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Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lesson

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Abstract

Transit oriented development (TOD) is a viable model for transportation and land-use integration in many rapidly developing cities of the world, including those in Asia. TOD is a straightforward concept: concentrate a mix of moderately dense and pedestrian-friendly development around transit stations to promote transit riding, increased walk and bicycle travel, and other alternatives to the use of private cars. In a way, Asian cities have historically been transit oriented, featuring fine-grain mixes of land uses, plentiful pathways for pedestrians and cyclists, and ample transit services on major roads. However, the recent ascendancy in car ownership and rising incomes are unraveling the historical transit-supportive urban forms of many Asian cities, giving rising to an increasingly car-dependent built form. By focusing new construction and redevelopment in and around transit nodes, TOD is viewed as a promising tool for curbing sprawl and the car dependence it spawns. By channeling public investments into struggling inner-city settings, some hope TOD can breath new life and vitality into areas of need. And by creating more walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods with good transit connectivity, TOD is thought to appeal to the lifestyle preferences of a growing demographic, like childless couples, young professionals, and empty-nesters.

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... Uniti e nonostante attualmente esistano un centinaio di esempi di TOD presenti in Usa, tale paese rimane comunque rappresentativo della società che nel mondo risulta più di tutte dipendente in maniera strutturale dall'autovettura e che dunque non può essere considerato un modello ed un terreno ideale per esaminare ed analizzare gli effetti e l'applicabilità del TOD stesso (Cervero, 2006). Tuttavia Niles e Nelson (1999) affermano che il TOD è diventato un tema dominante del dibattito sulle pratiche e sui paradigmi di crescita e sviluppo urbano negli Stati Uniti. ...
... Ma l'aspetto più interessante è che si è riuscito a indirizzare e creare la domanda di trasporto e residenziale più che a seguirla, in quanto la rete ferroviaria è stata costruita prima che si creassero abbastanza residenze ed attività economiche, che potessero effettivamente giustificare l'ampiezza dell'investimento (Cervero, 2011). A Stoccolma dunque lo sviluppo urbano ha seguito la direzione dei corridoi ferroviari appositamente pianificati e progettati, ed attualmente tale città è uno dei pochi posti nel mondo dove l'uso dell'autovettura appare in continua diminuzione (Cervero, 2006;Cervero, 2011). Si tratta di un caso che dimostra in modo concreto come, se in presenza di una chiara volontà politica e di una forte capacità organizzativa ed operazionale, i processi di urbanizzazione possono essere strutturati seguendo la conformazione delle reti del trasporto collettivo (Leysens, 2011). ...
... Ciò a causa dei costi inferiori del suolo e delle minori difficoltà realizzative riscontrabili in tali aree periferiche (Zooneveld & Padilla, 2012). Un altro buon esempio di TOD individuato da R. Cervero (2006) è quello di Singapore, dove nel quadro di una ampia strategia di sviluppo economico nazionale, sono stati applicati i principi di pianificazione già sperimentati in Scandinavia. Attraverso un piano nazionale chiamato "Constellation Plan", è stato infatti creato un sistema radiale di corridoi ferroviari, che connetta il centro alle periferie ed alle città satelliti ("new towns"), sviluppate intorno alla metropoli del sud-est asiatico. ...
... According to Cervero (2009) the TOD is a simple concept that focuses on developing around transit stations to enable a densely populated area in order to promote transit riding, increased walking and bicycle travel, thus reducing the propensity to use cars (p. 23). ...
... This project has adopted a very successful TOD approach. According to Cervero (2009) "Bogotá, the Andean capital of Colombia, has gained global recognition for its highly efficient and productive bus rapid transit (BRT) system" (p. ...
... During its rapid developmental journey Singapore recorded the most rapid GDP per capita growth among the developing economies, driven by its focused "national economic development plan" that extensively utilised the concept of TOD. Similarly, when Bogotá completed its BRT project "Transmilenio" it was recognised as the world's most sustainable metropolises regardless of Colombia's civil unrest (Cervero, 2009). This strategic harnessing of both public transport and land use developments does lead to highly valued urban sustainable development. ...
Article
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The need for a mid-tier transit system and the opportunities created by 21st century transit technologies like Trackless Trams System (TTS) has been analysed in an earlier paper to show TTS could be a leapfrog solution for the future of sustainable urban development in developing cities. This paper outlines how the TTS can be created as a part of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Informed by literature, this study identified four factors that are important for enabling transition towards TOD. Using three of these factors a framework for assessing and evaluating TOD is formulated. The study then applies the formulated framework to the potential corridors that could potentially enable a transition towards a successful TOD for Bulawayo and enable the TTS to be delivered in a partnership with urban land development. The findings do reveal that most of the station precincts that are closer to the CBD have a higher potential to enable transition to TOD. This could suggest that the TTS could be implemented in two phases, the first phase covering the high impact station precincts.
... Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) refers to a high-density built environment integrated with transit systems [1]. The concept of TOD emerged as a solution for the negative effect of car-oriented planning such as urban sprawl and marginal treatment for the pedestrian [2]. Consequently, one of the key factors for successful TOD-establishment in many cities is the integration of high-capacity, high-performance rail systems for public transportation [2,3]. ...
... The concept of TOD emerged as a solution for the negative effect of car-oriented planning such as urban sprawl and marginal treatment for the pedestrian [2]. Consequently, one of the key factors for successful TOD-establishment in many cities is the integration of high-capacity, high-performance rail systems for public transportation [2,3]. The high-performance rail system can transport a large number of people to transit nodes in the network quickly without any concern about traffic jams. ...
... The implementation of the TOD concept in real development means gradual transformation with the incorporation of the transit system into existing cities [2,46]. Remembering the identification of material required for such dense and heavy-duty settlement, material choice plays an integral part in the success of a TOD. ...
Article
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Building material applied in a Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) area should meet high requirements such as having heavy-duty capacity, high durability, low maintenance, cost-effectiveness, and environmental-friendliness. In a tropical-rainforest or hot-humid climate, some of those requirements are intensified, especially those which are related to solar radiation and rainwater. Most existing urban development in a hot-humid climate must endure problems caused by uncontrolled stormwater and urban heat island (UHI). The idea of adopting a transit-oriented paradigm into the existing cities, convey a question whether the shift will be determining the liveability of the area; whether it could solve the existing problem or, on the contrary, generate additional problems. To overcome problems of an existing urban area and anticipate the requirements of a TOD area, the researcher progressively develops numerous materials under the term such as ‘advanced material’, ‘green material’, and ‘smart material’. This review covers current trends in material research which is relevant for TOD in a hot-humid climate. The identified trends are analyzed to generate discussion in which the TOD planning in hot-humid climate should consider and anticipate the prospect of advanced material.
... Jabareen [13] further include sustainable transport as one of the key design concepts of sustainable building and urban design plans. Other researchers, such as Zimring, Joseph [14] and Cervero [15] propose that sustainable residential built environments, transport systems and urban forms should be designed so as to promote sustainable modes of transport, e.g., public transport, and devise policies to discourage individual car usage, among building residents. ...
... They also proposed that government authority planners may attract more users towards public transit modes by providing better accessibility near workplaces. Similarly, Cervero [15] proposed that residential developments with lesser shared-spaces for cyclists and pedestrians may affect the mode choice, particularly an inclination towards individual car usage, more so as the building designs may also carry abundant nearby parking facilities instead of using the space for mixed-use walkable areas. ...
Article
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Public transport can discourage individual car usage as a life-cycle asset management strategy towards carbon neutrality. An effective public transport system contributes greatly to the wider goal of a sustainable built environment, provided the critical transit system attributes are measured and addressed to (continue to) improve commuter uptake of public systems by residents living and working in local communities. Travel data from intra-city travellers can advise discrete policy recommendations based on a residential area or development’s public transport demand. Commuter segments related to travelling frequency, satisfaction from service level, and its value for money are evaluated to extract econometric models/association rules. A data mining algorithm with minimum confidence, support, interest, syntactic constraints and meaningfulness measure as inputs is designed to exploit a large set of 31 variables collected for 1,520 respondents, generating 72 models. This methodology presents an alternative to multivariate analyses to find correlations in bigger databases of categorical variables. Results here augment literature by highlighting traveller perceptions related to frequency of buses, journey time, and capacity, as a net positive effect of frequent buses operating on rapid transit routes. Policymakers can address public transport uptake through service frequency variation during peak-hours with resultant reduced car dependence apt to reduce induced life-cycle environmental burdens of buildings by altering residents’ mode choices, and a potential design change of buildings towards a public transit-based, compact, and shared space urban built environment.
... Satellite villages developed around a rail station, as proposed by Calthorpe, mimic the Garden Cities promoted in England by Ebenezer Howard in the late 1800s, and the New Towns built in Europe in the mid-20th century (Renne, 2009). According to Cervero (2009), the best developed cases of TOD on the global scene were achieved precisely in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia, through the celebrated "finger Plan" of Copenhagen, Denmark (Knowles, 2012), and the "Planetary Cluster Plan" of Stockholm, Sweden (Cervero, 1995). Rail corridors were built in these metropolitan areas, often in advance of demand, to channel overspill growth from the urban centres. ...
... An additional underappreciated benefit of a regional approach to TOD is the possibility of intermixing land uses along linear rail corridors to produce bidirectional flow balance during the commuting period (Cervero, 2009). This is particularly important in cases, such as metropolitan areas, where the rail network has a radial structure. ...
Article
Transit-oriented development (TOD), first coined and mainly applied in the US, has received increasing interest in Europe over the past two decades as a sort of reinterpretation of typical intrinsic European planning principles and values. In the Old continent, it especially focuses on transport and land use integration, extending the approach from the local to the regional framework. This regional shift implies an intergovernmental cooperative approach with vertical and horizontal institutional coordination that constitutes both a strategic value and one of the main barriers to the implementation of TOD. This paper focuses on the role of regional planning for TOD by analysing its benefits, tools and barriers, both theoretically and through two European case studies. The latter, which were conducted in the Netherlands and in Italy, were selected as they belong to two different “planning families”, in order to underscore how and to what extent they apply this multi-level governance approach and overcome institutional barriers to the implementation of TOD. The analysis reveals that, albeit the two planning styles lead to different results, the main issue remains the deep coordination of land use and transport, which is hard to achieve despite dedicated efforts.
... TOD model presents an opportunity to create inclusive, well connected urban spaces. The created hubs are mostly compatible with motorised and non-motorised transport, and diverse land use activities such as residential, retail, offices, and open public spaces (Carlton, 2009;Cervero, 2006;EMBARQ Global, 2013). TOD has basic three developmental principles, which are design, density, and diversity (Cervero & Kockelman, 1997). ...
... TOD model has been successful and beneficial in other countries across the world with various objectives. In Bogota Colombia and Curitiba Brazil, TOD has been successfully implemented with the purpose to upgrade public transport services (Cervero, 2006;Rodriguez & Tovar, 2013;Suzuki et al., 2013). In Helsinki, Finland TOD has been implemented with the aim to facilitate mixed-income housing development along the public transport lines (Papa & Trifiletti, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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The South African cities are faced with highly complex spatial development challenges that require more than just urban development models to solve. The cities require stable collaborative efforts between stakeholders from various backgrounds to solve. There is a growing recognition amongst the urban planning fields that transdisciplinary research approach presents an opportunity to conduct and deliver functional research. The transdisciplinary research findings can be useful when implementing a specific development model, for example, transit-oriented development (TOD) model. This article explored how transdisciplinary approach was used to explore TOD as a potential model for spatial restructuring purposes to bring about mixed land use development with equitable access to places of employment, business, and leisure. The explorative field research of this article was done using the diverse methodological approach from both qualitative and quantitative structures. This resulted in the creation of the infrastructure improvement collaborative forum for Du Toit station precinct in Stellenbosch, South Africa. The aim of the collaborative forum was to create the short-term and long-term development interventions needed to revitalise the space. The sets of these interventions were guided by the basic TOD principles and transdisciplinary research approach to create a vision of mixed land use developments. That can be serviced by motorised and non-motorised public transport services. This article presents transdisciplinary research as a prospective methodological approach for urban development. This approach can be used when exploring the implementation of models such as TOD with the aim to create sustainable integrated urban spaces for equitable access to the benefits of urban activities.
... Similarly, spatial planning authorities pay all too often little attention to the mobility effects of their development plans (see Arts et al. 2014a). The integration of transport infrastructure and land-use planning is seen as an essential element of a more inclusive, sustainable transport planning (Arts 2007, Banister 2008, Cervero 2009, Van Wee et al. 2013. ...
Article
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Achieving a smart green and integrated transport system is key to sustaining and developing the economic, social and environmental vitality of urban Europe. Within this context the challenge is to deliver the next generation of infrastructure governance, design, management and operation that enables optimal accessibility, liveability and vitality across the various scales: from the local daily urban system to the wider EU-regions that cluster metropolitan areas. To tackle this challenge, a research programme has been developed for EU's Horizon 2020 – Networking for Urban Vitality (NUVit) – that focuses on the integration of the planning of multi-modal transport infrastructure with land-use planning. This paper discusses best practices amongst Europe of such integrated infrastructure planning – including cases from The Netherlands, Sweden, Estonia, Belgium. On basis of a benchmark we do an analysis addressing such issues as: spatial concepts (multi-modal corridors, nodal development); multi-modal network optimisation at various spatial scales; life-cycle issues; value creation and capturing; and, institutional and governance approaches. The paper ends by exploring the main elements of an integrated infrastructure planning approach that enables us to move forward to innovative, vital infrastructure networks and urban regions of tomorrow.
... The communication development strategy in the former paper mill area implements the idea of creating an appropriate urban tissue density that is friendly to pedestrians and cyclists, and connecting it to the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) traffic [119]. It is estimated that this approach may reduce 30% of greenhouse gas emissions, compared to conventional traffic [120]. ...
Article
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Biophilic design is developed in urban planning concepts for cities—in line with sustainable development. A case study of converting a former paper mill in Nanterre into a university campus showed what factors influence the emergence of the biophilic form. The research informs the planning and design mechanisms and directs attention to the process. As a result, the study demonstrates that biophilic elements from the place-based pattern group are directly related to in-depth environmental analysis—similar to elements from the nature-based and element-based pattern groups. Together they result in a biophilic form. The element of creation is also present in the design process but is not the primary determinant of the choice of a design approach. In part, the form is adapted to the area's environmental characteristics, which result from their interaction with objective determinants. Nevertheless, the implementation is not devoid of compositional, creative, and cultural elements—that is, it assumes the features of biophilic architecture. This fact proves that the environment can influence the creative potential in architecture and urban studies.
... Perhaps, lessons from other secondary cities could help successfully implement the bus-based transitoriented development approach. Widely known as one of the world's most sustainable cities, a Brazilian city of Curitiba implemented an affordable and well-managed BRT system (Cervero, 2016). Designed to ensure frequent and reliable services, Curitiba's BRT system offers the same features as a subway system: vehicular movements unimpeded by traffic lights and congestion, quick passenger boarding and unloading and fare collection prior to boarding (Goodman, Laube, & Schwenk, 2005). ...
Article
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This city profile focuses on the patterns of growth, challenges and urban renewal in Khon Kaen Metropolitan Municipality located in Thailand’s north-eastern region. It is presented in the global, Asia-Pacific regional and Southeast Asian context, where the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable urbanization are in a flux. After the Second World War, Khon Kaen emerged as a regional urban centre due to the Thai government’s anticommunist campaign and it being military base to US camps in the US-Vietnam War. As the city rapidly urbanized, it faced diverse challenges, ranging from an influx of rural migrants to environmental degradation. Today, Khon Kaen’s urban challenges are different. As the economy shifts from manufacturing to services, metropolitan government leaders and their constituents seek to transform Khon Kaen into a smart city with a transit-oriented development strategy. Climate change has also affected the city, causing devastating floods and prolonged droughts. Residents in squatter settlements are highly vulnerable to these climate-induced disasters and are under constant threat of eviction. Informed by the development trajectory outlined above, this city profile starts by laying out the global, Asia-Pacific regional and Southeast Asian context, and then discusses Khon Kaen’s rise to prominence as a regional economic and logistic hub in Thailand’s north-eastern region. The city’s current conditions, such as its geographical, historical, economic, social, environmental and administrative and governance contexts, are considered. Then, contemporary challenges of sustainable urban development are explained. This city profile culminates in a discussion of future development strategies for Khon Kaen as a bellwether secondary city in Thailand.
... For example, Curitiba, Brazil encourages "bus-oriented development," also called BOD, around stations in its bus rapid transit system, which has resulted in 27 million fewer automobile trips each year and about 27 million fewer liters of fuel annually (Goodman, Laube, & Schwenk, 2006). Similarly, Copenhagen, Denmark's Finger Plan; Stockholm, Sweden's Planetary Cluster Plan; and Singapore's Constellation Plan all call for TOD that integrates transit and regional development by emphasizing rail transit along with TOD that mixes land uses and creates a balance of jobs and housing around transit stations (Cervero, 2009). Changes to transit ridership and car ownership suggest that these plans, which are all decades old, have largely been successful in reducing automobile use. ...
Article
The subjects of this comparative case study are Orenco Station, a transit-oriented development (TOD) in the Portland region, and Station Park, a transit-adjacent development (TAD) in Salt Lake City region. The peak parking demand at Orenco Station is less than one half the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) suburban parking supply guideline. Also, vehicle trip generation rates are about half what is suggested in the ITE guidelines. Vehicle trip generation rates at Station Park show a smaller reduction but still substantial due to the mixed-use nature of Station Park. Parking generation rates are also lower than the ITE guidelines. In terms of metrics often associated with transportation performance, the large-scale TOD dramatically outperforms the large-scale TAD. The adjacent rail station appears to have little effect on the performance of the TAD, but a substantial effect on the performance of the TOD.
... With the Transmilenio, big investments in pedestrian and bike paths were also made 'in form of "green connectors" (…) [which] connects some of the poorest barrios and informal housing settlements (with highly trans-dependent populations) to the busways' [34]. However, using only a supply-driven policy is not enough to increase cycling levels [35]. ...
... It is a high-rent-production land use. This trend is consistent with the planning goals of TOD, which encourages mixed land use in metro station regions (Cervero, 2016). ...
... This setup reflected a typical development mode of Hong Kong, that is, the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). The TOD entities concentrate a mix of pedestrian-friendly and moderately dense development to attract diverse, vibrant community facilities around transit nodes and corridors (Cervero, 2009;Cervero & Murakami, 2009)). ...
Article
Highly dense cities' livability has long been debated in the urban planning field, particularly regarding vibrancy, walkability, and day-to-day service access. However, studies on density's effects on the provision of neighborhood community amenities and services are limited. In addition, urban form's effects on community facility distribution patterns under the constraints of pedestrian access to urban road networks remain poorly understood. Hong Kong, with an average population density of 68,500 persons/km², has one of the world's densest urban environments. This study investigated community facility distribution through a comprehensive network analysis using fine-scale dataset. Results showed that highly dense urban form ensured access to certain facilities and services and that daily service and amenities provision was positively correlated to building density and performance of community spatial characteristics. The findings provide insights for planning and designing to provide better facility services to meet people's daily needs regarding amenities and services and for the configuration of a dense urban form.
... One of the ways in which this integration can be realized in practice is through 'transit oriented development' (TOD). This planning paradigm refers to several mechanisms to intensify the density and diversity of housing and other activities near transit stops, with the overall objective of promoting transit ridership and active travel over the use of private cars (Cervero, 2009). ...
Article
The node-place model is an analytical framework that was devised to identify spatial development opportunities for railway stations and their surroundings at the regional scale. Today, the model is predominantly invoked and applied in the context of ‘transit-oriented development’ planning debates. As a corollary, these model applications share the pursuit of supporting a transition towards increased rail ridership (and walking and cycling), and therefore assumingly a transition to more sustainable travel behavior. Surprisingly, analyses of the importance of node and place interventions in explaining rail ridership remain thin on the ground. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to integrate the node-place model approach with current insights that derive from the trip end modeling literature. To this end, we apply a series of regression analyses in order to appraise the most important explanatory factors that impact rail ridership in Flanders, Belgium, today. This appraisal is based on both geographical and temporal data segmentations, in order to test for different types of railway stations and for different periods of the day. Additionally, we explore spatial nonstationarity by calibrating geographically weighted regression models, and this for different time windows. The models developed should allow policy and planning professionals to investigate the possible demand impacts of changes to existing stations and the walkable area surrounding them.
... Namun juga harus didukung dengan pengembangan urban form yang kompak disekitar titik pergantian moda. Pengembangan kawasan yang berorinteasi pada titik transit agar meningkatkan demand angkutan massal berbasis transit tersebut sering dikenal dengan Transit Oriented Development [7] [8]. Berdasarkan pengalaman Kota Arlington, semakin tinggi tingkat kesesuaian kawasan terhadap standart TOD maka semakin tinggi tinggi penggunaan metro ridership (angkutan umum berbasis transit), bahkan penggunaan angkutan umum tersebut naik 263% dalam waktu 17 tahun ketika konsep TOD diterapkan di koridor Arlington tersebut. ...
... Through joint development programs, development powers around the transit stations can be transferred to the transit authorities. This can simplify development, and formation of unique transit nodes (Cervero, 2006;Cervero et al., 2002). Each stakeholder's view and participation is necessary for planning a successful TOD (Levinson et al., 2002). ...
Poster
The poster explains the research motivation and methodology adopted for the study.
... These design concepts are hypothesized to be able to generate more pedestrian and public transit trips (Cervero and Gorham, 1995). Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is an urban planning concept that aims to reduce the use of motor vehicles, while promoting the use of public transits by introducing high density, mixed use land, and environmentalfriendly development around the transit centres (Wey and Chiu, 2013;Cervero, 2006). On the contrary, with all the development concepts applied to ensure railway transit stations are strategically located, it is observed that residents and commuters in the neighbourhood are still travelling to railway transits by their privately owned vehicles and buses instead of walking. ...
Chapter
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Light Rail Transit (LRT) is one of the sustainable transports which is highly promoted by Malaysian government with the intention to ease traffic congestion. However, it is observed that a few of LRT stations in Klang Valley are underutilised and have lesser amount of user. Location of the stations should not be a reason for this as they are usually strategically located and designed to encourage their surrounding residents to commute by walking. Instead, inadequacy of proper pedestrian infrastructure and facility is considered as one of the main factors that affects the commuters’ choice when choosing their mode of transport. The infrastructure design and facility can be measured and evaluated with the Pedestrian Walkability Index. This paper introduces the concept of Pedestrian Walkability Index as a measurement tool for pedestrians’ mode of choice. A new assessment form was created and customised for this purpose by adopting the Krambeck’s Global Walkability Index. Subsequently, three LRT stations were reviewed based on this assessment form and the results for each LRT station were presented. Results showed that Station Asia Jaya has the highest Walkability Index (3.36), followed by Station Sri Rampai (3.15) and Station Miharja (3.08). Results also showed that as the Walkability Index increases, the amount of pedestrian increases as well. The equation for the Pedestrian Conversion factor was found to be y = 9266.5x − 28,014. This can be used as a guide for future LRT station refurbishment project as well as new train station development projects.
... The urban forms are 'static tissues' of urbanism. According to Talen [13], these static tissues are "supported by connecting urban form with public transport, physical activities, social sustainability, climate change, and good environmental quality" [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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This study examined various features of urban form, which promote sustainable development and provoke shoppers toward shopping malls. A field survey was conducted in shopping malls at Hangzhou, which is the capital city of the Zhejiang province, China. Structural equation modeling and a confirmatory factor analysis were used to measure the hypotheses. The results of this study showed that the built environment and entertainment completely mediated the relationship between ambiance and consumption, and they have a positive impact on the environment and shoppers. The built environment and entertainment are viewed as essential elements of physical and social sustainability. Real estate developers, urban planners, and shopping mall managers should consider the design features of urban form to meet sustainable development goals and to attract more shoppers. Testing these relationships via a mediating method is a novel contribution to the study of shopping malls.
... In the public transit system of CB and PT, how does the variety-seeking behavior impact operation and management of different types of buses? In previous studies, the improvement in service has an important influence on bus operation (Chen et al., 2016;Cervero, 2016;Demircan and Tunc, 2019). Therefore, a research question arises naturally: in the application scenarios of CB and PT, if there are passengers with variety-seeking behavior, how to improve the service in order to rationalize operation without rushing headlong into a mass. ...
Article
In recent years, customized bus (CB) is becoming an innovative model of the public transport system (PTS) in China. This service provides an advanced, timely, personalized, and flexible responses to the demand of the PTS, especially of commuters. Obviously, it could have an impact on public transport (PT) service. For instance, CB services influence the customers' variety-seeking behavior, which results in changes of customer options in different periods. Therefore, customers could be divided into different groups of preference. In this paper, we construct a two-period Hotelling game model by variety-seeking behavior and service level. The results show that, in the first stage, the departure frequency of CB and PT is influenced by variety-seeking behavior and service level. In the second stage, departure frequency is influenced by service level only. Next, although the departure frequency of bus impacts the changes of passenger ratios in different stages, service level appreciably impacts passenger number. From customer surplus and social welfare, we find that adjustment of service level can increase social welfare, which means that CB and PT will reach an optimum effect. The present work can provide a valuable reference to policymakers, practitioners, and others.
... Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) based planning is a fairly frequent discussion in Indonesia, especially as population and settlement facilities are growing increasingly complex which then requires intensive and structured handling. Broadly speaking, TOD is a city development concept that focuses on regional development around the station node to support transit activities through the development of systems that are interconnected with existing and planned developments, making it easier for people to move around without going through long transportation trips [1][2] [3]. In other words, TOD does not merely reduce the long travel time but realizes the development of a framed city based on the calculation of population mobility. ...
Article
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As a form of urban development, transit-oriented development (TOD) maximizes the amount of residential, business, and leisure space within walking distance of public transport facilities. TOD places more emphasis on design that increases interest in walking, by providing a scale that is appropriate for pedestrians. The Bandung City Government for the period of 2013-2018 has applied TOD in the city of Bandung by building various kinds of public facilities, also restoration and construction of infrastructure to improve the walkability aspect of Bandung. The developments that took place in Bandung then increased its livability, among others through the emergence of various types of thematic parks and various pedestrian infrastructures. The scope of this paper is to critically discuss how TOD was implemented in Bandung mainly through the observation on revitalized pedestrian pathways, while the author's views on TOD which focused on pedestrian pathways is also formulated. Based on analysis carried out, it was found how TOD, specifically the revitalization of pedestrian pathways, was implemented partially with an emphasis on aesthetic aspects. Furthermore, this study described how Bandung has the potential to exploit pathways within kampung kota in heed of context-based TOD.
... A higher density of population and jobs in station areas also creates a better opportunity to improve subway ridership, increasing transit investment returns and managing the transit operation [7]. The location of transit stations supports land-use development to increase ridership through better pedestrian accessibility [11]. The benefit of integrated TOD and land use planning can be related to the urban land value [12]. ...
Article
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Transit-oriented development (TOD) pursues sustainable urban development through compact growth, mixed-use zoning, and pedestrian-friendly neighborhood design in cooperation with transportation planning. Seoul has actively developed urban rail transit since the 1970s based on a TOD concept, and each station’s areas have differently evolved throughout the history of urbanization in Seoul. In response to investigating the complications of current TOD, this paper evaluates TOD characteristics through accessibility and clustering analysis methods and categorizes TOD types using the targeted 246 subway station areas at the neighborhood level. As a result, subway TODs are grouped into the four distinct categories of (1) high-density: a form of mainly mixed-use with residential and retail development and good accessibility; (2) moderate-density: average accessibility and high-mixed use; (3) compact business district setting: highly accessible to offices and retail; and (4) compact housing: high-rise apartments with schools and retail. The results also find that Cluster 2 is the most common TOD type and redevelopment possibility in Seoul, with relatively lower ranks in the building floor area (GFA) and diversity in comparison to other TOD contexts. Cluster 3 has the most significant transit demand, generating an active transit environment in Seoul. Different urban development periods impact the characteristics of TOD types.
... As an example of decentralized concentration, the concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) was originated by Peter Calthorpe in his book "The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream" [28], but this type of development has been frequently suggested in the literature [3,[29][30][31][32][33]. Currently, TOD policies have been implemented in several cities and metropolitan areas all over the world, and the concept can be understood as "a mix of moderately dense and pedestrian-friendly development around transit stations" [34]. In general terms, TOD is an integrated approach to transportation and land-use planning [35]. ...
Article
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The disappearance of kilometers of railways that once structured their surrounding territory has become an alarming issue in the last decades. These days, several disused railway infrastructures have been converted into non-motorized transport infrastructures. Meanwhile, most of the railway nodes have been abandoned or reused without consideration of the linear infrastructure. This paper argues that former railway nodes can have potential in their surrounding environment and as part of a non-motorized transport axis, i.e., to again be nodes of the former linear infrastructure. Accordingly, the objective of the paper is to analyze the potential of disused railway nodes, focusing on the possibilities they could offer in the area, and defining future approaches for more sustainable development. For that purpose, relations between former railway nodes and their surrounding environment are studied considering transport and land use in the non-motorized influence areas. Existing node/place models were adapted and a multiaxial model was created to measure the balance between transport and land use and typify the defined area. The proposed methodology was applied in a case study, classifying node areas in different development typologies that will be related to different future approaches.
... Such a paradigm shift from private to public modes will decrease the travel distance and time. It leads to a reduction in traffic congestion and air pollution (Boarnet and Crane, 2001;Cervero and Duncan, 2006;Cervero, 2016). Recently, developing countries like India renowned the concept of TOD as a sustainable approach to its compact cities for a better quality of life (MoUD, 2016). ...
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Developing countries like India have started focusing on Transit Oriented Development (TOD) policies for their existing cities. In the absence of a generic definition and generalized criteria in the TOD literature, context-specific planning criteria are essentially required to assess TOD suitability in any city. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques have been widely used throughout the past studies to assist multi-stakeholders’ in establishing criteria related to TOD planning. This paper presents a Multi-Criteria Multi-Stakeholder Decision Making approach based on Fuzzy-Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) to establish planning criteria which can be further useful to select suitable TOD sites in Delhi, India. A series of 9 criteria and their corresponding indicators are established based on literature review and expert consultation. Three stakeholder groups (researchers, planners, and policymakers) comprising of 31 experts from different fields related to TOD issues were solicited to provide their perspectives on TOD planning in the Delhi city. The expert judgments were converted into fuzzy numbers to capture the vagueness and uncertainty that human attitudes entail when making judgments. In this study, 13 priority indicators were identified based on a balanced consensus in stakeholder groups using the FAHP method. Given that the stakeholder groups diverge in their perspectives, their judgments convergence in believing that TOD planning in Delhi can be best assessed using ‘transit service’ criterion and least assessed using ‘Demographics’ criterion. The study has drawn global weights of criterion and indicators from multi-stakeholders’ perspectives can be effective in achieving TOD planning across existing and future cities in India.
... It is one of the key aspects of accessibility assessment and the key to urban environmental design. Planning of land-use for stations should be integrated as early as possible, according to Cervero (2006). In such a rational manner, transport and land-use are connected (Waddell, 2011). ...
... Namun juga harus didukung dengan pengembangan urban form yang kompak disekitar titik pergantian moda (Cervero,2013). Pengembangan kawasan yang berorinteasi pada titik transit agar meningkatkan demand angkutan massal berbasis transit tersebut sering dikenal dengan Transit Oriented Development (Cervero, 2006) Berdasarkan pengalaman Kota Arlington, semakin tinggi tingkat kesesuaian kawasan terhadap standart TOD maka semakin tinggi tinggi penggunaan metro ridership (angkutan umum berbasis transit), bahkan penggunaan angkutan umum tersebut naik 263% dalam waktu 17 tahun ketika konsep TOD diterapkan di koridor Arlington tersebut. Selain itu sebesar 73% berjalan kaki, 7,5% menggunakan metro bus dan hanya 12,9% yang menggunakan kendaraan pribadi di koridor tersebut (Dittmar dan Ohland, 2004). ...
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Located in CDB Jakarta, Blok M is one of most strategic area in Jakarta that developed by TOD principles. TOD concept is an approach to develop a city that focuses on station areas. The characteristic of TODs are high density, mixed land use, and pedestrian friendly. This research used spatial query analysis to identify level of congruence Blok M as an area that developed by TOD`s concept. The result of this research implies that congruence Blok M as TOD`s area is 85,215% only. It also shows that density in Blok M area is high already but in the other hand diversity and pedestrian ways design in Blok M still below standart of TODs.
... Já em termos conceituais mais amplos, a mobilidade urbana sustentável pode ser caracterizada como «prover acessibilidade no presente, de modo a não comprometer a capacidade das gerações futuras de acesso às mesmas, ou melhores, condições de acessibilidade e bem-estar em termos sociais, econômicos e ambientais no contexto da cidade e seu entorno» ( (2015) Os princípios TOD, ao tratarem que elementos para qualificar a mobilidade urbana, apresentam potencial de influência direto sobre elementos relevantes do planejamento urbano em si, como por exemplo, a qualificação das vias e fachadas, adensamento urbano e utilização mista do solo. Neste sentido percebe-se que a partir da interação entre os processos de planejamento de mobilidade e territorial, é possível que os elementos orientados à sustentabilidade do TOD sejam expandidos para os processos de planejamento e gestão das cidades como um todo (Cervero e Renne, 2016;Ministério das Cidades. Brasil, 2015). ...
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This study deals with the possibility of using urban mobility plans (UMPs) of middle-size emerging cities (MECs) as inducers for the incorporation of the sustainability approach in urban planning and management processes, based on the principles of the transport oriented development (TOD) methodology. It is an exploratory research that identifies the MECs in Brazil, maps the use of TOD principles in UMPs in cities located in the South and Center-West Regions of Brazil using the text mining technique, and compares UMPs with master plans to identify opportunities for the incorporation of TOD principles. The results showed that out of the 35 MECs in the regions investigated, only ten had UMPs. Out of these, all dealt with issues regarding the TOD principles, but on different levels. Based on the findings, recommendations are made for the implementation of the TOD principles for MECs.
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This research aimed to verify the relationship between private vehicles dependence during the development periods of urban railways and the time-series change in environmental impacts of transport; targeting the surrounding areas of new urban railway stations in metropolitan regions of Japan. The analysis statistically showed that the environmental impact of transport would tend to decrease in areas with lower modal shares of private cars at the timing of urban railway development. On the other hand, it also suggested the rapidly increasing tendency of environmental impact in areas with larger vehicle use at the timing. However, it also revealed that new stations with high frequency departures would contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of transport in highly urbanized areas, even if they are considered auto-dependent.
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The study proposes a methodology to evaluate the impact of planned Transit Oriented Development (TOD) along new METRO rail project. Using this methodology, the applicability of TOD principles using vertical development in rapidly developing metropolitan city, Mumbai, in India is explored. The methodology focuses on prediction of mode choice behaviour of people before implementation of planned TOD. Moreover, indirect impacts of TOD like, financial feasibility, decrease in fuel consumption and travel time for planned year, 2036, are evaluated. Findings of this study show that TOD can be an effective tool for achieving the sustainable development in highly congested metropolitan cities of developing country as even though density is increased within Transit Influence Area (TIA), the congestion on roads will not be increased.
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What is a better community? How can we reconfigure places and transport networks to create environmentally friendly, economically sound, and socially just communities? How can we meet the challenges of growing pollution, depleting fossil fuels, rising gasoline prices, traffic congestion, traffic fatalities, increased prevalence of obesity, and lack of social inclusion? The era of car-based planning has led to the disconnection of people and place in developed countries, and is rapidly doing so in the developing countries of the Global South. The unfolding mega-trend in technological innovation, while adding new patterns of future living and mobility in the cities, will question the relevance of face-to-face connections. What will be the ‘glue’ that holds communities together in the future? To build better communities and to build better cities, we need to reconnect people and places. Connecting Places, Connecting People offers a new paradigm for place making by reordering urban planning principles from prioritizing movement of vehicles to focusing on places and the people who live in them. Numerous case studies, including many from developing countries in the Global South, illustrate how this can be realized or fallen short of in practical terms. Importantly, citizens need to be engaged in policy development, to connect with each other and with government agencies. To measure the connectivity attributes of places and the success of strategies to meet the needs, an Audit Tool is offered for a continual quantitative and qualitative evaluation.
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Cities provide places for people to live, work, learn and socialize. As urban environments, cities nowadays are typically characterized by urban sprawl in which open public spaces (1) are neglected and/or (2) social interactions are discouraged. In fact, the encouragement of social interactions among neighbors is a vital factor implementing livability among city dwellers. Recent evidence suggests that social interactions occur infrequently in contemporary urban neighborhoods. Therefore, it is worth investigating how communities can be designed in the future with the aim to increase social interactions. Al-Najada area in Doha provides a useful case study because it is a traditional area, built based on formal social structures aiming to the formation of social interaction in old neighborhoods (which is called Fereej in Arabic). This paper investigated how the urban fabric of Al-Najada area can be implemented in order to enhance social interactions and become an effective sample of sustainable development. Also, this paper examined the factors that contribute to socially sustainable development in the regeneration of Al-Najada as a traditional asset in the heart of Doha. Literature review is conducted on topics of sustainable urbanism, urban sociology, and built heritage to learn about design implementation in order to enhance social interactions within the urban fabric of neighborhoods. Therefore, content analysis, site observations, and walking tour assessments are adopted as the main research methods in order to investigate how social interactions at Al-Najada area can be encouraged, namely how the spatial form can be implemented in order to enhance social interactions. The research study findings led to the definition of a set of recommendations for a design approach, based on smart planning and design guidelines, aiming at implementing Al-Najada neighborhood in order to facilitate social interactions. The recommendations are genuinely plan-led, empowering local people to shape their surroundings, with concise neighborhood plans setting out a positive vision for the future of Al-Najada area.
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Transit oriented development (TOD) is an effective urban planning technique that addresses the present-day concerns of sustainability. It relies on integrating land use and transport network systems. It is the concept with utmost effective solution for accommodating a better and controlled urban growth. Although, National TOD policy is already been published by the Indian Government and it has envisaged a substantial optimistic influence in eradicating problems. India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world and is also the second most populous nation, furthermore it has a rapidly growing urban population owing to which the cities are facing severe problems and challenges related to mobility, congestion and subsequently pollution. Even though, a diversity of criteria and indicators are listed by various authors that impacts the use of TOD techniques. Nonetheless, every country has its own challenges and problems for applicability and effective implementation of TOD. This paper attempts to identify those challenges pertaining to adoption and implementation at the urban body level. The study mainly adopts primary means of data collection. It reviews policies and case studies and captures the stakeholder's perception on the identified concerns from the secondary study.
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Transit oriented development (TOD) has quickly developed as a well-known urban developing approach all around the world to achieve a spatial economic transport interaction. TOD does not only relate to mass transit, but it is a strategy to decongest nodal, major points, arteries of the city by making people walk, use public transport, in order to make city environmentally sustainable. Indian cities are fronting major predicament under the sphere of mobility in urban development for which smart cities concept TOD in developing and big countries like India. Hence, this paper will be majorly focusing on presentation of a methodical literature assessment. Though, TOD as a policy is envisaged to have a significant positive impact in mitigating issues at urban scale but there are variety of attributes and indicators that impact the applicability of (SLR) that targets the consolidated knowledge on Transit Oriented Development, analyze the parameters for the successful TOD's all over the world and provide steps for further exploration in Indian context. The corpus analysis of 102 articles and reports leading to the most significant research offerings on TOD acting as the essential pillar in the development is researched such that these results could be utilized for further research.
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Over the past decade, transit-oriented development (TOD) has been advocated as an applicable urban regeneration planning model to promote the sustainability of cities along with city dwellers’ standards of urban living. On a regional scale, under the directives of the Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV-2030), the Qatar National Development Framework (QNDF-2032), and the strategies for planned mega events, such as the FIFA World Cup 2022, the State of Qatar launched the construction of the Doha Metro, which consists of four lines. This transport system, linking the center of Doha to several transit villages around approximately 100 metro stations, aims at reducing the number of vehicles on the road networks while providing an integrated transportation and land use strategy through the urban regeneration of transit-oriented developments (TODs), providing both social and environmental economic benefits. Among the most significant transit sites within the Doha Metro lines is the Souq Waqif station. This station is a historical–heritage spot that represents a potential socio-cultural site for the creation of a distinctive urban environment. This research study investigates an approach suitable for an urban regeneration planning scheme for the Souq Waqif TOD, aiming at (i) preserving and consolidating the deeply rooted cultural heritage of the historical site and (ii) enhancing the city dwellers’ and/or the community’s standards of urban living. This study aims to explore the applicability of a TOD planning scheme for the new metro station through urban regeneration and land infill in the existing built environment of the Souq. This study contends that the efficient integration of land use with transport systems contributes to shaping an environment with enhanced standards of living for users while supporting social, economic, and environmental factors. The present research design comprises qualitative data based on theoretical studies and site-based analysis to assess (i) the principles of TODs and (ii) the extent to which their application can be employed for the Souq Waqif to become a sustainable TOD.
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Transit oriented development (TOD) is a land-use and transport integrated urban planning strategy that is highly acclaimed for promoting sustainable city development. This review aims to identify the problems regarding adoption of TOD standards or guidelines formulated by developed countries in developing countries, such as India, and the necessity of conducting adaptability studies on TOD influence areas. The existing studies show that the size of the influence area varies among different cities and travel modes. Accordingly, no single size influence zone is suitable for all cases. This review highlights the necessity of carefully considering the spatial extent of influence areas and modes other than walking as access or egress modes in the Indian context. Moreover, this review aims to provide insight on how to plan TOD in the context of developing countries, because the mobility patterns in these countries differ considerably from those in the developed world.
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The thousands of kilometres of disused railway lines that make up a fascinating body of heritage have been the subject of studies by several authors over recent decades. Several interventions for their reuse and reconversion have been carried out. However, there is a mismatch between theoretical and practical achievements. This research claims that an analysis of the railway lines under discussion should develop a comprehensive vision in order to establish common criteria for their preservation and for future interventions. As such, the objective of this paper is to create a methodological proposal for the analysis of disused railway lines as complex systems, thus demonstrating their potential as part of situated proposals for sustainable development. Accordingly, a Comprehensive Analysis Method (CAM) is created based on three theoretical and methodological underpinnings: disused railways as heritage systems; former linear infrastructures as non-motorised axes; and a balance between transport and other land uses around former railway nodes. The conclusions make reference to the potential of disused railways as territorial structuring systems, including both the potential of the linear infrastructure and the potential of the railway nodes, in order to encompass repurposing beyond the current greenways while continuing to promote the preservation of railway heritage. Both general strategies and specific action points have been identified for the repurposing of disused railway infrastructure. The proposed methodology has been applied in the case study of the Vasco-Navarro Railway, identifying strategic points in the infrastructure and areas where specific strategies can be implemented.
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This article is concerned with masterplan implementation and with exploring, via recourse to case studies, slippages between masterplanning principles, policies, and practices. Framed by a growing body of sustainable urbanism literature we analyse evidence from five masterplanned communities in the UK and Australia to comparatively explore how some key theoretical principles are translated into placemaking in inner urban, suburban, outer urban and semi-rural contexts. We observe varying degrees of disjuncture between masterplanning principles and the urban form envisioned by, and realized through, actual masterplanning proposals and implementation. We postulate that various degrees of slippage at each stage from proposals to practices have occurred which can affect capacity to meet principles of sustainable urbanism. Analysis of the five cases demonstrates where some potential “tripping-up” points lie in the masterplanning process, hinting at broader impediments to delivering masterplanning that is more closely aligned to sustainable urbanism principles in future.
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Starting from a reflection on Latin America cities that have promoted innovative public transport policies, the article focuses on the case of San José in Costa Rica. By questioning a governmental proposal for building a new elevated Light Rapid Transit line, the text presents alternative solutions for the recovery of an underused interurban railway, its doubling and integration into the metropolitan context of San José. These solutions consider both recurrent technical features of the infrastructure and its morpho-functional relationships with the crossed urban settlement, with the aim to identify the thickness of the project, and to provide design solutions for the upgrading of the service and the integration of the rail infrastructure into the context.
Chapter
Accessibility evaluation is an established technical tool within the domain of transport planning, and it may also have specific significance in relation to the social implications for urban mobility. Definable as the ease of reaching goods, services and activities, accessibility can contribute to defining how transport systems enhance opportunities for individuals by granting them the possibility to participate in different activities that they may have reason to value. The chapter intends to investigate accessibility as a significant evaluative tool for enabling mobilities and define the conditions and adjustments required for enhancing such a role. After introducing traditional definitions in the field of transport planning, accessibility is reconceptualised from a social perspective, focusing on the potential access to basic opportunities that are particularly significant to enable individuals. Moreover, the operational implications for drafting real-world evaluations are discussed. An evaluative exercise referring to the setting of Bogotá (Colombia) is presented to consider how its public transport system grants access to a set of relevant opportunities. The exercise is significant for observing accessibility evaluations in practice, as well as to discuss advantages and limitations of such a technical tool from a social perspective.
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This chapter introduces the role of medium-small railway stations within daily mobilities and the conditions that enhance their role in large metropolitan areas characterized by a dispersed demand and mostly oriented towards the use of cars. With the aim of proposing tools for coordinating public accessibility and land uses, the chapter highlights how strengthening the regional railway supply, as done in some Italian regions, could represent also a land-use policy for re-orienting urban settlements and land-use forecast. Starting from a reflection on the outcomes of an investment in upgrading the regional railway service in the Lombardy Region, the chapter proposes a classification of the stations as a useful tool for the construction of scenarios that reorganize land-use forecasts and improve both the accessibility and quality of the services in the stations, in order to widen the catchment areas of each station. The approach combines two methodologies of classification of the stations, both able to enhance the place and node dimensions of each station: the ‘Place-Node model’ (Bertolini 1999) and the ‘TOD index approach’ (Evans and Pratt 2007). The classification of the 104 suburban railway stations provides guidelines for densification around some stations, reorganizing dispersed land-use forecast and improving the quality of the transport connectivity and the railway services.
Chapter
Big data provides unprecedented opportunities for understanding and planning urban mobility. Big data makes huge amounts of information available with a high level of detail, potentially precisely depicting overall macrotrends while also detecting micropractices that elude traditional investigative approaches. Despite this unprecedented insight on mobility issues, big data is not the ultimate solution for dealing with urban mobility, especially when considering social dimensions. The chapter intends to discuss at what conditions big data may contribute to mobility planning and policy approaches that may effectively enable individuals and their opportunities. After introducing the concept of big data and its increasing relevance, the significance for urban policy of such a knowledge source is briefly presented. The discussion then moves to four critical issues that question the contribution of big data to enabling mobilities. These include the representativeness of the information provided by big data; the interpretative issues associated with understanding mobilities through manifold digital technologies; the differentiated individual ability to produce information through portable devices and emerging actors who operate through big data and influence urban mobility dynamics in unforeseen ways. These dimensions highlight three forms of partiality that affect the completeness, the neutrality and the usability of big data in relation to mobility issues, leading to a call for a critical usage of big data. This approach can contribute to enabling mobilities thanks to the enriched information it provides, without delegating to it the responsibility of defining urban problems and solutions.
Chapter
Mobility is fundamental for enhancing the individual possibility to pursue one’s own aspirations. Every person needs to be mobile to reach those opportunities she has reason to value, depending on her needs, attitudes and interests. Despite different individual habits, skills and attitudes, mobility has the same enabling role for any individual, an aspect that the prevailing operational approaches to urban mobility issues nonetheless still tend to overlook. Yet a growing stream of theoretical approaches in the field of mobilities seems to be working in the direction of enhancing individuals’ ability to move and, consequently, their ability to access the opportunities they have reason to value. In transport planning and policy approaches, these reflections produced some experiments that have not yet been consolidated as ordinary practice. To address the issue, this book intends to investigate how established transport planning tools can evolve to understand and plan for ever changing contemporary mobilities. As an introduction, this chapter discusses the main conceptual and operational approaches that consider mobility to be an enabling condition. The cases presented in the book intend to introduce how to revisit established tools in light of enhancing the enabling role of mobility, as well as how emerging and experimental tools may influence urban mobility planning and policy approaches.
Book
This book intends to investigate how established transport planning tools can evolve to understand and plan for everchanging contemporary mobilities that influence the opportunities available to each person. The researches collected in the book deal thus with existing techniques, revised in the light of the growing interest for the social implications of transport planning decisions: these involve both analytical tools to interpret consolidated and emerging phenomena, and operational tools to tackle new and existing mobility demands and needs. The book moves from an interest for the implications of everyday mobility for individuals and communities. It is the result of a contin-uous exchange between the two authors, who here brings together the results of different researches they led.
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Chapter link: https://report.ipcc.ch/ar6wg3/pdf/IPCC_AR6_WGIII_FinalDraft_Chapter17.pdf