to a category of images usually absent from art historical research: dolls and puppets. The premise of the seminar was that through their animation, dolls or puppets are a universal, albeit historical, kind of image across all visual and anthropological cultures. A doll may be defined as an interactive, animated, representational figure, tangible and usually anthropomorphic. Dolls and puppets are closely related to other three-dimensional images, such as statues, sculptures, fetishes, and idols, but they have been unduly marginalized within art history due to their lowly associations with the childish and the feminine, with play and palpable interactivity rather than disengaged aesthetic contemplation. In this playful primer in pupalogy, we approach art historiography from the animated and ludic perspective of the doll. We engage with dolls in order to learn more about their history and historiography, their forms of animation, scale, etymology, materiality, and liminal status between life and death. The article thus toys with the deepest heritage of the image: its animation, its play, and its ludic interactions.
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This chapter analyzes modern commercial uses and urban places related to the fictional world of Alice located in selected cities in North America, Europe, and Australia. The author interprets the sites described in this study as both specific forms of adaptations and manifestations of Alice’s mythos, offered for the widest possible audience who perceives them at various levels, depending on their familiarity with the books, interest in the subject, and the degree of engagement with a particular environment at a specific moment. Special attention is given to the ‘performing fandom’ aspect of Alice’s presence, which manifests itself in recreations of the ‘mad tea party’ that require active participation. This kind of enterprises are analyzed in the chapter within the theory of play by Johan Huizinga.
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This chapter provides an overview of playful learning, in the context of adults, as both a suite of approaches to teaching and a philosophy of education. I will draw on two of my own pieces of recent thinking to explore these different ways of conceptualising playful learning in Higher Education: the practical and the political. The growing use of evaluation metrics throughout Higher Education, in the UK and globally, is indicative of a wider culture of increased instrumentalism and performativity. I believe that this focus on the measurement of performance impacts negatively on both academics and students. Playful learning offers a way to counter this by creating inclusive magic circles of learning that support learning through failure, intrinsic motivation, and deep engagement with possibilities through the adoption of a lusory attitude. I discuss the role of assessment and failure in relation to learning and present a model of failure-based assessment along with an exploration of what assessment designers might learn from game designers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of playful universities and playful leadership.
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Why is political rhetoric broken – and how can it be fixed? Words on Fire returns to the origins of rhetoric to recover the central place of eloquence in political thought. Eloquence, for the orators of classical antiquity, emerged from rhetorical relationships that exposed both speaker and audience to risk. Through close readings of Cicero – and his predecessors, rivals, and successors – political theorist and former speechwriter Rob Goodman tracks the development of this ideal, in which speech is both spontaneous and stylized, and in which the pursuit of eloquence mitigates political inequalities. He goes on to trace the fierce disputes over Ciceronian speech in the modern world through the work of such figures as Burke, Macaulay, Tocqueville, and Schmitt, explaining how rhetorical risk-sharing has broken down. Words on Fire offers a powerful critique of today's political language – and shows how the struggle over the meaning of eloquence has shaped our world.
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This chapter argues that the embodied, kinesthetic play of applied theatre processes engenders a feeling of creative intimacy among players. This intimacy can lay the groundwork for candid exchanges and broken taboos among participants in applied theatre processes. Based on a case study with teenagers at an international summer camp, the chapter examines four extended moments of physical play. These moments show participants engaged in popular games and exercises, including some associated with Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and others associated with Anne Bogart’s Viewpoints. Grounded in thick description of these encounters, the chapter captures how people emerge with a sense of one another as emergent beings, capable of connecting in surprising ways.
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This chapter argues that applied theatre projects can support two distinct kinds of intercultural dialogue: Buberian dialogue, which orients people to one another, and Freirean dialogue, which orients people to the world around them, specifically its injustices. Both are valuable, and both require a deviation from the typical ways that people of different cultural groups interact. With its case study of a high school drama program, the chapter proposes that a creative process based on devising from personal narratives privileges a Buberian dialogue over a Freirean one. The chapter describes how in play, these drama students reorient themselves to one another, increasingly cognizant of one another’s differences, responsive to one another’s needs, alert to one another’s vulnerabilities, and receptive to one another’s emotions.
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The epilogue expands the conversation beyond applied theatre: it leverages the understandings of dialogue and play that emerge from the book’s case studies in order to contribute to a broader literature on intercultural encounters. It does so by examining an intensive, week-long program for teenagers, which brought 35 participants from Chicago to America’s deep south for a week of learning about anti-racist activism. The program did not include any applied theatre components, but the understandings of play that emerge out of this book illuminate the group’s dynamics, especially their engagements with ritual (both secular and religious). Thus, the epilogue not only rearticulates and affirms the book’s central arguments, but also underscores their wider application.
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This chapter argues that the dramatization of mythic narratives can empower a group to initiate a Freirian dialogue, exploring power inequities and injustice. However, the playful quality that enables this dialogue may ironically dampen participants’ reflexivity: as they explore high-stakes issues in role, they bracket their real-world identities rather than scrutinizing their own embeddedness in systemic inequities. This chapter’s case study focuses on a Black Baptist church and a Reform synagogue in the Chicago suburbs, whose members come together regularly to dramatize biblical stories, using the technique of Bibliodrama. In role, these participants explore and expose racial inequity, patriarchy, and generational trauma, but only rarely do they acknowledge their own relative positions of power in their society.
Article
Since its creation, the Location-Based Game (LBG), Pokémon GO , has been embraced by a community of fans across the world. Due to its recency, the impact of COVID-19 on the community of Pokémon GO players is underexplored. We address how COVID-19 has impacted the players of Pokémon GO by building upon existing work focusing on player gratifications and impacts in Pokémon GO . Through semi-structured interviews, we provide a snapshot of the state of LBG play during unprecedented times. These player interviews demonstrate (1) the importance of in-person socialization to LBG, (2) additional ways players use the game as a coping mechanism, and (3) how intentionality mediates player perceptions of people-place relationships. Furthermore, we explore how Niantic influenced these behaviors through changes to how players interact with points of interest and engage with elder game mechanics such as raiding.
Article
This paper investigates how play practices affect players’ relationships with the urban environment through the bodily movement and performances that characterize them. Building on a definition of playful behavior derived by semiotics of culture, we investigate urban play from the perspective of motor praxology to outline how movement is central for the experience of the players. We then concentrate on the role of semiotic valorizations in different urban contexts, notably the famous typology of Metro users by Floch and different kinds of ludic mobility. Finally, we combine these two perspectives with the zemic model realized within existential semiotics in order to create a typology or urban players as well as urban playful enunciation modes.
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In this chapter I consider some of the foundational concepts that underpin any discussion of games and play in education. I provide working definitions for ‘games’, ‘playfulness’, and ‘play’, where games are viewed as objective constructs, playfulness a state of mind, and play existing at the intersection. A game is a deeply interactive challenge in an unreal context, with a goal and lusory rules (where the rules preclude the most straightforward means of achieving the goal). Playfulness is an attitude of mind that embodies a willingness to engage in activities in a light-hearted, joyful, open, mischievous, and comedic manner. Play occurs when a person engages with a game playfully, adopting a lusory attitude, in a free context (where actions in the game are not constrained by the real world) purely for enjoyment. The magic circle is introduced as a theoretical lens for better understanding the possibilities of play in relation to learning in adulthood, and the chapter concludes by exploring the different ways in which play in adulthood is manifest depending on the existence of a game context, playful intention, and intrinsic motivation.
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In this chapter, I move on from an exploration of the benefits of play to look at the more negative aspects of play and playfulness, particularly in relation to learning in adulthood, but also to society in general. In the first part of the chapter, I consider playful learning from a critical pedagogic and sociological perspective, exploring the ideas of power and privilege, and concepts of play capital. I discuss the relationship between play and social justice, considering how play can be made more inclusive and how playful approaches might be used for democratic and civic engagement, before taking a detour into the world of dark play and considering the range of negative behaviours associated with play and playfulness. Using playful approaches in the context of adult learning may have great potential, but it is important to remember that this applies only for some learners, under some circumstances. The play experience for an individual who is not neuro-typical, extrovert, physically mobile, who comes from somewhere where the game is played with different rules, may vary enormously. This chapter highlights that it is vitally important we recognise the power of play to exclude as well as to empower.
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In this chapter, we reflect on the deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) as a pedagogical and educational instrument and the challenges that arise to ensure transparency and fairness to staff and students . We describe a thought experiment: ‘simulation of AI in education as a massively multiplayer social online game’ (AIEd-MMOG). Here, all actors (humans, institutions, AI agents and algorithms) are required to conform to the definition of a player. Models of player behaviour that ‘understand’ the game space provide an application programming interface for typical algorithms, e.g. deep learning neural nets or reinforcement learning agents, to interact with humans and the game space. The definition of ‘player’ is a role designed to maximise protection and benefit for human players during interaction with AI. The concept of benefit maximisation is formally defined as a Rawlsian justice game, played within the AIEd-MMOG to facilitate transparency and trust of the algorithms involved, without requiring algorithm-specific technical solutions to, e.g. ‘peek inside the black box’. Our thought experiment for an AIEd-MMOG simulation suggests solutions for the well-known challenges of explainable AI and distributive justice.
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This is a book about play in adulthood and how play can make the world a better place. I will examine play and its relationship to learning beyond childhood. I will explore the phenomenon of play from various angles using many lenses, with the aim of bringing together multiple disciplines of knowledge to gain insights into the purpose, power, and philosophy of play and how it can influence, and enhance, learning throughout the life course. While there is a plethora of research on childhood play, play in adulthood as a field is relatively underserved and this book aims to begin to redress the balance. Through this book I hope to offer new insights into the possibilities and power of play for learning in adulthood, making the case that play has vast potential for helping us all live better, richer, happier lives, but also that it is not an unproblematic approach. Playful learning offers a series of tools and techniques and provides a philosophy of living and a political agenda.
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Children are the least responsible for environmental degradation and climate change, yet they will bear the greatest burden of its impact, and even if children have not been entirely neglected in environmental treaties, a comprehensive regime that extends environmental human rights to them is still absent. However, the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), which is the most ratified human rights instrument, is dedicated to children’s rights and is unique in specifically referring to the dangers and risks of environmental pollution. This chapter will propose a critical analysis of the normative basis underlying the articulation of environment-related rights for children. After clarifying the notion of child and the point at which childhood can be said to begin, it will first consider conventional provisions containing explicit references to the environment and then discuss other provisions that indirectly protect environmental aspects of children’s rights. It will also address the Convention’s general guiding principles, which show that the drafters were aware of the long-term impact of environmental pollution and its intergenerational implications, for safeguarding the present generation is a pledge towards the protection of future generations. Finally, attention will be turned to ways in which the content and scope of the Convention’s express and implied rights and principles are being and can be expanded, notably through the proactive stance taken by the Convention’s monitoring body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child. A positive trend is evidently manifested in the General Comments and Concluding Observations that has progressed the environmental due diligence obligations and are moving from indirect considerations to explicit mainstreaming of climate change issues and related obligations. Moreover, following the entry into force of the Optional Protocol on a Communications Procedure (OPCP), which recognises that children have the right to appeal to an international mechanism specific to them, when national mechanisms fail to address violations effectively; the outcome of the most recent individual communication in 2021 has opened new perspective on jurisdictional issues as to multiple countries simultaneously accountable for obligations under the CRC related to climate change. There is reason to think that this proactive stance will be further explained and developed in the next, much-awaited General Comment on children’s rights and the environment with a special focus on climate change, which is due in 2023.Keywordsbest interest of the childdue diligencecorporate social responsibilitynon-discriminationchild participationsubstantive protectionprocedural protectionhealthleisuredevelopmenteducation
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The increasingly overuse of mobile or screen-based products has raised concerns in society. Family, originally a psychosocial support for addiction prevention or treatment, can be weakened in its functioning due to individual members’ over-concentration on the personal addictive devices. In the core of the digital addiction lie simulation and play, which can be repurposed to intervene for more positive family interactions and perceptions. We argue that with always-on sensing and data-driven visualization technologies, interactive tangible artifacts can be designed to detect family members’ use of mobile phones, present simulations that prompt their physical engagements, and hopefully enhance family functioning. This paper presents Lunar Land, which is a smart lamp with its “face” simulating from the crescent to the full moon, when family members put down their phones and take daily-life playful challenges together. Field trials of Lunar Land involved families having the working prototype installed at home for weeks. Usage was automatically logged. Pre- and post-trial surveys were conducted. Families using Lunar Land both for charging phones and taking playful challenges reported higher increase in family time and relationship satisfaction. They also showed higher increase in general family functioning measured by instrument, and more obviously linking the concept of togetherness and “light up.” Results suggest that experiencing simulated outcomes of pausing phone use may assist positive perception of the family. Having the members playing together further enhances the positive perception, because the processes render the positive action-outcome link, from pausing phone use and playing together to joy, cognitively accessible.KeywordsBehaviour changeSimulationPlayMobile overuseFamily functioning
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Bu kitapta, günümüzde kadim Türk yurdu İdil-Ural bölgesinde varlıklarını sürdüren Kuzey Türklerinden Tatar boyu çocuklarının oynadığı “hareketli oyunlara” yer verilmiştir. İncelemesi yapılan bu oyunlar hareket işlevlerine göre kovalamacalı (40 oyun), koşmacalı-koşuşturmacalı (19 oyun), köşe-yer-eş kapmacalı (15 oyun), göz bağlamacalı (9 oyun), hedef almacalı (33 oyun), güç sınamacalı (17 oyun), ip atlamacalı (5 oyun), el tokatlamacalı (8 oyun), eş zamanlı hareket etmeceli (7 oyun), saklamacalı (10 oyun) ve koşullanmacalı (16 oyun) şeklinde on bir alt başlıkta sınıflandırılmıştır. Ayrıca çalışmanın sonunda kullanılan oyun malzemesinden hareketle bir sözlük hazırlanmıştır. Sözlükte oyun adlarının tanımları yapılmaya çalışılmış, oyunlarda kullanılan oyun gereçlerinin, oyun terimlerinin ve özel ifadelerin açıklamaları verilmiştir. Tatar çocukları; anne babalarından, nine dedelerinden; hatta atalarının atalarından bir kültür mirası olarak devraldıkları bu oyunları zamanın değişen şartlarına uyum sağlayarak ister açık ister kapalı alanda olsun; evde, okulda, etkinlik salonunda ya da sahasında, avluda, kapı önlerinde, bahçede, parkta, meydanda, düzlükte, çayır-çimende, sokakta, mahallede; yani oyun oynamaya elverişli her yerde oynamaktadır. Bu oyunların bazıları çeşitli oyun gereçleriyle bazıları da gereçsiz olarak oynanmaktadır. Oyunların bir kısmı da yapılarında barındırdıkları atışma, türkü ve daha çok tekerlemelerle oynanmaktadır. Bu oyunların asıl amacı sosyalleşerek eğlenmek olsa da bununla birlikte öğrenme faktörü devreye girerek çocukların fiziksel ve zihinsel gelişimlerine katkı sağlamaktadır.
Article
Islam is the only biblical religion that still practices animal sacrifice. Indeed, every year more than a million animals are shipped to Mecca from all over the world to be slaughtered during the Muslim Hajj. This multi-disciplinary volume is the first to examine the physical foundations of this practice and the significance of the ritual. Brannon Wheeler uses both textual analysis and various types of material evidence to gain insight into the role of animal sacrifice in Islam. He provides a 'thick description' of the elaborate camel sacrifice performed by Muhammad, which serves as the model for future Hajj sacrifices. Wheeler integrates biblical and classical Arabic sources with evidence from zooarchaeology and the rock art of ancient Arabia to gain insight into an event that reportedly occurred 1400 years ago. His book encourages a more nuanced and expansive conception of “sacrifice” in the history of religion.
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Entertainment computing spans anything from a single player game on a console through to large-scale multiplayer online virtual worlds. This workshop focuses on a range of issues which impact on the design, use and adoption of entertainment computing systems from an ethical and social perspective. Issues to be explored include the composition of those working in the industry from the perspectives of diversity and inclusion, how this impacts on design and how groups are represented within games and other entertainment platforms. We will further explore issues relating to monetization, incentives, and potential addiction. We will explore how to design for ethical and social issues while also looking at problems which have arisen and the potential challenges of the future.KeywordsEthicsLegalGamesSerious gamesVirtual worlds
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Regardless of its all-encompassing and ubiquitous nature, game and play researchers have often steered away from applying fun as a research concept. If a concept seems to be associated with everything, it logically follows that the concept lacks explanatory power. In this paper, we do not merely settle for the blunt conclusion that fun is not an interesting research concept. Rather we start to explore the phenomenon of fun by approaching it through three lenses: motivation to play, gameplay experience, and psychological need satisfaction. By analyzing two large survey samples collected in Finland (N = 879) and South-Korea (N = 1519), we cluster survey participants into player types according to their gameplay motivations. It is revealed that all players are more motivated by fun than by other need-based gaming motives, but also that a significant minority of players are only motivated by fun. By studying player preferences of the player types, it is furthermore highlighted that these Fun-Seekers generally dislike most gameplay activities and differ from other player types also regarding their genre play habits. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.KeywordsFunGameplayMotivationSelf-determination
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What is the contribution of pragmatism to the sociology of morality? I answer to the points raised by the essays in this symposium on Moral Entanglements: Conserving Birds in Britain and Germany by outlining what the work of John Dewey adds to recent discussions on the question how values change over time and how individuals develop moral commitments.
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