Article

Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone

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Abstract

Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure. We here discuss the present findings as well as the previous results of altered BBB permeability from our and other laboratories.

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... Exposure to EMF has been described in 2008-9 as between 10 and 15 times higher than the earth's natural magnetic field (Röösli, 2008;Nittby et al., 2009). Specifically around the 1 GHz frequency band, exposures have risen by approximally 10 18 times natural levels (Bandara and Carpenter, 2018). ...
... Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses (Dwyer and Leeper, 1978;Pall, 2016). EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades (Liboff, 1984;Blackman et al., 1985;Smith et al., 1987;Pall, 2013Pall, , 2015, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells (Irmak et al., 2002;Zmyslony et al., 2004;Friedman et al., 2007;Blank and Goodman, 2009;De Iuliis et al., 2009;Georgiou, 2010;Avci et al., 2012;Jing et al., 2012;Bilgici et al., 2013;Burlaka et al., 2013) as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions (Frey, 1961;Thomas et al., 1986;Carrubba et al., 2007;Nittby et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2010;Molot, 2013;Yakymenko et al., 2016;Pall, 2016;Kim et al., 2017) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Salford et al., 2008;Nittby et al., 2009). Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF (Maher et al., 2016). ...
... Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses (Dwyer and Leeper, 1978;Pall, 2016). EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades (Liboff, 1984;Blackman et al., 1985;Smith et al., 1987;Pall, 2013Pall, , 2015, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells (Irmak et al., 2002;Zmyslony et al., 2004;Friedman et al., 2007;Blank and Goodman, 2009;De Iuliis et al., 2009;Georgiou, 2010;Avci et al., 2012;Jing et al., 2012;Bilgici et al., 2013;Burlaka et al., 2013) as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions (Frey, 1961;Thomas et al., 1986;Carrubba et al., 2007;Nittby et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2010;Molot, 2013;Yakymenko et al., 2016;Pall, 2016;Kim et al., 2017) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Salford et al., 2008;Nittby et al., 2009). Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF (Maher et al., 2016). ...
Article
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as “Microwave syndrome”, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings. Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems. It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses. More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.
... Aside reports from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), dated by 2011, classifying the radiofrequency EMFs as Group 2B (possible human carcinogen), there is a solid number of reports indicating more profound harmful non-thermal effects on the health (Abramson et al., 2009;Akdag et al., 2016;Fragopoulou et al., 2012;Hardell et al., 2010;Nittby et al., 2009;Sudan et al., 2016). The rigid position of WHO and IARC triggered the formation of alternative international research groups and associations such as Bio-Initiative Committee (Hardell, 2017). ...
... Recently, in a range of studies it was demonstrated that PEMFs have a high therapeutic potential for joint and bone problems treatment (Ceccarelli et al., 2013;Chen et al., 2010;De Mattei et al., 2009;Fini et al., 2005;Johnson et al., 2001;Kapi et al., 2015;Luo et al., 2012;Manjhi et al., 2013;Miyagi et al., 2000;Ongaro et al., 2012;Park et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2014;Xie et al., 2016;Zhong et al., 2012), tissue repair (Zou et al., 2017), wound healing (Callaghan et al., 2008), cancer management (Tatarov et al., 2011;Zimmerman et al., 2012) and modulation of cytokine secretion (Gomez-Ochoa et al., 2011). Moreover, EMF showed a huge potential for treatment various neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Multiple Sclerosis and others (Arendash et al., 2012;Capelli et al., 2017;Jeong et al., 2015;Morberg et al., 2017;Sandyk, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
Controversial, sensational and often contradictory scientific reports have triggered active debates over the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in literature and mass media the last few decades. This could lead to confusion and distraction, subsequently hampering the development of a univocal conclusion on the real hazards caused by EMFs on humans. For example, there are lots of publications indicating that EMF can induce apoptosis and DNA strand-breaks in cells. On the other hand, these effects could rather be beneficial, in that they could be effectively harnessed for treatment of various disorders, including cancer. This review discusses and analyzes the results of various in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies on the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on cells and organs, including the consequences of exposure to the low and high frequencies EM spectrum. Emphasis is laid on the analysis of recent data on the role of EMF in the induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Additionally, the impact of EMF on the reproductive system has been discussed, as well as the relationship between EM radiation and blood cancer. Apart from adverse effects, the therapeutic potential of EMFs for clinical use in different pathologies is also highlighted.
... Similarly, it has been found that microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones may increase the level of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations into the rest of the body, which has been measured in a previous study by measuring the concentration of mercury in subjects' urine (24). It has been reported that the radiation emitted by cell phones during use can alter the blood-brain barrier permeability, which may allow toxic substances, such as mercury, to enter a human's bloodstream (27,43). ...
... The list of benefits of these devices is long, and it can be easy to become reliant upon these benefits. However, there is some research that reports purported health concerns due to the RF emitted from our mobile phones, smartwatches, and tablets (24,27). Data collected from animal and human studies have mixed results where some research has not found significant correlations between regular mobile device use and negative health outcomes while other studies have found significant relationships between mobile device use and negative health outcomes such as cancer and heart palpitations (3,4,23). ...
... They noticed enhanced albumin extravasation after 14 d, but not after a 28 d recovery period. These considerations were confirmed by the same research team in 2009 (Nittby et al. 2009). Forty-eight rats were exposed during 2 h to a 900 MHz GSM HF field (SARs of 0 mW/kg for the sham group; 0.12 mW/kg, 1.2 mW/kg, 12 mW/kg and 120 mW/kg for the other groups). ...
... Hypothesis NTh2: "vasogenic neuroinflammation" Microvascular changes may be the direct result of irradiation. This possibility is suggested by the increased permeability of BBB induced by HF (Lin 2005;Nittby et al. 2009;Schrottner et al. 2007). Subsequently to this hyperpermeability, abnormal leakages through the barrier can potentially result in local inflammation. ...
Article
Although an electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is reported in numerous studies, some authors associate hyperfrequencies (HF)-related pains with a nocebo effect while others suggest a biological effect. Therefore, we aimed to suggest hypotheses about the complex mechanisms of headaches related to HF-exposure. We crossed basic features of headaches with relevant studies (from the year 2000 up to 2018) emphasizing on the HF effects that may lead to pain genesis: neuroglial dysmetabolism, neuroinflammation, changes in cerebral blood perfusion, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and electrophysiological evidences of hyperexcitability. We privileged studies implying a sham exposure (for in vivo studies) and a specific absorption rate lower than 4 W/Kg. HF-induced headaches may involve an indirect inflammatory process (neurogenic, magnetogenic or thermogenic) as well as a direct biophysical effect (thermogenic or magnetogenic). We linked inflammatory processes to meningeal dysperfusion or primary neuroglial dysfunction triggered by non-thermal irradiation or HF-induced heating at thermal powers. In the latter case, HF-induced excitoxicity and oxidative stress probably play a crucial role. Such disorders may lead to vascular-trigeminal activation in predisposed people. Interestingly, an abnormal oxidative stress predisposition had been demonstrated in overall 80% of EHS self-reporting patients. In the case of direct effects, pain pathways’ activation may be directly triggered by HF-irradiation (heating and/or transcranial HF-induced ectopic action potentials). Further research on HF-related headaches is needed.
... There is data confirming the effect of microwaves emitted by telephones on changes to blood-brain barrier permeability. In a study conducted on rats by Nittby et al., a greater blood-brain barrier permeability was demonstrated in laboratory animals, both directly following exposure to waves emitted by mobile phones and after 7 and 14 days [37]. At the present time, it has not yet been possible to identify the mechanisms of how electromagnetic fields affect the human body, which is why only the effects are described. ...
... W badaniu przeprowadzonym na szczurach Nittby i wsp. wykazali zwiększoną przepuszczalność bariery krew-mózg u zwierząt laboratoryjnych, zarówno bezpośrednio po ekspozycji na fale emitowane przez telefon komórkowy, jak i po 7 oraz 14 dniach [37]. Do dzisiaj nie udało się znaleźć mechanizmów oddziaływania pola elektromagnetycznego na organizm człowieka, dlatego opisuje się jedynie jego efekty. ...
... Also mentioned but dismissed as unpersuasive is an earlier mouse study showing a facilitatory effect of lifelong exposure to RF on the development of lung, liver, kidney, and blood cancers caused by in utero administration of the chemical carcinogen ethyl nitrosourea [24]. The authors of that study specifically comment on the fact that this result is not dose-related with respect to RF; which actually accords well with the unexpected finding of a counterintuitive, inverted-U-shaped dose-response curve in relation to RF damage of the blood-brain barrier reported much earlier [25]. However, none of the scientists involved comments on this correspondence with earlier work: instead, the absence of the 'expected' dose-response relationship is taken as a reason for dismissing the facilitation study, by a research group who also make statements like "exposed groups were compared only to the sham-exposed control group . . . in a carcinogenesis study, it is essential to compare results to the negative control group and to in-house historical data and/or to published database(s) in the case of no or insufficient internal data." ...
... Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): Double-blind studies done as long ago as 1975 showed that RF causes abnormal leakage of fluorescein dye from the blood of rats into their brain tissue [8], and disingenuous attempts to discredit that finding constituted the first documented dirty tricks campaign in the area [6]. Honest attempts to replicate the 1975 experiments proved hard to interpret, until it was realized that a counterintuitive, inverted-U-shaped dose-response curve held-at which point it became clear that the parameters involved in mobile phone use are particularly effective in disrupting the BBB [25]. Because disruption of the BBB is a known contributor to the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia [34,35], at least two public health conclusions might reasonably be drawn from these findings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Official reports to governments throughout the Western world attempt to allay public concern about the increasing inescapability of the microwaves (also known as radiofrequency radiation or RF) emitted by “smart” technologies, by repeating the dogma that the only proven biological effect of RF is acute tissue heating, and assuring us that the levels of radiation to which the public are exposed are significantly less than those needed to cause acute tissue heating. The present paper first shows the origin of this “thermal-only” dogma in the military paranoia of the 1950s. It then reveals how financial conflict of interest and intentionally misleading statements have been powerful factors in preserving that dogma in the face of now overwhelming evidence that it is false, using one 2018 report to ministers of the New Zealand government as an example. Lastly, some new pilot measurements of ambient RF power densities in Auckland city are reported and compared with levels reported in other cities, various international exposure limits, and levels shown scientifically to cause biological harm. It is concluded that politicians in the Western world should stop accepting soothing reports from individuals with blatant conflicts of interest and start taking the health and safety of their communities seriously.
... Exposure to different frequencies of nonionizing EMR induced changes in blood-brain barrier (Nittby et al., 2009;Sirav and Seyhan, 2011), morphology (Narayanan et al., 2009), electroencephalogram (Leung et al., 2011;Mohammed et al., 2011;Lustenberger et al., 2013), and energy metabolism (Kwon et al., 2011). Different brain activities such as sleep (Munezawa et al., 2011), attention (Edelstyn and Oldershaw, 2002), learning and memory (Fragopoulou et al., 2010;Narayanan et al., 2009), and cognitive performance (Nittby et al., 2009) have also been reported to be affected by EMR emitted from mobile phone. ...
... Exposure to different frequencies of nonionizing EMR induced changes in blood-brain barrier (Nittby et al., 2009;Sirav and Seyhan, 2011), morphology (Narayanan et al., 2009), electroencephalogram (Leung et al., 2011;Mohammed et al., 2011;Lustenberger et al., 2013), and energy metabolism (Kwon et al., 2011). Different brain activities such as sleep (Munezawa et al., 2011), attention (Edelstyn and Oldershaw, 2002), learning and memory (Fragopoulou et al., 2010;Narayanan et al., 2009), and cognitive performance (Nittby et al., 2009) have also been reported to be affected by EMR emitted from mobile phone. In addition, frequent users of mobile phone suffer from stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression (Thomée et al., 2011). ...
Article
The extensive use of mobile phones worldwide has raised increasing concerns about the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the brain due to the proximity of the mobile phone to the head and the appearance of several adverse neurological effects after mobile phone use. It has been hypothesized that the EMR-induced neurological effects may be mediated by amino acid neurotransmitters. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of EMR (frequency 1800 MHz, specific absorption rate 0.843 W/kg, power density 0.02 mW/cm2, modulated at 217 Hz) on the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, gamma aminobutyric acid, glycine, taurine, and the amide glutamine) in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus of juvenile and young adult rats. The juvenile and young adult animals were each divided into two groups: control rats and rats exposed to EMR 1 h daily for 1, 2, and 4 months. A subgroup of rats were exposed daily to EMR for 4 months and then left without exposure for 1 month to study the recovery from EMR exposure. Amino acid neurotransmitters were measured in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to EMR induced significant changes in amino acid neurotransmitters in the studied brain areas of juvenile and young adult rats, being more prominent in juvenile animals. It could be concluded that the alterations in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by EMR exposure of juvenile and young adult rats may underlie many of the neurological effects reported after EMR exposure including cognitive and memory impairment and sleep disorders. Some of these effects may persist for some time after stopping exposure.
... 11) EMFs from mobile phones changed the blood-brain barrier's permeability and damaged neurons in the brains of exposed rats. [12][13][14] Brain oxidative stress and epigenetics are considered biological mechanisms of RF-EMF effects. Several theories suggest that EMF exposure results in oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species and loss of cells and blocks their production. ...
Article
Full-text available
In today's world, most children are exposed to various manmade electromagnetic fields (EMFs). EMFs are electromagnetic waves less than 300 GHz. A developing child's brain is vulnerable to electromagnetic radiation; thus, their caregivers' concerns about the health effects of EMFs are increasing. EMF exposure is divided into two categories: extremely low frequencies (ELFs; 3-3,000 Hz), involving high-voltage transmission lines and in-house wiring; and radio frequencies (RFs; 30 kHz to 300 GHz), involving mobile phones, smart devices, base stations, WiFi, and 5G technologies. The biological effects of EMFs on humans include stimulation, thermal, and nonthermal, the latter of which is the least known. Among the various health issues related to EMFs, the most important issue is human carcinogenicity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC's) evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, ELFs and RFs were evaluated as possible human carcinogens (Group 2B). However, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) view of EMFs remains undetermined. This article reviews the current knowledge of EMF exposure on humans, specifically children. EMF exposure sources, biological effects, current WHO and IARC opinions on carcinogenicity, and effects of EMF exposures on children will be discussed. As well-controlled EMF experiments in children are nearly impossible, scientific knowledge should be interpreted objectively. Precautionary approaches are recommended for children until the potential health effects of EMF are confirmed.
... More prominent effects on health due to lower compared to higher RF radiation exposure have been observed in studies, which could indicate a frequency and power-window based response. This has been shown in studies with RF-radiation exposure down to peak power output of 1 mW from a GSM mobile phone, where the blood brain barrier opened and led to leakage into the brain tissues of large molecules, e.g., albumin and big molecules that can be toxic to brain tissue (18,19). In the Ramazzini Institute study, it was shown in Figs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we found high environmental RF radiation levels at certain public places and also in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden. One such place was the Järntorget square in the Stockholm Old Town. The EME Spy exposimeter was used for these studies. We have now conducted a field spatial distribution measurement with a radiofrequency broadband analyser. The maximum E-field topped at 11.6 V/m at the centre of the square, where the antenna was focused. Järntorget's mean value was 5.2 V/m, median 5.0 V/m, range 1.2-11.6 V/m. Of interest is that this level can be compared to a lifespan carcinogenicity study on rats exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM environmental radiation performed at the Ramazzini Institute (RI) in Italy. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in male rats at the highest dose, 50 V/m. In treated female rats at the highest dose, the incidence of malignant glial tumours was increased, although this was not statistically significant. On the whole, the findings of this study showed that RF radiation levels at one square, Järntorget, in Sweden, were only one order of magnitude lower than those showing an increased incidence of tumours in the RI animal study. An increased cancer risk cannot be excluded for those working in the proximity of Järntorget for longer time periods.
... More prominent effects on health due to lower compared to higher RF radiation exposure have been observed in studies, which could indicate a frequency and power-window based response. This has been shown in studies with RF-radiation exposure down to peak power output of 1 mW from a GSM mobile phone, where the blood brain barrier opened and led to leakage into the brain tissues of large molecules, e.g., albumin and big molecules that can be toxic to brain tissue (18,19). In the Ramazzini Institute study, it was shown in Figs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we found high environmental RF radiation levels at certain public places and also in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden. One such place was the Järntorget square in the Stockholm Old Town. The EME Spy exposimeter was used for these studies. We have now conducted a field spatial distribution measurement with a radiofrequency broadband analyser. The maximum E-field topped at 11.6 V/m at the centre of the square, where the antenna was focused. Järntorget's mean value was 5.2 V/m, median 5.0 V/m, range 1.2-11.6 V/m. Of interest is that this level can be compared to a lifespan carcinogenicity study on rats exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM environmental radiation performed at the Ramazzini Institute (RI) in Italy. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in male rats at the highest dose, 50 V/m. In treated female rats at the highest dose, the incidence of malignant glial tumours was increased, although this was not statistically significant. On the whole, the findings of this study showed that RF radiation levels at one square, Järntorget, in Sweden, were only one order of magnitude lower than those showing an increased incidence of tumours in the RI animal study. An increased cancer risk cannot be excluded for those working in the proximity of Järntorget for longer time periods.
... They placed a mobile phone on the side of the cage holding young rats and thus simulated the exposure to electromagnetic radiation similar to phone usage in case of humans. On that occasion, they found damage to neurons in the brain of young rats after 50 days of exposure over the interval of two hours per week [28,29,30,31]. Children can potentially be subject to RF effects due to their nervous systems still developing, increasing levels of cell division, undeveloped immune systems, thinner skulls, and higher conductivity of brain tissue. ...
Article
Full-text available
Daily use of wireless devices, especially mobile phones, has caused great concern among the public about the possible health effects of electromagnetic radiation to which the users of these devices, primarily children, are exposed. This paper summarizes the habit of using mobile phones by children and teenagers and its connection with possible harmful biological effects of electromagnetic radiation of these devices. This paper describes the procedure of creating models of adult and child heads that are used for numerical calculation of electromagnetic field penetration and the absorbed energy. As we know, the human body consists of many different tissues and organs, so each of them needs to be described by the appropriate electromagnetic characteristics. Key words: mobile phone, electromagnetic characteristics of tissues, model of child head, specific absorption rate
... The study found increased brain wave activity at 30 min, 1 h and 2 h of sleep in Stage 2, while no changes were found on the electrical brain waves during the third hour of sleep in Stage 2. This shows that prolonged electromagnetic radiation exposure has acute and continuous impacts [24]. In addition, a study of lab rats exposed to smartphone electromagnetic radiation through GSM signals from smartphones for 2 h found different levels of albumin leaking out from the arteries of the rats at 2 h, 7 days and 14 days after recovery at 50, 25 and 29 percent, respectively [25]. The increased leak in albumin at 14 days took place as a U-curve response or delayed effects of a daily dose of SOP on sleep loss in the form of reverse-dose response. ...
Article
Purpose Adolescents being in a stage of growth need good sleep, but, today, they suffer from sleep deprivation due to such extrinsic factor as a smartphone which they enjoy spending time using the device. However, the effects of smartphone output power (SOP) on the duration of good sleep remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of the SOP and sleep loss in high school students. Design/methodology/approach The time-series study was conducted among 145 high school students in Chiang Mai Province who completed a sleep diary which applied by the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The SOP was corrected by a smartphone application and transmitted by e-mail to a researcher every day. The completed data set contains 12,969 entries. Headache, anxiety and depression were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation adjusted for demographic data, smartphone use and other factors. Findings Most of the study subjects are female, 17.4 years old on average. The prevalence of sleep loss (<8 h) was 52.9 percent with averagely 7.4 ±1.7 h of sleep duration and poor sleep at 32.1 percent. Anxiety, depression, headache had relationships with sleep loss. The daily dose, evening and nocturnal SOP in the range of ≥ 2.00 × 10 ‒5 mW had stronger relationships with sleep loss than their effects in the range of ≤ 1.79 × 10 ‒5 mW (OR adj 1.32; 95% CI: 1.26–1.76, OR adj 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07–1.17 and OR adj 1.41; 95% CI: 1.07–1.17, respectively). Meanwhile, morning Lag_2 and daytime Lag_1 in the range of ≥ 2.00 × 10 ‒5 mW appeared to have a strong relationship with sleep loss (OR adj 1.60; 95% CI: 1.26–1.76, OR adj 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.17). The relationship between Lag_4 daily dose and sleep loss took the form of a reverse dose-response. Originality/value Sleep loss in adolescents has an increasing trend of prevalence and has been found to be correlated with the highest SOP group (≥ 2.00 × 10 ‒5 mW range). These results confirmed that increased and longer smartphone use result in reduced sleep time. This causes them to be exposed to smartphone electromagnetic radiation and smartphone screen lighting. This disturbs brain waves and nervous system controlling sleep balance mechanisms. The findings recommended parents setting time and boundaries around technology use at home to reduce contact with electromagnetic radiation and smartphone screen lighting, thereby increasing sleeping time in order to create good sleep quality.
... Mindkettı káros hatással van az élı szervezetre, pl. hemoglobin szám csökkenés, [6] vagy a vér-agy-gát megnyílás [7] képében. ...
... Many research studies have shown effects from RF radiation exposure on animals below current safety levels with opened blood brain barrier and neuronal damage (16,17), oxidative stress with increased production of reactive oxygen species (18,19), DNA-damage especially in the memory center hippocampus in the brain and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (20). Apart from animal studies research studies on people living near mobile phone base station show augmented indications on health risks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30-300 GHz has, since 2011, been classified as a 'possible' human carcinogen by Group 2B, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO. This was based on a number of human epidemiology studies on increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Based on further human epidemiology studies and animal studies, the evidence on RF radiation carcinogenesis has increased since 2011. In previous measurement studies, it has been indicated that high environmental RF radiation levels are present in certain areas of Stockholm Sweden, including in one apartment. Field spatial distribution measurements were performed in the previously measured apartment in Stockholm, which exhibited high RF radiation from nearby base stations. Based on the RF broadband analyzer spot measurements, the maximum indoor E-field topped at 3 V m-1 in the bedroom at the 7th floor. The maximum outdoor exposure level of 6 V m-1 was encountered at the 8th floor balcony, located at the same elevation and only 6.16 m away from the base station antennas. For comparison, a measurement was made in a low exposure apartment in Stockholm. Here, the maximum indoor field 0.52 V m-1 was measured at the corner window, with direct line of sight to the neighboring house with mobile phone base station antennas. The maximum outdoor field of 0.75 V m-1 was measured at the balcony facing the same next-door building with mobile phone base station antennas. The minimum field of 0.10 V m-1 was registered on the apartment area closest to the center of the building, demonstrating the shielding effects of the indoor walls. Good mobile phone reception was achieved in both apartments. Therefore, installation of base stations to risky places cannot be justified using the good reception requirement argument.
... Since ameliorating BTB disorder could improve testicular injury and sperm quality (Cheng, 2014), it was rational to conclude that long-term exposure to SRF-EMR suppressed sperm quality via Spock3-mediated BTB disorder in rats. Thus, besides the blood-brain barrier (Kim et al., 2017;Nittby et al., 2009), BTB is another biological target of SRF-EMR. ...
Article
The correlation between long-term exposure to SRF-EMR and the decline in male fertility is gradually receiving increasing attention from the medical society. While male reproductive organs are often exposed to SRF-EMR, little is currently known about the direct effects of long-term SRF-EMR exposure on the testes and its involvement in the suppression of male reproductive potential. The present study was designed to investigate this issue by using 4G SRF-EMR in rats. A unique exposure model using a 4G smartphone achieved localized exposure to the scrotum of the rats for 6 h each day (the smartphone was kept on active talk mode and received an external call for 1 min over 10 min intervals). Results showed that SRF-EMR exposure for 150 days decreased sperm quality and pup weight, accompanied by testicular injury. However, these adverse effects were not evident in rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 50 days or 100 days. Sequencing analysis and western blotting suggested Spock3 overexpression in the testes of rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 150 days. Inhibition of Spock3 overexpression improved sperm quality decline and alleviated testicular injury and BTB disorder in the exposed rats. Additionally, SRF-EMR exposure suppressed MMP2 activity, while increasing the activity of the MMP14-Spock3 complexes and decreasing MMP14-MMP2 complexes; these results were reversed by Spock3 inhibition. Thus, long-term exposure to 4G SRF-EMR diminished male fertility by directly disrupting the Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show direct toxicity of SRF-EMR on the testes emerging after long-term exposure.
... Increased blood brain barrier permeability in the hippocampus, and cortex Autophagy in cortical neurons, myelin sheath damage and hyperactivity-like behavior lead to neurodegeneration. Increased BBB permeability was noted immediately after the exposure and lasted for 14 days (Nittby et al. 2009). Further, in one of the studies, exposure to 900 MHz radiation for 3 h/day for 14 or 28 days at SAR between 0.016 and 2 W/kg locally in the head caused albumin extravasation in hippocampus and cortex resulting from damage to BBB. ...
Article
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The primary objective of mobile phone technology is to achieve communication with any person at any place and time. In the modern era, it is impossible to ignore the usefulness of mobile phone technology in cases of emergency as many lives have been saved. However, the biological effects they may have on humans and other animals have been largely ignored and not been evaluated comprehensively. One of the reasons for this is the speedy uncontrollable growth of this technology which has surpassed our researching ability. Initiated with the first generation, the mobile telephony currently reaches to its fifth generation without being screened extensively for any biological effects that they may have on humans or on other animals. Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature.
... We researched the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum regions of the brain for 2100 MHz mobile phone radiation exposure in our study. 12 and 120 Mw/kg radiation exposure for 2 hours/7 days in a separate study (25). In our 2100 MHz/30 minutes/90 days radiation group, dark neurons were noticeably distinguishable in the cerebrum prefrontal cortex, the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and in cerebellum tissues. ...
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Aim: In this study we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin on the chronic radiation emitted by third generation mobile phones on the brain. Material and methods: 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Throughout a 90-day experiment, no application was performed on the control group. The second group was exposed to 2100 MHz radiation for 30 minutes. Subcutaneous melatonin was injected into the third group. Subcutaneous melatonin injection was applied 40 minutes before radiation and then the fourth group was exposed to radiation for 30 minutes. At the end of the experiment, brain (cerebrum and cerebellum) tissues were taken from the subjects. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and Western blot analyses were applied. In addition to brain weight, Purkinje cells' number, immunohistochemical H Score analyses and the results of the Western blot were examined statistically. Results: As a result, with the application of radiation, neuronal edema, relatively-decreased numbers of neurons on hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, displacement of the Purkinje neurons and dark neurons findings were observed as a result of histochemical stainings. Radiation also activated the NMDA-receptor 2B/Calpain-1/Caspase-12 pathway, NMDA-receptor 2B and Calpain-1 with the findings being supported by Western blot analyses. Pre-increased protein synthesis before apoptosis was identified by electron microscopy. Conclusion: Taken together, mobile phone radiation caused certain (ultra) structural changes on the brain and activated the NMDA-receptor 2B/Calpain-1/Caspase-12 pathway; in addition, melatonin was effective, but insufficient to demonstrate any protective effects.
... Many studies have shown that EMF enhances the permeability of the BBB. [74][75][76] Disturbance of the structure of the BBB induces brain albumin leaks and causes degeneration of neuronal cells. 77 High concentrations of albumin also lead to astrocyte proliferation. ...
... EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, 5 significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells 6 7 as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions 8 and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. 9 Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. 10 11 Studies in humans demonstrate acute exposure to non-thermal levels of EMF affects brain metabolism, 12 brain electric function, 13 demyelination, 14 effects on the immune system, 15 skin, 16 microvasculature, and hematologic systems. ...
Presentation
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Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as "Microwave syndrome" - a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of nonspecific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions 8 and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. Studies in humans demonstrate acute exposure to non-thermal levels of EMF affects brain metabolism, brain electric function, demyelination, effects on the immune system, skin, microvasculature, and hematologic systems. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have a role in brain effects of EMF. At the Electromagnetic Radiation research clinic, patients presented at various stages of EHS (acute, mild chronic). 9M, 10F, ages 9-75 (median 44). Mostly neurologic symptoms: headache (89%), “brain fog” (74%) – concentration/ short-term memory difficulties, forgetting words/ places; sleep difficulties (68%), severe anxiety (89%), fatigue/weakness (89%), nausea (26%), dizziness (37%), other neurologic symptoms including syncope (84%). 2(10.5%) patients developed absence-like "blackouts". Earache/tinnitus (32%), muscle tingling/ twitching (47%), abdominal cramps (32%), heightened sensitivity to noise/ light (47%). 4(21%) patients reported changes in electrical conductance. Other symptoms within minutes of exposure: palpitations (42%), "chest tightness" (58%), shortness of breath (21%), joint/ tendon/ muscle pain (58%), skin sensations/ rash (68%). 5(26%) patients reported "internal burning" attacks. 5(26%) patients co-diagnosed fibromyalgia. Long-term: hand/leg dysfunction (42%), edema (21%), immune problems (47%), lymph node swelling (16%). All patients reduced/ avoided exposure. 15(79%) patients took long sick leave from work. 13(68%) quit workplaces. 6(32%) of the workplaces accommodated. 37% of the patients moved house to reduce EMR exposure. Both the new (G5) and the existing technology (G3-G4) have an effect on human and wildlife population. Adding millions of radiation sources has a potentially harmful effect on climate change (multiple energy sources required for all radiation sources and wireless devices; heating effect of microwave antennas on water molecules in the environment). Economic evaluation is needed since chronic exposure to antennas near citizens' homes would raise the odds of more people becoming electrohypersensive, and leaving their workplace or home to avoid exposure.
... However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the 4 W/kg exposure group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Various investigations [49][50][51][52] have revealed that RF-EMF exposure of animals enhances the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, debilitates intracellular calcium homeostasis, changes neurotransmitters, and increments neuronal loss and harm in brain tissue. ...
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The emergence of new technologies to incorporate and analyze data with high-performance computing has expanded our capability to accurately predict any incident. Supervised Machine learning (ML) can be utilized for a fast and consistent prediction, and to obtain the underlying pattern of the data better. We develop a prediction strategy, for the first time, using supervised ML to observe the possible impact of weak radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on human and animal cells without performing in-vitro laboratory experiments. We extracted laboratory experimental data from 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1990-2015) describing 1127 experimental case studies of human and animal cells response to RF-EMF. We used domain knowledge, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Chi-squared feature selection techniques to select six optimal features for computation and cost-efficiency. We then develop grouping or clustering strategies to allocate these selected features into five different laboratory experiment scenarios. The dataset has been tested with ten different classifiers, and the outputs are estimated using the k-fold cross-validation method. The assessment of a classifier's prediction performance is critical for assessing its suitability. Hence, a detailed comparison of the percentage of the model accuracy (PCC), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), precision, sensitivity (recall), 1 − specificity, Area under the ROC Curve (AUC), and precision-recall (PRC Area) for each classification method were observed. Our findings suggest that the Random Forest algorithm exceeds in all groups in terms of all performance measures and shows AUC = 0.903 where k-fold = 60. A robust correlation was observed in the specific absorption rate (SAR) with frequency and cumulative effect or exposure time with SAR×time (impact of accumulated SAR within the exposure time) of RF-EMF. In contrast, the relationship between frequency and exposure time was not significant. In future, with more experimental data, the sample size can be increased, leading to more accurate work.
... When rats were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMFs, it was found that albumin leaks via the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (Salford et al., 1994(Salford et al., , 2003(Salford et al., , 2008Nittby et al., 2009). However, the leakages via the BBB were not observed in studies by using rat or in vitro studies (Franke et al., 2005;Kuribayashi et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Technological advances of mankind, through the development of electrical and communication technologies, have resulted in the exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). Technological growth is expected to continue; as such, the amount of EMF exposure will continue to increase steadily. In particular, the use-time of smart phones, that have become a necessity for modern people, is steadily increasing. Social concerns and interest in the impact on the cranial nervous system are increased when considering the area where the mobile phone is used. However, before discussing possible effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the human body, several factors must be investigated about the influence of EMFs at the level of research using in vitro or animal models. Scientific studies on the mechanism of biological effects are also required. It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure.
... MHz, DAS = 0, 0,12, 1,2 12 ou 120 mW/kg, 2h) une augmentation de la perméabilité de la BHE à 12 mW/kg (7 jours après l'exposition), avec une tendance à l'augmentation pour 0,12 et 120 W/kg (extravasation d'albumine) (Nittby et al. 2009). Ces résultats sont également retrouvés, toujours par la même équipe, avec un signal GSM de 900 MHz et un DAS de 0,4 mW/kg également en exposition aiguë (2h) (Nittby et al. 2011). ...
Thesis
Avec l'avènement de la téléphonie et des réseaux mobiles, l'impact des radiofréquences (RF) sur la santé humaine est plus que jamais un sujet d'actualité. Les résultats des recherches Homme et animal restent controversés et ne permettent pas de conclusion définitive sur l’existence ou non d’effets des RF, notamment sur le cerveau. Ainsi, nos résultats montrent que chez le rat, jeune, adulte et âgé, une exposition de 3 mois à un signal LTE 4G (900 MHz, 61V/m, DAS = 0,33 W/kg) n’a aucun effet sur l’apprentissage et la mémoire spatiale récente et ancienne, ni sur l’anxiété ou la locomotion. L’expression des gènes a été étudiée par séquençage haut débit des ARNm, en conditions "Basal" et "Apprentissage" dans l’hippocampe dorsal et le cortex préfrontal médian. Nos résultats montrent que des gènes appartenant à des regroupements fonctionnels spécifiques sont modulés en réponse à l’exposition aux RF dans l'hippocampe dorsal en condition "Basal" et dans le cortex préfrontal médian, pendant et suite à un apprentissage spatial. Cependant, il est important de noter que ces modulations génétiques n'impactent pas le rappel d'un souvenir récent ou ancien. En perspective, il sera important de connaître les possibles répercussions que ces régulations peuvent avoir à plus long terme sur le fonctionnement cérébral.
... Surprisingly, higher levels of insulin, a biomarker for glucose consumption and brain metabolism, are observed in migraineurs (people with chronic migraine) (Cavestro et al. 2007). Enhanced brain-blood barrier following mobile phone use (Nittby et al. 2009) may be another potential reason for headache (especially migraine attack), since it seems that there is an association between greater permeability of the blood-brain barrier and chronic pain such as migraine (Kim et al. 2019). ...
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Purpose The effects of electromagnetic fields of mobile phones on headaches have attracted researchers during the last decades. However, contradictory results have been reported so far. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, major databases including PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using suitable search terms and PRISMA guidelines to retrieve eligible studies for the effect of mobile phone use on headache. After the abstract and full-text screening, 33 studies were retrieved and the effect size in terms of odds ratio (OR) was extracted. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I² statistic and Q test, while publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot and Egger’s and Begg’s tests. Results Among 33 eligible studies, 30 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. When considering all studies, the pooled effect size of OR = 1.30(95% CI 1.21–1.39) was obtained, while the heterogeneity between studies was significant. Subgroup analyses by considering the age of participants and EMF exposure duration were performed to find the source of heterogeneity. The odds ratios when the age of participants was the variable were 1.33 (95% CI 1.14–1.53) and 1.29 (95% CI 1.20–1.37), for ages > 18 and age ≤ 18 years, respectively. When EMF exposure duration was considered, subgroup analysis obtained the pooled effect size of OR = 1.41(95% CI 1.22–1.61) and 1.23(95% CI 1.12–1.34), for EMF exposure duration > 100 and ≤ 100 minutes per week, respectively. The pooled effect sizes emphasized the effect of mobile phone use on headaches for all ages and exposure durations. Conclusion Results revealed that age and exposure duration (mainly call duration), both were the source of heterogeneity between studies. Furthermore, results showed that increasing call duration and mobile phone use in older individuals increased the risk of headache.
... The histopathological results of those studies were consistent with the microscopic findings of the present study, in which a marked morphological alteration at the cellular level was observed in the pyramidal neurons of the EMF group compared with the control and sham groups. Nittby et al. (2009) reported that EMF increases blood-brain barrier permeability. Blood proteins such as albumin can thus easily pass through the barrier to invade brain tissues, which can also be interpreted as an indirect effect of EMF resulting in brain cell damage. ...
Article
The present study was designed to focus on the potential effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones on hippocampal pyramidal neurons and to investigate the role of curcumin (Cur), Garcinia kola (GK) and Gum arabic (GA) in reducing these adverse effects. Fifty-four 12-week-old male Wistar albino rats were used. These were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats each. The control, Cur, GK and GA groups were not exposed to EMF, while the sham group was kept in the EMF exposure system without being exposed to EMF. The EMF+Cur, EMF+GK, EMF+GA and EMF groups were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for one hour a day for 28 days. The number of the pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the hippocampus was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Histopathological changes were evaluated under light and electron microscopes. The activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes were also evaluated from serum samples. Significant levels of CAT and SOD activities were observed in the EMF group compared to the control group (p=0.000; p=0.001) respectively. Microscopic observations showed that dark-coloured nuclei with unclear neuron boundaries were frequently observed in the EMF group. Stereological data analysis revealed a significant decrease in the CA's total number of pyramidal neurons in the EMF group compared to the control and sham groups (p=0.000; p=0.000) respectively. Cur and GK were observed to provide significant protection in the EMF+Cur and EMF+GK groups compared to the EMF group (p=0.000; p=0.000) respectively. No significant difference was observed between the EMF+GA group and EMF group (p=0.989). Exposure to 900 MHz EMF causes severe alterations in the number and structure of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Cur and GK exhibit a protective effect against these deleterious effects, but GA showed no protective effect.
... An increase in the BBB's normally low permeability for hydrophilic and charged molecules could potentially be detrimental [55]. " EMR causes increased BBB (add PO2 Hg) permeability [56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]. Spatially coherent magnetic noise fields have been shown to interfere with the physiological reception of the damaging components of radiation at the cellular level and overall offer a form of shielding and consequently minimal and/or no damage can ensue [64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72]. ...
Article
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Citation: Smirnov IV (2018) The Effect of the Mret Wave Rider Device on Cerebral Blood Flow and the Blood Brain Barrier: A Case Study. J Nanotech Smart Mater 3: 1-8. Abstract Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral blood flow can be studied using optical encephalography. Previous investigations of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier after exposure to the various EMF-components showed an induced leakage of Evans Blue labeled proteins normally not passing the BBB. In the present investigation we exposed a human subject to ambient radiation and the flow of the blood at the frontal part of the brain was measured using16-channel optical encephalography. The Optical Encephalograph is a functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) device that monitors PO2 and Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and translates the data into an indication of blood flow. The MRET WaveRider® noise field generator which is capable of decreasing BBB permeability by neutralizing EMR was turned onand the flow of the blood at the frontal part of the brain was measured using 16-channel optical encepha-lography. The MRET polymer compound is driven by the solenoid that encapsulates the polymer material (WaveRider®). The composite noise field can modify RF signals as a result of superposition phenomenon. When the WaveRider®noise field was in effect, the cerebral blood flow (increased PO2 and Hb) increased from 337.209 seconds to 864.419 seconds at the termination of the testing, indicating that these measurements were previous to the Wave Rider initiation affects.
... Studies investigated that 900 MHz EMF's and 1.8 GHz EMF increased permeability of the blood brain barrier to sucrose. There was a lot of albumin leakage from the various vessels after the EMF exposure (19). Continuous exposure to EMF can cause developmental and histopathological changes in the human fetus spinal cord such as vacuolization, atrophy, and thickening in the gestational period. ...
Article
Electromagnetic pollution has tremendously increased in this current century. Increased human exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) caused due to increasing use of electric and electronic devices. Exposure to electric fields disturbs brain functions, hormones and enzyme activity, depending on the frequency and duration of that exposure. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Health Trust, started a new project called "BABY SAFE WIRELESS PROJECT" to voice their concern and limit their exposure on pregnant women. Studies also showed the effect on the behavior, cognitive functions, learning and memory disabilities of rodents of EMF caused by mobile phones have particularly on prenatal exposure. Exposure to EMF has been observed to cause increased free radical production in the cellular environment and alters its functions. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative stress in the body and leads to changes in antioxidant defense systems. It would be more beneficial when the pregnant women are treated with antioxidants as EMF concentrating on alterations in several antioxidant enzyme activities and different parameters of oxidation.
... The effects may be directly on the brain structure or an aftereffect of radiation-induced stress. Multiple pathological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effects of EMR on the nervous system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, impaired intracellular calcium homeostasis, altered neurotransmitter release, and increased neuronal loss and direct damage to the brain (Bas et al. 2009;Maskey et al. 2010;Mausset-Bonnefont et al. 2004;Nittby et al. 2009;Salford et al. 2003). ...
Article
Although the evidence is inconclusive, epidemiological studies strongly suggest that increased exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) increases the risk of brain tumors, parotid gland tumors, and seminoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified mobile phone radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Humans being are inadvertently being exposed to EMR as its prevalence increases, mainly through mobile phones. Radiation exposure is unavoidable in the current context, with mobile phones being an inevitable necessity. Prudent usage of medicinal plants with a long history of mention in traditional and folklore medicine and, more importantly, are safe, inexpensive, and easily acceptable for long-term human use would be an appealing and viable option for mitigating the deleterious effects of EMR. Plants with free radical scavenging, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties are beneficial in maintaining salubrious health. Green tea polyphenols, Ginkgo biloba, lotus seedpod procyanidins, garlic extract, Loranthus longiflorus, Curcuma amada, and Rosmarinus officinalis have all been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in validated experimental models of study. The purpose of this review is to compile for the first time the protective effects of these plants against mobile phone-induced neuronal damage, as well as to highlight the various mechanisms of action that are elicited to invoke the beneficial effects.
... EMF has been reported to increase the permeability of the bloodbrain barrier, while this increase in permeability causes changes in the central nervous system by giving rise to physical changes (Schumacher et al., 2000;Salford et al., 1994;Nittby et al., 2009). A large number of studies have also shown the effect of EMF applied in the pre-and postnatal periods on central nervous system tissues. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate hippocampus morphology and changes in learning behavior in male rats in late adolescence exposed to the effect of a continuous 1-h a day 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF). Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-weeks were divided equally into control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to a 900-MHz EMF inside an EMF cage, while the sham group rats were placed in the same cage but were not exposed to such an effect. No procedure was performed on the control group. Following 25-day application of EMF, passive avoidance, 8-arm radial maze and Y-maze tests were applied to determine rats' learning and memory performances. Open field and rotarod tests were applied to assess locomotor activity. At the end of the tests, the animals' brains were removed. Sections were taken and stained with toluidine blue. The regions of the hippocampus were subjected to histopathological evaluation. At histopathological examination, impairments of pyramidal and granular cell structures were observed in the EMF group hippocampus. No significant change was observed in learning, memory or locomotor behavior in any group. In conclusion, 900-MHz EMF applied in early and mid-adolescence causes no changes in learning, memory or locomotor behavior.
... The adverse effects of EMF increased the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (Nittby et al., 2009), and thus can induce irreversible destruction to the brain of adult mice (Rosli and Teoh, 2009), which is especially sensitive to oxidative stress due to its high metabolic rate, high amount of oxygen consumption, and high unsaturated fatty acid content. (Halliwell, 2006). ...
... The working hypothesis of the French team was that environmental factors, such as EMFs and/or chemicals, induce neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain, leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While there are experimental studies in animals [240][241][242] and in vitro [243] suggesting that BBB might be affected by the EMF exposures, none of the studies has shown it to occur in humans. In agreement with the working hypothesis the health status of the participants was analyzed with battery of physiological tests for which there is lack of information to assure reliable quality of sample collection and analysis, especially in the context of the geographical spread of the cohort. ...
Article
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Part of the population considers themselves as sensitive to the man-made electromagnetic radiation (EMF) emitted by powerlines, electric wiring, electric home appliance and the wireless communication devices and networks. Sensitivity is characterized by a broad variety of non-specific symptoms that the sensitive people claim to experience when exposed to EMF. While the experienced symptoms are currently considered as a real life impairment, the factor causing these symptoms remains unclear. So far, scientists were unable to find causality link between symptoms experienced by sensitive persons and the exposures to EMF. However, as presented in this review, the executed to-date scientific studies, examining sensitivity to EMF, are of poor quality to find the link between EMF exposures and sensitivity symptoms of some people. It is logical to consider that the sensitivity to EMF exists but the scientific methodology used to find it is of insufficient quality. It is time to drop out psychology driven provocation studies that ask about feelings-based non-specific symptoms experienced by volunteers under EMF exposure. Such research approach produces only subjective and therefore highly unreliable data that is insufficient to prove, or to disprove, causality link between EHS and EMF. There is a need for a new direction in studying sensitivity to EMF. The basis for it is the notion of a commonly known phenomenon of individual sensitivity, where individuals' responses to EMF depend on the genetic and epigenetic properties of the individual. It is proposed here that new studies, combining provocation approach, where volunteers are exposed to EMF, and high-throughput technologies of transcriptomics and proteomics are used to generate objective data, detecting molecular level biochemical responses of human body to EMF.
... These neurological disorders include changes in sleep habits [29], headache [30], and changes in EEG [31,32]. However, there are several studies indicating more harmful nonthermal effects on human health [33][34][35][36][37][38]. ...
Article
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The progress in technology and science leads to the invention and use of many electrical devices in the daily lives of humans. In addition to that, people have been easily exposed to increased newly generated artificial electromagnetic waves. Exponential use of modern electronic devices has automatically led to increase in electromagnetic wave exposure. Therefore, we constructed the prototype of wireless power charging system to study the biocompatibility of electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by this system on various human cell lines. There are many studies indicating the negative bio-effect of EMF on various types of cells, such as induction of apoptosis. From the other point of view, these effects could rather be beneficial in the way, that they could eliminate the progress of various diseases or disorders. For that reason, we compared the impact of EMF (87 kHz, 0.3-1.2 mT, 30 min) on human normal as well as cancer cell lines based on morphological and cellular level. Our results suggested that EMF generated by wireless power charging systems does not have any detrimental effect on cell morphology, viability and cytoskeletal structures of human neu-ral cells.
... [1][2][3]24,31] GSM-900 MHz cell phones have been shown to alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, affect gene expression levels in embryonic stem cells (p53 deficiency), and significantly increase heat shock protein 70 production, and have an age-related effect on neuroimmunity, stress, and behavioral parameters in rats. [32][33][34] The studies conducted show that oxidative stress due to EMF exposure can induce apoptosis by causing the production of apoptotic signals in cell membranes of the developing and adult brain, and that it may prevent neural stem cells from differentiating into neurons during embryonic development. [8,35] The results obtained from the EMF 1-60 group in this study are consistent with the literature. ...
Article
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Objective: The effects of the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from cell phones on living organisms and human health have become one of the most important topics for research because cell phones are widely used, even at early ages, all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to EMFs emitted from cell phones on the hippocampus region of the brain during childhood and adolescence. Materials and Methods: In the study, newborn rats were divided into six groups as control 1–21, EMF 1–21, control 21–60, EMF 21–60, control 1–60, and EMF 1–60. The rats in the EMF groups were exposed to an EMF emitted from cell phones placed in cages every day. No procedure was performed in the control (C) groups. Sections taken from the brain tissues were evaluated using histopathologic, stereologic, and immunohistochemical methods. Results: According to the stereologic analysis results we obtained from the study, there was a significant decrease in the number of pyramidal cells and hippocampus volume in the EMF 1–60 group (P < 0.05). In the histopathologic examinations of the brain sections, it was observed that there were many damaged neurons with darkly stained cytoplasms among normal pyramidal cells in all age groups exposed to EMF. In addition, caspase 3 immunoreactivity was found to be statistically significantly increased in the EMF 1–60 group compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Chronic cell phone exposure from birth to the end of adolescence causes neuronal damage and volume reduction in the developing hippocampus.
... The possible harmful effects of the nonionizing form of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by cell phones on human health have still become a hot topic for scientists (Altun et al. 2018;Birks et al. 2017;Langer et al. 2017;Singh and Kapoor 2014). There are many experimental animal studies examining cellular and molecular effects of RF-EMR from cell phones on several types of cancer (Morgan et al. 2015), genetic damage (Alkis et al. 2019;Megha et al. 2015;Ruediger 2009), oxidative stress (Alkis et al. 2019;Chauhan et al. 2017;Megha et al. 2015), chromosome abnormalities (Kim et al. 2008), the bloodbrain barrier permeability (Nittby et al. 2009), nerve cell damage (Salford et al. 2003), neurological diseases (Banaceur et al. 2013), neurotransmitter balance (Tamasidze and Nikolaishvili 2007), in addition to cognition and behavior (Calvente et al. 2016;Maaroufi et al. 2014;Sakhnini et al. 2018;Singh and Kapoor 2014;Son et al. 2018). However, scientific published data have been contradictory in their results according to experimental conditions (Cassel et al. 2004;Esmaili et al. 2017;Hao et al. 2013;Kim et al. 2019;Narayanan et al. 2009), so it is insufficient to get a solid answer to possible risks by RF-EMR. ...
Article
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The present study evaluated whether short-term exposure to different doses of 2.1 GHz radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) has different effects on rats' behaviour and hippo-campal levels of central cholinergic biomarkers. Animals were divided into three equal groups namely; group 1 was sham-exposed group, group 2-3 were exposed to 45 V/m and 65 V/m doses of 2.1 GHz frequency for 1 week respectively. Numerical dosimetry simulations were carried out. Object location and Y-maze were used as behavioural tasks. The protein and mRNA expression levels of AChE, ChAT, and VAChT, in the hippocampus were tested using Western Blotting and Real-Time PCR. The impairment performance of rats subjected to 65 V/m dose of 2.1 GHz RF-EMR in both object location and Y-maze tasks was observed. The hippocampal levels of AChE, ChAT, and VAChT, were significantly lower in rats exposed to 65 V/m dose of 2.1 GHz RF-EMR than others. The stronger effect of "65 V/m" dose on both rat's hippocampal-dependent behavioural performances and hippocampal levels of cholinergic biomarkers may be due to the stronger effect of "65 V/m" dose where rats' snouts were located at the nearest distance from the monopole antenna. Furthermore, the simulated SAR values were high for 65 V/m electric-field strengths. For the first time, we report the potential dose-dependent effects of short-term exposure to 2.1 GHz radiation on rat's beha-vioural performances as well as hippocampal levels of cholinergic biomarkers. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which RF-EMR influences the function of the central cholinergic system in the brain. ARTICLE HISTORY
... html). Different experimental studies in animal model also reported for, radiofrequency microwave-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, enhanced neuronal loss, altered neurotransmitters, increased blood-brain barrier permeability and cognitive impairment Dasdag et al., 2009;Deshmukh et al., 2013b;Maskey et al., 2010;Mausset-Bonnefont et al., 2004;Megha et al., 2015b;Nittby et al., 2009;Pall, 2018;Salford et al., 2003). However, microwave exposed DNA damage also reported in different tissues in rat as well in human being (Akdag et al. , 2018Bektas et al., 2020). ...
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Exponential increase in mobile phone uses, given rise to public concern regarding the alleged deleterious health hazards as a consequence of prolonged exposure. In 2018, the U.S. National toxicology program reported, two year toxicological studies for potential health hazards from exposure to cell phone radiations. Epigenetic modulations play a critical regulatory role in many cellular functions and pathological conditions. In this study, we assessed the dose-dependent and frequency-dependent epigenetic modulation (DNA and Histone methylation) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A Total of 96 male Wistar rats were segregated into 12 groups exposed to 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz RF-MW at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 5.84 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg, 5.94 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg and 6.4 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg respectively for 2 h per day for 1-month, 3-month and 6-month periods. At the end of the exposure duration, animals were sacrificed to collect the hippocampus. Global hippocampal DNA methylation and histone methylation were estimated by ELISA. However, DNA methylating enzymes, DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) and histone methylating enzymes euchromatic histone methylthransferase1 (EHMT1) expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, as well as further validated with Western blot. Alteration in epigenetic modulation was observed in the hippocampus. Global DNA methylation was decreased and histone methylation was increased in the hippocampus. We observed that microwave exposure led to significant epigenetic modulations in the hippocampus with increasing frequency and duration of exposure. Microwave exposure with increasing frequency and exposure duration brings significant (p < 0.05) epigenetic modulations which alters gene expression in the hippocampus.
... Despite growing number of telecommunication devices, no significant changes of RF-EMF exposure have been observed in the recent systematic review (Jalilian et al. 2019), what may be explained by improvements in efficiency of these technologies and improved power controls. Nevertheless, several potential biological effects of mobile phones usage have been investigated, including alternations in neurotransmitters production and release (Aldad et al. 2012), brain-blood barrier function modifications (Behari 2011;Nittby et al. 2009;Salford et al. 2003), impaired brain glucose metabolism (Volkow et al. 2011), reduced activity in cerebral cortex (Landgrebe et al. 2007;Occelli et al. 2018) in a response to EMF exposure. Other studies have focused on cancer (Morgan et al. 2015), genetic damage (Kim et al. 2008;Ruediger 2009), reproductive disorders (Altun et al. 2018;Falzone et al. 2011) indicating numerous possible hazards of RF-EMF originating from mobile phones (Kim et al. 2019). ...
Article
Background Mobile phones constitute an important source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) for humans. Taking into account high sensitivity of sensory hair cells of the inner ear to endogenous and exogenous agents, the potential impact of mobile phone usage on auditory organs is of particular interest. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of short-term exposure to RF-EMF generated by a mobile phone during 15-minute simulated phone call on human hearing as measured by Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE) and Acoustic Admittance Testing (AAT). Material and methods Within-subject study was performed on 23 healthy volunteers. All of the participants underwent TEOAE and AAT before and immediately after 15-minute simulated phone call with the use of a standard, modern smartphone. Analyzed parameters included: static compliance of tympanic membrane, middle ear pressure, ipsi- and contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds and percentage of signal reproducibility in TEOAE for exposed and non-exposed ear. Additionally, the results were compared in subgroups distinguished basing on self-reported sensitivity to RF-EMF originating from mobile phones. Results No statistically significant differences were identified between results of TEOAE and AAT before and after exposure, both in exposed and non-exposed ear. The results of EMF sensitive and non-sensitive subjects were comparable in all performed tests. Conclusions Short-term exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field did not influence auditory functions as measured by Evoked Otoacoustic Emission test and Acoustic Admittance Testing.
... At the same time, the elevated levels of Al contribute to an extensive increase in BBB permeability by altering its fine structure [78,79]. Furthermore, degeneration of the neurons resulted in changes in the BBB permeability that causing leakage of albumin, which acts as a shield guarding the brain against several harmful agents [80]. ...
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a worldwide rapidly growing neurodegenerative disease. Here, we elucidated the neuroprotective effects of silymarin (SM) on the hippocampal tissues of aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced Alzheimer-like disease in rats using biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural approaches. Forty rats were divided into control, SM, AlCl3, and AlCl3 + SM groups. Biochemically, AlCl3 administration resulted in marked elevation in levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and decrease in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, AlCl3 significantly increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities. Furthermore, myriad histological and ultrastructural alterations were recorded in the hippocampal tissues of AlCl3-treated rats represented as marked degenerative changes of pyramidal neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Additionally, some myelinated nerve fibers exhibited irregular arrangement of their myelin coats, while the others revealed focal degranulation of their myelin sheaths. Severe defects in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were also recorded. However, co-administration of SM with AlCl3 reversed most of the biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural changes triggered by AlCl3 in rats. The results of the current study indicate that SM can potentially mend most of the previously evoked neuronal damage in the hippocampal tissues of AlCl3-kindled rats.
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Concern is growing about possible neuronal effects of human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields because of the increasing usage of cell phones and the close proximity of these devices to the brain when in use. We found that exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) of 835 MHz (4.0 W/kg specific absorption rate [SAR] for 5 h/day for 12 weeks) affects striatal neurons in C57BL/6 mice. The number of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in striatal presynaptic boutons was significantly decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression levels of synapsin I and II were also significantly decreased in the striatum of the RF-EMF-exposed group. RF-EMF exposure led to a reduction in dopamine concentration in the striatum and also to a decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in striatal neurons. Furthermore, in behavioral tests, exposure to RF-EMF impeded the recovery of locomotor activities after repeated treatments with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These results suggest that the observed decrease in dopamine concentration in the striatum was caused by both a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons and a decline in the number of SVs. The decreased dopamine neuron numbers and concentration seen after RF-EMF exposure would have caused the difficult recovery after MPTP treatment. In summary, our results strongly suggest that exposing the brain to RF-EMF can decrease the number of SVs and dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. These primary changes impair the recovery of locomotor activities following MPTP damage to the striatum.
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Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radiofrequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
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The review considers actual aspects of structural and functional functioning of central nervous system. The significance of concept of connectome is emphasized. The constructing of connectome is based on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging and consists in selecting of particular cerebral regions (areas), evaluating relationships between these regions and minute analysis of network of these relationships. At that, nowadays in neurosciences even more significance is attached not to functional segregation (specialization of one or another areas of brain) but functional integration, including synaptic level. The global principle of functioning of the brain is emphasized - goal achievement (information transfer) with minimal energy spending. The factors impacting on functioning of connectome are considered. The alteration of this structure during aging is analyzed. The data concerning individual and gender differences in organization of connectome are presented. The conclusion is made that obtained actual data permits to establish such a separate direction of neurosciences as systemic psycho-neurology combining clinical disciplines, methods of neurovisualization and mathematical methods. Exactly such a comprehensive approach opens new possibilities in studying functioning of so complicated organized system as brain is.
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Accurate dosimetry of a specific brain region in rats exposed to an electromagnetic field (EMF) is essential for studies focusing on dose-effect relationship of the region. However, only dosimetry of whole brain or whole body were evaluated in most of previous studies. In this study, a numerical voxel rat model with 10 segmented brain regions was constructed. Then, the effects of frequency, incidence direction, and E-polarization direction of plane wave EMF on brain region averaged specific absorption rate (BRSAR) of rats were investigated. At last, the reliability of using whole-body averaged SAR (WBDSAR) and whole-brain averaged SAR (WBRSAR) as estimations of BRSAR were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the BRSAR depended on the frequency, incidence direction, and E-polarization direction of the EMF. Besides, the largest deviation could be up to 13.1 dB between BRSAR and WBDSAR and 9.59 dB between BRSAR and WBRSAR. The results suggested that to establish an accurate dose-effect relationship, the variance of the BRSAR induced by alteration of frequency, incidence direction, and E-polarization direction of EMF should be avoided or carefully evaluated. Furthermore, the use of WBDSAR and WBRSAR as estimations of BRSAR should be restricted to certain conditions such that the deviations are not too large.
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major obstacle for the delivery of drugs in the treatment of many neurological diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) on the permeability of an in vitro BBB model under RF exposure alone, or in the presence of nanoparticles (NPs). For this purpose, an in vitro BBB model was established by seeding human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human glioblastoma cell lines (T98G) on the apical and basolateral sides of the transwell membrane, respectively. The integrity of the BBB model was confirmed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran permeability assay was performed when the resistance reached 120 Ω cm². After the RF-field exposure (13.56 MHz, 80 W, 10 min), we found that FITC-dextran transported across the in vitro BBB was increased 10-fold compared to FITC-dextran transported without an RF-field. This interesting phenomenon, which can be called the burst permeability RF effect (BP-RF), has been proposed for the first time. Subsequently, the effect of the RF-field on BBB permeability was also investigated in the presence of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and magnetic poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-b-PEG) nanoparticles (m-PNPs). It was found that the amount of both transported NPs increased on the basolateral sides after exposure to the RF-field. As a result, the RF-field can be applied simultaneously during treatment with clinical agents or nanocarriers, increasing the permeability of the BBB, which may contribute to the improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of many drugs associated with neurological diseases.
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This article proposesthat the Right to Life Principle, dened as “every person hasthe right to a natural birth and legitimate survival and development into adulthoodwithout environmental or othersystematic injury to theirwell-being,”may be violated byRFRemissionsfromcell phones,Wi-Fi,macro cell phone base stations (MCPBSs), 5G/4G small cell antennas (SCAs), etc. in excess of the standards set by the Building Biology Institute. BBI standardsset1000µW/m2as anextreme anomaly;theprecisedivisionpointofharm/noharmbelow1000µW/m2is unknown. I review literature describing (1) the Right to Life Principle, (2) the attributes of non-ionizing radiation, and (3) proven injury from cell phones, WiFi, MCPBSs, 5G/4G SCAs, etc. to living organisms with 20 categories of illnesses and 58 references. Non-ionizing radiation isshown to place a force eld on negatively charged particles including electrons, neurons, and DNA, and exciting/energizing electrons with shifts to outer orbits with energy emission when they return to ground orbit thereby destabilizing atoms, molecules, cells and organs in the process of orbital shifts. RFR induced illnesses include sperm damage, fetus injury, irreversibility infertility, emotional and hyperactive disorders, cancer, damage to DNA, the immune system, blood brain barrier, and stem cells, increasesin oxidative stress and free radicals, and harm to those living lessthan 500 metersfrom MCPBSs. My recommendationsto reduce injury from RFR are based upon review of the literature, experience in metering residential property and MCPBSsfor RFR, avoiding the use of RFR emitting devices and accessto line-of-sight antennas, and legislative proposalsto show the dangers of RFR devices and antennas by,for example,requiringnotice tobuyers andlessees ofresidentialpropertyof powerdensitieswithinhousingunits.
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The growth of communication technology in the last two decades has given the world a new look.With the blessings of digital technology, we can now communicate to any parts of the world with just a touch over the screen of our smart phone. Mobile phone hasnow become an indispensable part of our life.But, biological effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) transmitted by mobile phones are still a matter of public and scientific debate. Countries accross the world are now getting concerned about the impact of mobiles on human health and environment.Radiofrequency waves generated from mobile phones cause potential public health problems. Short-term effects like changes in sleep, heart rate, and blood pressure, and long-term effects like carcinoma (particularly glioma) are well-documented. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published cancer risks from Radiofrequency(RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. Besides, the carcinogenic effect of non-ionizing radiation emitted from cordless digital devices, numerous health effects have already been claimed to occur. Faced with this context, scientific community and legislative bodies are raising voice for the reduction of RF-EMF exposure to the safe limit for human health and environment. The RF exposure restriction guideline used by many agencies was established in 1998 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and was based only on established short-term thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation neglecting non-thermal biological effects. The present study is, therefore, intended to review the literatures relating mobile phone and Wi-fito human health in order to make the scientific community updated on the association between mobile phone use and human health. Ibrahim Card Med J 2018; 8 (1&2): 53-65
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This article assesses the RF EMF exposure to nearby mobile phone base stations inside an educational facility (indoor scenario, 900/1800/1900/2100 bands). Indirect characterisation is implemented experimentally, i.e. the received power levels are compared to each other, the main scope of this research being that of identifying whether distinct locations inside the chosen building would demonstrate different received power levels (hence different EMF exposure). Our experiments proved significant exposure to EGSM-900 of all locations under consideration and also a difference of several dB for a distance of about 3 meters between two close locations. A maximum instantaneous power of - 18.15 dBm has been measured and identified in a location that seems to be most exposed to base stations RF emissions. These experimental results illustrate the importance of conducting preliminary indoor EMF exposure tests before choosing the placement of mobile phone base station antenna as long as some spots have different EMF exposure compared with others from the same building.
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The aim. To systematize contemporary concept about the structural and functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) and the importance of developing the concept of the human connectome. Main concepts. Signifcant progress in understanding the organization of the CNS in normal and in various pathological conditions was achieved after the introduction of structural and functional neuroimaging methods frst into scientifc and then into clinical practice. Recently, when studying the neuropsychiatric sphere, special attention has been paid to neural networks. One of the achievements in this feld is the construction of the human connectome – a system of structural and functional connections between various cerebral areas, the state of which is assessed using multimodal methods of functional neuroimaging. Thus, the development of brain sciences has reached a completely different level – the level of systemic psychoneurology, when the existing processes are analyzed comprehensively, with the involvement of specialists in various felds – neurology, psychiatry, neuroimaging, mathematics, etc. The human connectome is basically a biological system, therefore, although the analogy with artifcial intelligence can be traced, it does not take the frst place. The functioning of the human connectome is based on the principle of parallel, rather than sequential, information processing. Taking into account the inherent ability of the brain (at least, some of its areas) to generate spontaneous non-rhythmic oscillations, this leads to the implementation of the basic principle of the functioning of the CNS – minimizing energy consumption. In addition, the presence of spontaneous non-rhythmic oscillations (the principle of uncertainty) probably underlies the inherent human ability to intuitively think, develop new ideas. The state of the connectome in a rest is determined by past experience, the duration of external influences, and age. It affects the nature and severity of neuroplastic processes, as well as, in particular, the effectiveness of certain pharmacological drugs in a given individual. At the same time, the fnal result of neuroplastic changes may be of a different nature. It can be favorable for the body (the so-called adaptive plasticity), do not affect the body in any way, or even have a negative result (the so-called maladaptive neuroplasticity). In children, such maladaptive manifestations are less pronounced. Currently, hardware methods of influencing the connectome are being actively studied. For example, it was shown that the structure of the connectome in a rest state can change after transcranial magnetic stimulation. Further studies of this problem will open up new opportunities for studying the activity of such a complexly organized system as the brain – in normal and in various pathological conditions – and to develop more effective methods of neurorehabilitation.
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The impact of electromagnetic waves on health has been clearly established by many studies in recent decades. No State, with the exception of Russia, takes any real precautions in terms of standards for the population. Conflicts of interest and political lies are used to hide the truth about the dangers of electromagnetic pollution. In addition, it would seem that other sources of radiation than the most well-known ones (mobile phones, digital enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) phones, bluetooth, base stations, Wi-Fi, 4G, 5G) come into play. A system such as HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program), as well as directed wave beams (related to past and recent scandals) must be analyzed and considered in a comprehensive way to understand why the wave level is only increasing despite the considerable amount of scientific work demonstrating that the standards are not adequate to maintain public health. Thus, official documents show that the impact of electromagnetic waves is not only physical and biological. Indeed, the climate and the behavior of the population are also targeted.
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Biological effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood‐brain barrier (BBB) have been studied in Fischer 344 rats of both sexes. The rats were not anaesthetised during the exposure. All animals were sacrificed by perfusion–fixation of the brains under chloralhydrate anaesthesia after the exposure. The brains were perfused with saline for 3–4 minutes, and thereafter perfusion fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 5–6 minutes. Whole coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 µm. Albumin and fibrinogen were demonstrated immunohistochemically and classified as normal versus pathological leakage. In the present investigation we exposed male and female Fischer 344 rats in a Transverse Electromagnetic Transmission line chamber to microwaves of 915 MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse‐modulated with different pulse power and at various time intervals. The CW‐pulse power varied from 0.001 W to 10 W and the exposure time from 2 min to 960 min. In each experiment we exposed 4–6 rats with 2–4 controls randomly placed in excited and non‐excited TEM‐cells respectively. We have in total investigated 630 exposed rats at various modulation frequencies and 372 controls. The frequency of pathological rats is significantly increased (p p p
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We have earlier shown that radio frequency electromagnetic fields can cause significant leakage of albumin through the blood–brain barrier of exposed rats as compared to non-exposed rats, and alsosignificant neuronal damage in rat brains several weeks after a 2h exposure to a mobile phone, at 915MHz with a global system for mobile communications (GSM) frequency modulation, at whole-body specific absorption rate values (SAR) of 200, 20, 2, and 0.2mW/kg. We have now studied whether 6h of exposure to the radiation from a GSM mobile test phone at 1,800MHz (at a whole-body SAR-value of 13mW/kg, corresponding to a brain SAR-value of 30mW/kg) has an effect upon the gene expression pattern in rat brain cortex and hippocampus—areas where we have observed albumin leakage from capillaries into neurons and neuronal damage. Microarray analysis of 31,099 rat genes, including splicing variants, was performed in cortex and hippocampus of 8 Fischer 344 rats, 4 animals exposed to global system for mobile communications electromagnetic fields for 6h in an anechoic chamber, one rat at a time, and 4 controls kept as long in the same anechoic chamber without exposure, also in this case one rat at a time. Gene ontology analysis (using the gene ontology categories biological processes, molecular functions, and cell components) of the differentially expressed genes of the exposed animals versus the control group revealed the following highly significant altered gene categories in both cortex and hippocampus: extracellular region, signal transducer activity, intrinsic to membrane, and integral to membrane.The fact that most of these categories are connected with membrane functions may have a relation to our earlier observation of albumin transport through brain capillaries.
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The biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be studied in sensitive and specific models. In a previous investigation of the permeability of the BBB after exposure to the various EMF -components of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we found that exposure to MRI induced leakage of Evans-blue-labelled proteins which do not normally pass the BBB of rats. In the present investigation we exposed male and female Fischer 344 rats in a TEM cell to 915 MHz microwaves as continuous waves and modulated at various low frequencies (8, 16, 50 and 200 Hz). The rats were not anaesthetized during the exposure. After exposure the brains were perfused first with saline for 3-4 minutes and then with 4% formaldehyde. Central coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 mum. Albumin and fibrinogen were demonstrated immunohistochemically. The results show albumin leakage in 5 out of 62 of the controls and in 56 out of 184 of the animals exposed to 915 MHz microwaves. With continuous waves these are 14 positive findings out of 35 which differs significantly from the results obtained with the controls (p = 0.0002). With pulsed 915 MHz microwaves at modulation frequencies of 200, 50, 16 and 8 Hz, 42 findings out of 149 were positive, which is significant at the p = 0.001 level. This reveals that both continuous and pulsed 915 MHz microwaves are able to open up the BBB for albumin passage. However, there is no significant difference between continuous and pulsed 915 MHz microwaves in this respect. The question of whether the opening of the BBB constitutes a health hazard requires further investigation.
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Life on earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are an example of oscillations possibly important for life.¹⁾ The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.²⁾⁻⁶⁾ One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAR-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure⁷⁾ but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 days, but not after 28.⁸⁾ In our continued research, also the non-thermal effects on tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.⁹⁾ We have also performed micro-array analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.10), 11) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other studies agree while others find no effects.
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The environment in which biology exists has dramatically changed during the last decades. Life was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation and the terrestrial magnetism. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today one third of the world’s population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones. The question is: to what extent are living organisms affected by these ubiquitous radio frequency fields? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been revealed to cause significantly increased leakage of albumin through the BBB of exposed rats as compared to non-exposed animals—in a total series of about two thousand animals. One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users’ own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz at non-thermal levels, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen 28 and 50 days after the exposure. In our continued research, the non-thermal effects (histology, memory functions) of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied as well as the effects of short term GSM 1,800 MHz upon gene expression. Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Studies from other laboratories in some cases find effects, while in other cases effects are not seen. Our conclusion is that all researchers involved in this field have the obligation to intensify this research in order to reduce, or avoid, the possible negative effects of the man made microwaves!
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Dark neurons have plagued the interpretation of brain tissue sections, experimentally and clinically. Seen only when perturbed but living tissue is fixed in aldehydes, their mechanism of production is unknown. Since dark neurons are seen in cortical biopsies, experimental ischemia, hypoglycemia, and epilepsy, we surmised that glutamate release and neuronal transmembrane ion fluxes could be the perturbation leading to dark neuron formation while the fixation process is underway. Accordingly, we excised biopsies of rat cortex to simulate neurosurgical production of dark neurons. To ascertain the role of glutamate, blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors was done prior to formaldehyde fixation. To assess the role of transmembrane sodium ion (and implicitly, water) fluxes, tetraethylammonium (TEA) was used. Blockade of NMDA receptors with MK-801 and non-NMDA receptors with the quinoxalinediones (CNQX and NBQX) abolished dark neuron formation. More delayed exposure of the tissue to the antagonist, CNQX, by admixing it with the fixative directly, allowed for some production of dark neurons. Aminophosphonoheptanoate (APH), perhaps due to its polarity, and TEA, did not prevent dark neurons, which were abundant in control formaldehyde fixed material unexposed to either receptor or ion channel antagonists. The results demonstrate a role for the pharmacologic subtypes of glutamate receptors in the pathogenetic mechanism of dark neuron formation. Our results are consistent with the appearance of dark neurons in biopsy where the cerebral cortex has been undercut, and rendered locally ischemic and hypoglycemic, as well as in epilepsy, hypoglycemia, and ischemia, all of which lead to glutamate release. Rather than a pressure-derived mechanical origin, we suggest that depolarization, glutamate release or receptor activation are more likely mechanisms of dark neuron production.
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We investigated the effects of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and signs of neuronal damage in rats using a real GSM programmable mobile phone in the 900 MHz band. Ninety-six non-anaesthetized rats were either exposed to microwaves or sham exposed in TEM-cells for 2 h at specific absorption rates of average whole-body Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) of 0.12, 1.2, 12, or 120 mW/kg. The rats were sacrificed after a recovery time of either 14 or 28 d, following exposure and the extravazation of albumin, its uptake into neurons, and occurrence of damaged neurons was assessed. Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).
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Volumes of mitochondria in capillary endothelial cells were determined stereologically from electron micrographs of rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex, spinal cord, cauda equina, choroid plexus, anterior pituitary, median eminence of the hypothalamus, renal proximal tubules, skin, cardiac and skeletal muscle, lung, and renal glomerulus. The capillaries of the first four of these tissue types exhibit blood-brain barrier (BBB) characteristics of permeability and capillary ultrastructure and were found to have mitochondrial contents amounting to 8 to 11% of the endothelial cytoplasmic volume. Tissues from non-BBB regions were determined to have mitochondrial volumes of 2 to 5% of their respective cytoplasmic volumes, with a variety of capillary ultrastructures. The apparent excess metabloic work capability of the BBB suggested by this greater number of mitochondria may be related to maintenance of ion differentials between blood plasma and brain extracellular fluid, to extrachoroidal cerebrospinal fluid formation, or to maintaining the unique structural characteristics of central nervous system capillaries.
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Rats were exposed to 1.3 gHz microwave energy to assess the uptake of several neutral polar substances in certain areas of the brain. A quantitative, radioactive isotope method, which uses an internal standard, was employed to measure the loss of test substances to brain tissue. Single, 20 min exposure, to either pulsed or continuous wave (CW) microwave energy induced an increase in the uptake of D-mannitol at average power densities of less than 3.0 mW/sp. cm. The permeability change was greatest in the medulla, followed, in decreasing order, by the cerebellum and hypothalamus, with small or negligible changes in the hippocampus and cortex. Permeability increases were observed for mannitol and inulin but not for dextran. Increased permeability was observed both immediately and 4 h after exposure, but not 24 h after exposure. After an initial rise, the permeability of cerebral vessels to saccharides decreased with increasing microwave power. Differences in the level of uptake occurred between CW energy and pulsed energy of the same average power. Microwaves of the same average power but different pulse characteristics also produced different uptake levels. Our findings suggest that microwaves induce a temporary change in the permeability for small molecular weight saccharides in the blood-brain barrier system of rats.
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We performed experiments to investigate subtypes of opioid receptors in the brain involved in the effect of acute (45 min) pulsed microwave exposure (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, average power density 1 mW/cm2, peak-power density, 1 W/cm2, average whole body SAR 0.6 W/kg) on cholinergic activity in the rat brain. Rats were pretreated by microinjection of specific antagonists of mu, delta, and kappa opioid-receptors into the lateral cerebroventricle before exposure to microwaves. The data showed that all three subtypes of opioid receptors are involved in the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus. However, the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments, confirming our previous conclusion that the effect of microwaves on the frontal cortex is not mediated by endogenous opioids.
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The purpose of this study was to document the early cerebrovascular consequences of excessive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. Five microliters of NMDA (100 nmol/microliters) or vehicle was infused over a 15-min period into the lateral ventricle of adult rats. The protein tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected intravenously for blood-brain barrier (BBB) studies. The intraventricular infusion of vehicle (n = 5) caused no alterations in arterial blood pressure or microvascular damage away from the intraventricular probe tract. In contrast, NMDA infusion (n = 8) led to a gradual increase in arterial blood pressure (mean 36 mm Hg). Multifocal regions of HRP extravasation were observed bilaterally throughout the neuraxis following NMDA infusion. Sites of BBB disruption and hemorrhage included brain regions bordering ventricular spaces. In addition, isolated foci of protein extravasation were commonly detected in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal forebrain, septum and cerebellum. Pretreatment with the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (2 mg/kg) substantially reduced the BBB responses to NMDA. However, microvascular abnormalities were seen in NMDA-infused rats where blood pressure elevations were inhibited by blood removal. In addition to neurons, cerebral blood vessels are also acutely affected by NMDA receptor activation. Blockage of NMDA receptor channels following brain injury may potentially provide protection by attenuating BBB breakdown and subsequent brain edema.
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Cell death was due to activation of the receptor responsive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Even during a 30-min incubation, glutamate toxicity was unaffected by 5 microM CNQX and was greater than 90% blocked by 160 nM MK-801, a specific antagonist of the NMDA receptor. The extent of toxicity was dependent on the age of the cultured cells, the concentration of KCl, which determined membrane polarization, the duration of exposure to, and the concentration of, glutamate. Toxicity was critically pH-dependent, increasing from a minimal effect at pH 7.0 to an extremely high level at pH 8.0. Among a number of acidic amino acids tested, glutamate showed the highest potency. Aspartate, cysteine sulfinate and homocysteate reached the same maximal toxicity, but at a 25 times higher concentration. Cysteate and quinolinate were of very low potency. Zn2+, at 0.5 microM, attenuated glutamate toxicity considerably. At concentrations above 5 microM the metal ion showed strong toxicity on its own. Dialysed serum and serum albumin strongly potentiated glutamate and NMDA toxicity in presence and absence of Mg2+. A concentration of 2 mg/ml bovine serum albumin caused maximal potentiation; fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin were all about equipotent. To be effective, the serum albumin had to act simultaneously with glutamate. Among a number of proteins and other polymers, only casein showed an ability to potentiate glutamate toxicity, similar to serum albumin. It is concluded that minor effects of glutamate toxicity could be considerably aggravated by the potentiating activity of serum albumin, also in pathological situations in vivo.
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The lumbar and cervical spinal dorsal horns of adult rats with a chronic (8 days) constriction injury of the sciatic nerve on one side (and a sham operation on the other) were examined for signs of transsynaptic degeneration. The incidence of neurons with signs of degeneration (pyknosis and hyperchromatosis; 'dark neurons') was significantly increased in the lumbar dorsal horn on both sides. The ipsilateral lumbar increase was significantly greater than the contralateral increase. There was no increase in the incidence of dark neurons in the cervical dorsal horns of the same rats. The distribution of lumbar dark neurons was similar bilaterally. The majority of the dark neurons were found in the sciatic nerve's territory in laminae I-II. A second group of rats received the same surgery but in addition received a series of 7 daily subconvulsive doses of strychnine. Dark neurons were again found bilaterally (with ipsilateral predominance) in the sciatic nerve's territory in lumbar laminae I-II, but the incidence was significantly greater than that found in the group that did not receive strychnine. The same result was obtained in a third group of strychnine-treated rats when the sham operation was omitted. Thus the appearance of contralateral dark neurons is not dependent on unintentional nerve damage created by the sham procedure. An additional group of rats was sacrificed 8 days after receiving a unilateral sciatic nerve transection, a contralateral sham operation, and the 7 daily strychnine injections. There was no increase in the incidence of dark neurons in any of these rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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In a qualitative electron microscopy study we initially reported that exposure of rats to a standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure temporarily increased the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to horseradish peroxidase. In this study, we quantitatively support our initial finding. Rats were injected intracardially with radio-labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid [( 153Gd]DTPA) in the middle of two sequential 23.2 min MRI exposures. Exposed rats (n = 21) showed significantly greater (29%, P = 0.006) retention of [153 Gd]DTPA than sham-exposed rats (n = 22) 1 h after the end of the last 23.2 min exposure. These findings suggest that magnetic fields may alter BBB permeability.
Article
Following nephrectomy and intravenous injection of tritiated mannitol, adult male rats were exposed to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures at 1.5 T, 0.5 T, and 0.3 T. Compared to rats similarly handled but not exposed to MRI procedures, brain mannitol concentration, expressed as a percentage of mean body concentration, was significantly increased at 0.3 T and 0.5 T but not at 1.5 T. At 0.3 T, exposure to gradient-field fluctuations used for imaging increased brain mannitol concentration, but exposures to static main field and pulsed radiofrequency energies did not. Increased brain mannitol associated with gradient-field flux may reflect increased blood-brain barrier permeability or blood volume in brain. MRI effects on brain mannitol space are of uncertain clinical significance, but are consistent with prior evidence of an MRI-induced increase of brain capillary endothelial cell transport observed with horseradish peroxidase. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the processes underlying changes in mannitol distribution related to MRI.