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New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

Authors:
  • Komarov Botanical Institute, Saint Petersburg

Abstract and Figures

Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.
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Taiwania, 52(4): 287-306, 2007
New Species of Orchids from Vietnam
Leonid V. Averyanov(1)
(Manuscript received 15 July, 2007; accepted 5 September, 2007)
ABSTRACT: Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in
Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are
provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina
caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera
rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.
KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Taxonomy, Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa,
Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, Bulbophyllum sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa,
Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, Oberonia
trichophora, Sunipia nigricans, new species, Vietnam.
INTRODUCTION
Identification of large herbarium collections
documented field botanical works in Vietnam during
2005-2007 according to a number exploration
programs of USA. National Geographic Society,
Vietnam Botanical Conservation Program (funded
from Henry Lice Foundation); American Orchid
Society, WWF Indochina Programme (Green
Corridor Project in Thua Thien – Hue Province) and
Fauna & Flora International revealed ten species of
orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions, as
well as short statement on phenology, ecology,
distribution and taxonomy are provided below for
each discovered species. The paper continues
publication of new orchid species discovered in the
country during long term work on inventory of
Vietnamese orchid flora (Averyanov, 2005a, b;
Averyanov and Averyanova, 2005; Averyanov and
Efimov, 2006).
Anoectochilus papillosus Aver., sp. nov.
Figs. 1 & 2A
Plantae terrestres ad 16 cm alt. Folia 2-4, 2-4
cm lg., 2-3 cm lt., atroviridia nervis roseis distinctis.
Flores 3-5, remoti, ca 1.5 cm in diam. Petala
extrinsecus jugis papillosis longitudinalibus
brevibus. Labium album, 13-14 mm lg. Mesochilium
lobis rectangulatis dentatis. Epichilium bipartitum,
lobis oblique lobatis. Calcar apici bifurcatum.
__________________________________________
1. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of
Science, Prof. Popov str., 2, St.-Petersburg, 197376, Russian
Federation. Email: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
Type: VIETNAM, Hoa Binh Prov., Mai Chau
Distr., Pa Co Municipality, Xa Linh village, Rung gia
locality (Old forests), around point 20º44’30’’N,
104º56’26’’E, 968 m a.s.l. In primary and secondary
closed evergreen broad-leaved sub-montane forests
on foots and slopes of limestone mountain. 23 Jul.
2006. Phan Ke Loc, Le Dong Tan, Nguyen Sinh
Khang, Nguyen Tien Vinh, HAL 8978 (Holotype, HN;
Isotype, LE).
Terrestrial herb with creeping rhizome and
ascending leafy floriferous stem. Rhizome 3-5 cm
long, dull pink-brown, juicy, rooting at nodes.
Floriferous stem 14-16 cm tall, with 2-4 leaves at the
base. Leaves petiolate; petiole and sheath 8-10 mm
long, 3-4 mm wide at the base; leaf blade ovate to
broadly-ovate or almost circular, usually slightly
asymmetric, shortly acute, 2-4 cm long, 2-3 cm wide,
velvety dark green, with reticulate network of pink
nerves above, uniform dull pink-purple below. Scape
9-12 cm long, densely finely tomentose with simple
and glandular hairs; rachis lax flowered, normally
with 3-5 flowers. Floral bracts dull pink,
triangular-cuneate, conduplicate, acuminate, 8-10
mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, sparsely hairy. Pedicel and
ovary 10-12 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, densely
pubescent with simple and glandular hairs. Sepals
light dull pink-brown, glabrous or sparsely hairy
outside. Dorsal sepal ovate, 6-7 mm long, 2.5-3 mm
wide, acuminate, with slightly upward reflexed apex.
Lateral sepals oblong, obtuse, oblique, about 7-8 mm
long, 2.5-3 mm wide. Petals white, glabrous, 6.5-7
mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, strongly oblique, falcate,
rising from narrow base to oblique broad median part
288 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 1. Anoectochilus papillosus Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Flower. c: Flattened sepals and petals, ventral view. d: Flattened median sepal and
petals, dorsal view. e: Lip and column, side view. f: Column, ventral and dorsal view. g: Pollinarium (all drawn from the type by author).
ending in attenuate apex, densely connivent and
forming a hood with the dorsal sepal, each on dorsal
surface with short longitudinal ridge bearing few
massive white, sometime forked capitate papillae.
Lip, white, with dull pink-brown tint at the spur apex,
13-14 mm long from base to apex of epichile,
distinctly divided into hypochile mesochile and
epichile. Hypochile boat-shaped 5-6 mm long, 1.5-2
mm wide, with upturned margins, basally with
cylindric spur 3.5-4 mm long, about 1 mm broad;
hypochile and spur, placed at narrow angle with
mesochile; spur acutely bifid at apex, with 2 large
hemispheric sub-sessile glands inside. Mesochile 4-5
mm long, with narrow base and 2 rectangular lobes
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 289
Fig. 2. New species of orchids from Vietnam. A: Anoectochilus papillosus, flowering plant and flower (type specimen, HAL 8978). B: Arundina
caespitosa in natural habitat (paratype, LX-VN 1966). C: Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, flowering plant and flower (type specimen, HAL
9849). D: B. sinhoënse, flowering plant (type specimen, HAL 8791). E: Cheirostylis foliosa, inflorescence (type specimen, HAL 9415). F:
Liparis rivularis, flower (type specimen, HAL 10443). G: Oberonia multidentata, flowering plant and flowers (type specimen, HAL 9839).
Photographs A & D made by Phan Ke Loc; B, C, E, F & G made by the author.
2-2.5 mm wide, 3-3.5 mm long, denticulate at the
apex with 5-10 irregular more or less low cuneate
blunt dents. Epichile with narrow base, 2-lobed; the
lobes spreading, oblique rectangular, truncate, entire,
4.5-5.5 mm long, about 2.5 mm wide. Column ovate,
4-4.5 mm tall, with 2 short vertical wings at front and
2 lateral hemispheric stigmas; wings 1-1.4 mm long,
about 1 mm tall, rising at the middle part of column.
Anther large, narrowly-ovate, about 3.5 mm long.
Etymology: Specific epithet refers to unusual
papillose ridges on dorsal surface of petals.
Flowering time: July – August.
Ecology: Broad-leaved evergreen forests on
rocky limestone at elev. 900-1000 m a.s.l. Creeping
terrestrial herb, commonly on humid shady limestone
pockets with deep soil rich in humus.
Distribution: Vietnam (Hoa Binh Province, Mai
Chau District).
Notes: From all known representatives of the
genus new species differs in petals bearing on dorsal
surface short longitudinal ridge ornamented with
massive, often forked capitate papillae. On other
floral morphology this species approaches to
Taiwanese A. koshunensis Hayata, from which
differs in large and broad, shallowly dentate side
lobes of mesochile. Obviously, described species is
endemic to rocky limestone remnant highlands
spreading in north-western Vietnam along Laotian
border.
Arundina caespitosa Aver., sp. nov. Figs. 2B, 3 & 4
Arundina chinensis auct. non Blume: Averyanov,
1994, Identification Guide Viet. Orch.: 88;
Averyanov, Averyanova, 2003, Updated
Checklist Orch. Viet.: 12, p.p.
290 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 3. Arundina caespitosa Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Leaf. c: Flower. d: Flattened sepals and petals. e: Flattened lip. f: Column, frontal and
side view. g: Fruit (all drawn from the type by author).
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 291
Fig. 4. Arundina caespitosa Aver. Digital herbarium specimen of the type (HAL 7953).
Plantae ripariae herbaceae caespitosae ad
40(60) cm alt. Folia linearia, atroviridia, nitentia.
Flores 1-3, intense purpurei, 2.5-3 cm in diam.
Labium centro album, nervis 7-9 verruculiformibus
flavescentibus.
Type: VIETNAM, Thua Thien – Hue Prov., A
Luoi Distr., Huong Nguyen Municipality, in
vicinities of Tra Ve forest protection station, around
point 16º15'16''N, 107º26'57''E at elevation about 80
m a.s.l. Open riparian shrubs along rocky Tra Ve
292 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
river valley on sandstone and granite outcrops. 6 May
2005. L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, T.V.Thao, N.T.Vinh,
HAL 7953 (Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Paratypes: VIETNAM, Gia Lai – Kontum Prov.,
Kon Ha Nung. In crevices of rocky cliffs along
mountain stream, in water. Flowers purple. 15 May
1985. Averyanov L., et al., LX-VN 1966, Soviet
Union – Vietnamese Eexpedition (HN, LE).
VIETNAM, Quang Nam – Da Nang Prov., Phuoc
Son, Ta De, Kham Due. Flowers purple-violet. 11
July 1986. Averyanov L., et al., LX-VN 2851, Soviet
Union – Vietnamese Eexpedition (HN, LE).
VIETNAM, Tonkin [Quang Ninh Prov.?], Taai
Wong Mo Shan and vicinity Tong Fa market Ha-coi.
Ht. 2 ft.; fairly common in thicket, on moist sandy
soil; fl. lavender, fragrant. W.T.Tsang 29471, 3rd
Indo-China Expedition (HN, LE).
Lithophytic riparian herb with short much
branched rhizome and numerous dense caespitose
reed-like more or less erect leafy stems. Rhizome
dark brown, 2-3 mm thick, with many stems distant
on 3-5 mm, covered with fibrous gray-brown
remnants of cataphylls. Stems erect or curved in
direction of water-stream flow, in dense clusters
often with 100 and more shoots each, 25-60 cm tall,
2-4 mm thick, with 6-15 distichous leaves and
terminal flower scape, leafless below. Leaves
commonly abbreviated to the top of stem, sessile,
linear, strongly keeled, grass-like, 10-18 cm long,
2-5(6) mm wide, acute, dark glossy green; articulate
at the base with light greenish to yellowish, closed
leaf sheaths 0.8-3.5 cm long. Scape erect or
ascending, thin, rigid, 10-20 cm long, 0.8-1.2 mm
thick, with 1-3 distant small green sterile bracts and
1-4 flowered terminal, racemose, unbranched
inflorescence. Floral bracts green, short,
conduplicate, infundibular broadly ovate, 2-4 mm
long, 2-3 mm wide (when flatten), persistent. Pedicel
and ovary glossy green, often with purple-brown tint,
glabrous, 10-14 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide. Flowers
fragrant, brightly purple, developed in succession,
wide opening, 2.5-3 cm across, distant on 3-18 mm.
Sepals oblong narrowly-ovate, 1.6-2.2 cm long, 5-7
mm wide, obtuse. Petals oblong-elliptic, 1.8-2.4 cm
long, 6-8 mm wide, broadly-obtuse to roundish at
apex. Lip sessile, trumpet-shaped, broadly-ovate in
outline (when flatten), 2.2-2.8 cm long, 1.8-2.4 cm
wide, with white center and 7-9 low keels traced with
yellow warts, 3-lobe, wavy along margin. Lip side
lobes erect, embracing the column, triangular, with
roundish apex, 7-9 mm long, 6-8 mm wide. Lip mid
lobe semi-circular, 9-12 mm long and wide,
emarginate to bilobed. Column white, erect, slender,
10-12 mm tall, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, slightly widening
toward the apex, at the base with small tuft of
yellow-orange papillae. Operculum white,
hemispheric, 1-1.2 mm across. Fruit cylindric
longitudinally ridged capsule, 1.4-2.8 cm long, 5-8
mm wide.
Etymology: Species name refers dense caespitose
plant habit.
Flowering time: April – July.
Ecology: Open wet sandstone and granite stream
and rivers rocks along water line at elevations 50-500
m a.s.l., particularly on small waterfall cliffs,
occasionally flooded during torrential summer rains.
Distribution: Vietnam (Gia Lai Province, Kbang
District, Quang Nam – Da Nang Province, Phuoc Son
District, Thua Thien – Hue Province, A Luoi
District), northern Vietnam (“Tonkin, Taai Wong Mo
Shan and vicinity Tong Fa market Ha-coi” [Quang
Ninh Prov.?]).
Note: This plant strikingly differs from
widespread, common and very variable species -
Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. in small
dimensions of all it’s parts, dense caespitose habit,
linear glossy dark green leaves, small brightly purple
flowers and specific ecology. Described species may
be close to A. minor Lindl., endemic of Sri Lanka,
from which it differs in longer and narrower leaves,
much smaller floral bracts, smaller flowers, broader
sepals, brightly purple lip (without yellow) with 7-9
warty keels. In some earlier publications on orchid
flora of Vietnam, A. caespitosa was wrongly reported
under the name A. chinensis Blume (Averyanov,
1994; Averyanov, Averyanova, 2003), which now is
regarded as synonym of A. graminifolia. Long-term
field exploration in Vietnam certainly states that A.
caespitosa is very rare and highly endangered
species, which stands on the verge of full extinction
in the nature. In our days, it vanished completely in
places of its first discovery due to anthropogenic
influence. Meanwhile this species has outstanding
prospects for cultivation as wonderful miniature
ornamental plant on wet rocks in small home-garden
basins of oriental style.
Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum Aver., sp. nov.
(sect. Cirrhopetalum (Lindl.) Reichenb. f.).
Figs. 2C & 5
Plantae repentes epiphyticae. Pseudobulbi
monophylli, 2 cm alt. Inflorescentia 2 cm lg.,
uni-biflora. Flores 5 cm lg. Sepalum medianum et
petala ovata, eroso-dentata, alba,
purpureo-maculata. Sepala lateralia in tubum 4 cm
lg. connata, purpureo-brunnea.
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 293
Fig. 5. Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Pedicel and ovary. c: Flattened tepals. d: Flattened median sepal. e: Petal.
f: Lip, side view, frontal view and view from behind. g: Column and lip, side view. h: Column, frontal view. i: Operculum (all drawn from the
type by author).
Type: VIETNAM, Lai Chau Prov., Sin Ho
Distr., Ma Quai Municipality, Can Ti 2 village,
around point 22º24’18’’N, 103º22’45’’E. Remnants
of broad-leaved evergreen closed primary forest on
steep mountain slopes composed with sandstone at
elev. about 1100 m a.s.l. Creeping epiphyte on tall
mossy trees. Flowers odorless, median sepal and petals
white, lateral sepals purple-brown, lip white with finest
purple-brown marks. Common. 17 Nov. 2006. Nguyen
Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham Van The, HAL 9849
(Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
294 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Creeping epiphyte. Rhizome rigid, dark
gray-brown, 1.5-2.5 mm thick, with 6-10
pseudobulbs distant on 0.6-2 cm and 1-2 very rigid
wiry roots at nodes. Pseudobulbs dull olive-green to
brown, narrowly-ovate, 1.5-2.5 cm tall, 5-8 mm
wide, often slightly oblique, erect or bending to
rhizome, young smooth, later longitudinally
wrinkled, with 1 apical leaf. Leaves rigid, coriaceous,
oblong-lanceolate, conduplicate, slightly bilobed at
apex, 3-6 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide. Inflorescence
arising from the base of pseudobulb, with 1-2
terminal flowers, on erect stout rigid purple-brown
stalk 1.5-2.5 cm tall, enclosed at the base by 1-2
yellowish-brown to dull gray decaying fibrous broad
bracts. Floral bracts purple-brown, narrowly-ovate to
ovate, acute, 5-6 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide. Pedicel
and ovary purple-brown, 1-1.4 mm long, 2-2.5 mm
wide, cowered with numerous fine dark brown warts.
Flowers odorless, pendulous, 4.5-5.5 cm long.
Median sepal white with numerous small purple
marks, broadly-ovate, acute, 8-9 mm long, 5-5.5 mm
wide, with 5 distinct nerves, finely erose dentate
along margin, outside in the middle part with
numerous fine dark brown warts. Lateral sepals
purple to purple-brown, finely papillose, with sparse
fine dark brown warts at basal half, connate into
broad tube 3.8-4.2 cm long, 0.8-1 cm wide, with free
caudate apices. Petals white to hyaline, with
numerous small purple marks, obovate-rhomboid,
broadly-obtuse, 4.5-5 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide, with
3 distinct nerves, erose-dentate along margin. Lip
white, with numerous fine purple-brown marks,
simple, without ears, fleshy, ovate-triangular, about
3-3.5 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, strongly recurved,
jointed with column foot apex by movable
articulation. Column light lemon-yellow, erect,
cylindrical, 3 mm tall, 2 mm wide, with 4 acute
stelidia at the apex and ovate glossy callus at front
near the base. Column foot 1.5-1.8 mm long, forward
curved, apically slightly dilated. Operculum simple,
hemispheric, 1.2-1.3 mm across, frontal margin
shortly ciliate.
Etymology: Species name reflects closest
relations of newly described species.
Flowering time: November.
Ecology: Primary and secondary evergreen
broad-leaved forests on sandstone at elevation about
1100 m a.s.l. Creeping epiphyte in canopy of tall
trees.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Sin
Ho District).
Note: On floral morphology new species more or
less close to Bulbophyllum emarginatum (Finet)
J.J.Sm., from which differs mainly in coloration of
flowers, structure of lip and distinctly erose dentate
margin of median sepal and petals. In habit of growth
and vegetative features both species looks
indistinguishable and probably sometimes occur
together in same habitats. In some areas of Lai Chau
province of northern Vietnam B. paraemarginatum
was observed as quite common plant growing as
canopy creeping epiphyte on tall mossy trees.
Bulbophyllum sinhoënse Aver., sp. nov. (sect.
Desmosanthes (Blume) J.J.Smith). Figs. 2D & 6
Plantae repentes epiphyticae. Pseudobulbi 4-6
mm alt., monophylli. Inflorescentia 1.5-2.5 cm lg.,
uni-biflora. Sepala anguste ovata, 7-8.5 mm lg.,
1.5-2.1 mm lt., acuminata, alba, apice flavescentia.
Petala alba, anguste obovata, 4-4.5 mm lg., 1.2-1.4
mm lt., trinervata, obtusa.
Type: VIETNAM, Lai Chau Prov., Sin Ho Distr.,
Phin Ho Mun., Ta Genh village, around point
22º28'44''N, 103º16'23''E, 1326 m. Upper slopes and
ridges of limestone mountains. Epiphyte. Rare.
Flowers white; sepals tips yellowish. 12 Jun 2006.
P.K. Loc, N.T. Vinh, N.S. Khang, P.N. Quan, L.H.
Phong, HAL 8791 (Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Dwarf creeping epiphyte or lithophyte. Rhizome
filiform, wiry, young light green, later
yellowish-white, 0.3-0.5 mm thick, with numerous
pseudobulbs distant on 0.7-2 cm and 1-4 wiry, finely
gray-hairy roots at nodes. Pseudobulbs light green,
narrowly-ovate to ovate, 3-7 mm tall, 2-3 mm wide,
sometimes slightly oblique, erect or slightly bending
to rhizome, longitudinally irregularly grooved and
wrinkled, with 1 apical leaf. Leaves rigid, coriaceous,
narrowly-ovate to ovate, 7-18 mm long, 3-5 mm
wide, conduplicate, bilobed at apex, attenuate at the
base into very short petiole. Inflorescence arising
from base of pseudobulb, with 1-2 terminal flowers,
on ascending rigid, filiform, light greenish stalk
1.5-2.5 cm long, with 2 small insignificant yellowish
hyaline bracts at the base and in lover third. Floral
bracts light yellowish hyaline, narrowly-ovate, acute,
2.5-3 mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide. Pedicel and ovary
light green, glabrous, 2.5-3 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm
wide. Flowers widely opening, 12-14 mm across,
very large relatively size of the plant. Sepals
sub-similar, white with light yellowish caudate fleshy
apices, narrowly-ovate, 7-8.5 mm long, 1.5-2.1 mm
wide, acuminate, with 3 distinct nerves; lateral sepals
slightly longer and wider, oblique at the base. Petals
white, narrowly-obovate to broadly-oblanceolate,
obtuse, 4-4.5 mm long, 1.2-1.4 mm wide, with 3
nerves. Lip white, simple, without ears, cuneate,
2.5-2.8 mm long, 0.7-0.9 mm wide, strongly
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 295
Fig. 6. Bulbophyllum sinhoënse Aver. a & b: Flowering plants. c: Flattened flower (without lip). d: Lip, side view, frontal view and view from
behind. e: Column and lip, side view. f: Column, frontal view (all drawn from the type by author).
recurved, jointed with column foot apex by movable
articulation. Column white, erect, 1.8-2.2 mm tall,
0.8-1 mm wide, with 2 long subulate acute stelidia at
the apex and curved forward, apically slightly dilated
column foot 1.4-1.6 mm long. Operculum white,
simple, hemispheric, 0.3-0.4 mm across.
Etymology: Species name derives from name of
the area of plant origin (Sin Ho district).
Flowering time: May-June.
Ecology: Primary and secondary evergreen
broad-leaved forests on limestone at elevation 1200 -
1350 m a.s.l. Epiphyte and occasionally lithophyte on
wet shady steep slopes.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Sin
Ho District).
Notes: This unusual dwarf plant resembles
Malayan B. planibulbe (Ridl.) Ridl. and B.
diplantherum Carr. on its floral structure. From both
mentioned species, as well as from other known
species of Desmosanthes section it differs in very
small size of plant and proportionally very large
flowers. According to vegetative morphology, our
plant certainly approaches to some species of section
Monilibulbus J.J.Smith. This species may represent a
local endemism of rocky limestone highlands of
northwestern Vietnam.
Cheirostylis foliosa Aver., sp. nov. Figs. 2E & 7
Caulis parte basali foliosus foliis remotis. Flores
2.8-3.2 mm lg. Glandulae hypochilii jugis cristatis
rectis altis conformae. Lobuli epichilii integri vel
leviter denticulati.
296 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 7. Cheirostylis foliosa Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Ovary and flower. c: Floral bract. d: Flattened sepals and petals. e: Flattened lip. f:
Column, side view. g: Column, view from above. h: Column, view from below (all drawn from the type by author).
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 297
Type: VIETNAM, Son La Prov., Moc Chau
Distr., Chieng Hac Municipality, around point
20º51’50’’N 104º31’17’’E. Broad-leaved evergreen
dry forest on steep slopes and on tops of ridge
composed with rocky crystalline solid marble-like
highly eroded limestone at elev. 1200-1300 m a.s.l.
Lithophytic herb on mossy exposed rocks on top of
ridge. Sepals olive-green, lip white. Very rare. 31
Oct. 2006. Nguyen Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham
Van The, HAL 9415 (Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Lithophytic herb with erect floriferous stem and
plagiotropic rhizome densely adpressed to rock
crevices. Rhizome consist of numerous dense fleshy
succulent swollen light green sub-spherical
pseudobulb-like rootless internodes 4-7 mm across,
each with dense tufts of numerous root hairs.
Floriferous stem straight, 10-16 cm tall, 3-4 mm wide
at the base, in lower third glabrous, with 2-4 leaves
and 1-2 basal bracts. Leaves sessile or sub-sessile,
with flat or slightly channeled petiole up to 7 mm
long; leaf blade narrowly ovate, acute, 2.5-6 cm long,
1.5-2.2 cm wide, pure light green, sub-succulent,
glossy. Scape 8-14 cm long, densely pubescent in
upper part, with 1-3 hyaline acuminate bracts.
Inflorescence sparse spike 1.5-2.5 cm long with 5-8
flowers and densely haired rachis. Floral bracts
broadly-ovate, acuminate, sparsely glandular ciliate
along margin, 5-6 mm long, 2-3.5 mm wide. Flowers
hardly opening. Pedicel and ovary dark green,
narrowly-ovate to ovate, 4-4.5 mm long, 2-2.2 mm
wide, densely haired with glandular hairs. Sepals
olive-green to dull pink-brown, sub-similar, 2.8-3.2
mm long, 1.8-2.2 mm wide, ovate, concave, connate
half way to tip from base, sparsely pubescent with
glandular hairs. Petals white, spathulate, falcate,
broadening from narrow base to rhomboid rounded
apex, 2.8-3.2 mm long, 0.7-0.9 mm wide, free,
slightly shorter than sepals, sepals and petals densely
connivent forming hood. Lip pure white, about 3.5
mm long and wide, distinctly separated into
hypochile and epichile by constriction with very
fleshy swollen papillose margins. Hypochile round,
concave, cup-like, about 1.5 mm across, with 1 large
longitudinal cristate straight ridge on each side.
Epichile papillose, 1.2 mm wide, 2-lobed, with broad
square lobes 1.2 mm wide; each lobe entire or with 2
indistinct rounded dents. Column about 2 mm long,
1.4 mm wide; anther cup lanceolate; rostellum arms
narrowly spathulate, broadening to roundish apex,
slightly shorter than anther cup; column wings
shorter, thick, cylindrical, obtuse, with papillose
surface; stigmas 2, lateral hemispheric, papillose.
Etymology: Leaves distant in lower third of
floriferous stem (not arranged into rosette) is
characteristic for this species, hence its name.
Flowering time: September-November.
Ecology: Broad-leaved forests on rocky
crystalline solid marble-like highly eroded limestone
at elev. 1200-1300 m a.s.l. Lithophyte on mossy
rocky outcrops, commonly on mountain tops.
Distribution: Vietnam (Son La Province, Moc
Chau District).
Note: This species may be related to Ch. montana
Blume, from which it differs in much smaller
flowers, cristate glands in hypochile and small simple
or hardly toothed epichile lobules. Most probably,
this rare plant is local endemic of karst rocky
limestone of northwestern part of Vietnam associated
with such rarest orchids, as Paphiopedilum
barbigerum var. coccineum (Perner et R.Herrmann)
W.Cavesrto.
Goodyera rhombodoides Aver., sp. nov. Fig. 8
Plantae terrestres ad 15 cm alt. Folia 3-5, 1.5-2.5
cm lg., 0.8-1.4 cm lt., atroviridia vitta mediana alba.
Inflorescentia floribus 3-6 remotis. Flores ad 1 cm in
diam. Labium 5.5-6.5 mm lg. Hypochilium
hemispaericum, intus densiter pilosum. Epichilium
oblongo ligulatum, obtusum. Columna 2.5-3 mm alt.,
alis anterioribus brevibus.
Type: VIETNAM, Lai Chau Prov., Tam Duong
Distr., Ho Thau Community, Ho Thau village,
around point 22°23’49’’N, 103°36’39’’E. Primary
closed evergreen broad-leaved forest on steep
mountain slopes and along ridges composed with
granite and shale at elev. about 1900-2350 m a.s.l.
Terrestrial creeping herb on very steep rocky shady
slopes and along ridge edge. Leaves velvety dark
green with median whitish stripe. Occasional. 3 Dec.
2006. Nguyen Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham Van
The., HAL 10338 (Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Terrestrial herb with creeping rhizome and
ascending leafy floriferous stem. Rhizome 5-10 cm
long, green, juicy, rooting at nodes. Floriferous stem
12-15 cm tall, with 3-5 leaves at the base. Leaves
petiolate; petiole and sheath 5-12 mm long, 1-2 mm
wide; leaf blade ovate, sometime slightly oblique,
acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 0.8-1.4 cm wide, velvety dark
green to olive-green, with distinct whitish median
stripe. Scape 3-5 cm long, short densely hairy, with
2-3 yellowish-hyaline, cuneate, acuminate,
sub-glabrous, bracts 5-8 mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide;
rachis lax flowered, normally with 3-6 flowers. Floral
bracts yellowish-hyaline, cuneate, acuminate,
sub-glabrous or sparsely hairy, conduplicate, 6-10
mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide. Pedicel and ovary dark
green, 4.5-6 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide, cylindric,
298 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 8. Goodyera rhonmbodoides Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Leaf. c: Flattened sepals and petals. d: Flattened lip, view from above, and lip
longitudinal section. e: Column, dorsal and ventral and dorsal view (all drawn from the type by author).
short densely hairy, twisted. Flowers about 1 cm
across, not widely opening. Sepals sub-glabrous,
sub-similar, narrowly ovate. Dorsal sepal 6-7 mm
long, 2-2.5 mm wide, with 1 nerve, obtuse, forward
directed. Lateral sepals 6-7 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide,
slightly oblique, with 3 nerves, obtuse, cucullate,
reflexed at a right angle. Petals glabrous, lanceolate,
6-7 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide, 1-nerved, oblique,
densely connivent with the dorsal sepal forming
forward directed hood. Lip 5.5-6.5 mm long, about
2.5 mm wide, distinctly divided into hypochile and
epichile. Hypochile concave, hemispheric, cup-like,
about 2 mm across, densely hairy with long hairs
inside. Epichile 2.5-3 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide,
entire, oblong-ligulate, slightly concave, obtuse to
blunt at the apex. Column 2.5-3 mm tall, with 2 short
vertical wings at front. Anther narrowly-ovate,
acuminate, 1.6-1.8 mm long, 0.7-0.8 mm wide.
Etymology: In vegetative features (particularly in
leaf coloration) species resembles some
representatives of the genus Rhomboda (namely R.
petelotii (Gagnep.) Ormerod, common in studied
area), hence originates its specific name.
Flowering time: September – November.
Ecology: Primary broad-leaved evergreen forests
on granite and shale at elev. 1900-2400 m a.s.l.
Terrestrial creeping herb commonly on very steep
slopes and on mountain tops.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Tam
Duong District).
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 299
Fig. 9. Liparis rivularis Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Flattened sepals and petals (view from behind). c: Flattened lip. d: Column, frontal and side
view. e: Pedicel and ovary. f: Fruit (all drawn from the type by author).
Note: On floral structure species resembles
Goodyera foliosa (Lindl.) Benth, but distinctly
differs in twice smaller flowers, small size of plant
and in small, dark velvety green leaves with distinct
white longitudinal median stripe. Described species
is probably local endemic of highland montane areas
located in north-western part of Vietnam.
Liparis rivularis Aver., sp. nov. Figs. 2F & 9
Plantae lithophyticae ad 8 cm alt. Pseudobulbi
monophylli. Folia late lanceolata. Inflorescentia 4-6
cm alt., laxa, apice uni-triflora. Flores 6-7 mm in
diam. Sepala petalaque mononervia. Labium
rectangulare, truncatum, basi callo hemisphaerico.
Columna exalata.
Type: Vietnam, Lai Chau Prov., Tam Duong
Distr., Ho Thau Community, Ho Thau village,
around point 22°25’20’’N, 103°36’13’’E. Primary
closed evergreen broad-leaved wet cloudy ericaceous
forest on very steep mountain slopes and on tops of
ridge composed predominantly with shale at elev.
about 2600-2700 m a.s.l. Lithophytic clustering herb
on wet streamlet mossy rocks. Flowers light orange.
Locally very common. 7 Dec. 2006. Nguyen Tien
Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham Van The, HAL 10443
(Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Paratypes: Vietnam, Kontum Prov., evergreen
primary forest along stream on N slope of Ngoc Linh
mountain system at 1700 m alt. Lithophyte on open
shadow rocks. Common at 1700 m alt. 13 March
1995. L.Averyanov, et al., VH 736 (HN, LE).
Vietnam, Lam Dong Prov., Lac Duong Distr., Da
Chay Municipality, 32.5 km to NE from Dalat city.
Closed primary broadleaved montane forest along
very wet deep stream canyon on NNW slope of Bi
Dup mountain system in 6-7 km to NNW from main
peak at 1600 m alt. (12°07'N, 108°41' E). Lithophyte
on open wet stream rocks, especially near waterfalls.
Not common. 30 March 1997. L.Averyanov,
N.Q.Binh, P.K.Loc, VH 3406 (HN, LE).
Lithophytic herb 4-8(10) cm tall. Pseudobulbs
densely clustered, oblique ovoid to sub-globose, 5-9
mm tall and across, at the base with fibrous remnants
300 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
of early decaying papyraceous bracts, apically with 1
leaf having articulation at the base. Leaves rigid,
conduplicate, keeled, arising from the apex of
pseudobulb, broadly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate,
acute, 3-7 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm wide, sessile or
narrowing into short petiole-like base 5-1.2 mm long.
Inflorescence erect, usually with 1-3 lax flowers, 4-6
cm tall. Inflorescence stalk square in section,
commonly 3-5 cm long, ebracteate. Rachis zigzag
curved, square in section. Pedicel and ovary
longitudinally ridged, 6-8 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm
wide. Floral bracts narrowly-triangular to cuneate,
acuminate, hyaline or light green, with one indistinct
median vein, 4-7 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, shorter
that ovary. Flowers 6-7 mm across, light olive,
yellowish-brown to light dull orange. Sepals
sub-similar, broadly-lanceolate, obtuse, with revolute
edges, reflexed, with 1 prominent vein, 5-5.5 mm
long, 1.4-1.5 mm wide. Petals linear, obtuse, with
revolute edges, reflexed, with 1 vein, 5-5.5 mm long,
0.4-0.5 mm wide. Lip oblong- rectangular, 5 mm
long, 3.5-4 mm wide, narrowing to the base, strongly
recurved at basal third, with prominent hemispheric
callus at the base, apex broadly-truncate, sometimes
with small blunt median tooth. Column straight,
slightly curved toward the apex, without wings or
apically with very insignificant ears on each side,
bottle-like, fleshy at the base, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.3-1.4
mm wide. Fruit narrowly-obovoid capsule, 8 mm
long, 2-3 mm wide on stalk 5-7 mm long.
Etymology: Species name reflects typical habitat
of the plant growing commonly on rocky cliffs along
small mountain rivers and streams.
Flowering time: November-December.
Ecology: Broad-leaved evergreen montane
forests on shale, sandstone and granite at elev. about
1600-2700 m a.s.l. Lithophyte on shady wet mossy
cliffs of small mountain rivers and streams, often
along waterfalls.
Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Tam
Duong District, Kontum Province, Lam Dong
Province, Lac Duong District).
Note: Morphologically our plant may be close to
L. luteola Lindl., from which it distinctly differs in
1-leaved pseudobulbs, smaller and broader leaves
and regularly lithophytic habit. This dwarf
unattractive small flowering plant is typical element
of highland Vietnamese flora. In locus classicus
described species was alone orchid observed higher
than 2400 m a.s.l. Nevertheless, it may be certainly
common in many highland areas of Vietnam, which
still not botanically explored. Liparis rivularis
regularly inhabits shady wet rocks and cliffs along
small mountain rivers and streams, where often forms
large dense colonies immersed into thick moss cover.
Sometimes plants are shortly flooded with high water
during summer torrential rains. Sporadic flowering
specimens were collected in November-December.
However, regular flowering of this species may be
observed in June-July.
Oberonia multidentata Aver., sp. nov. Figs. 2G & 10
Folia 3-4, plus minusve plana, basi non articulata.
Inflorescentia 3-5 cm lg. Bracteae florum ovatae,
denticulatae. Flores 1.2-1.5 mm in diam. Sepala
ovata, integra. Petala anguste ovata vel ovata,
eroso-denticulata. Labium trilobum. Lobi labii
laterali semirotundi, profunde laciniati dentibus
multis regularis cuneatis. Lobus medius
rectangularis, truncatus, integer.
Type: Vietnam, Lai Chau Prov., Sin Ho Distr., Ma
Quai Municipality, Can Ti 2 village, around point
22º24’18’’N, 103º22’45’’E. Remnants of
broad-leaved evergreen closed primary and
secondary forest on steep mountain slopes composed
with sandstone and limestone at elev. about 1200 m
a.s.l. Epiphyte on tall mossy trees. Flowers orange.
Rare. 16 Nov. 2006. Nguyen Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov,
Pham Van The, HAL 9839 (Holotype, HN; Isotype,
LE).
Miniature acaulescent epiphyte, with 3-4 close,
rosulate, imbricate, laterally compressed, flat leaves.
Leaves broadly-lanceolate, ensiform, straight or
slightly falcate, acute, 3-8 cm long, 0.6-1.2 cm wide,
not articulate at the base (subgenus Menophyllum
Schlechter). Inflorescence 3-4 cm long, dense,
many-flowered. Scape 1-1.5 cm long, 1-1.5 mm
wide, covered with numerous narrowly cuneate,
acuminate bracts. Rachis 2.5-3.5 cm long, thick,
longitudinally ridged with many spirally arranged
flowers, truncate. Floral bracts triangular-ovate,
acute, with 2-3 large dents along each side, 0.8-1.5
mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm wide, more or less reflexed,
shorter or slightly longer than flowers. Pedicel and
ovary cylindrical, 0.8-0.9 mm long. Flowers
yellow-orange, widely opening, 1.2-1.5 mm across.
Sepals sub-similar, ovate, with entire margins,
concave, acute, 0.5-0.7 mm long, 0.4-0.5 mm wide,
often reflexed. Petals ovate to narrowly-ovate,
slightly longer than sepals, finely erose-dentate along
margin. Lip 3-lobed, 0.9-1.1 mm long and wide, with
concave fovea at the base. Side lobes large, broad,
semi-circular, deeply laciniate into numerous
narrowly-cuneate regular acute dents. Median lobe
rectangular, with entire edges, truncate, longer than
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 301
Fig. 10. Oberonia multidentata Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Fragment of inflorescence. c: Floral bract. d: Pedicel, ovary and flowers, side view.
e: Flower, frontal view and view from behind. f: Fruit (all drawn from the type by author).
side lobes, sometimes with small blunt median dent.
Column short, stout, 0.2-0.3 mm tall and wide.
Anther cup hemispherical, 0.15-2 mm across. Fruit
obovoid, stalked, longitudinally ridged capsule
1.8-2.2 mm long, 1.2-1.5 mm wide.
Etymology: Species name reflects specific
appearance of the lip side lobes dissected into
numerous long and narrow, regular dents.
Flowering time: September-November.
Ecology: Broad-leaved evergreen forests on
limestone and sandstone at elev. about 1200 m a.s.l.
Canopy epiphyte on tall trees.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Sin
Ho District).
Note: Species may be more or less close to such
Indochinese endemics as O. rasmussenii Seidenf. and
O. quadridentata Aver., which also have dentate lip
side lobes. Our plant distinctly differs from both
these species in numerous long narrowly cuneate
regular dents of side lobes, in thick truncate
inflorescence rachis and in few broad leaves. All
mentioned plants are probably local endemics with
very limited distribution.
Oberonia trichophora Aver., sp. nov. Fig. 11
Folia 4-6, succulenta, basi articulata.
Inflorescentia 12-14 cm lg. Bracteae florum ovatae,
apice longe filiformiter attenuatae. Flores 1-1.5 mm
in diam. Sepala ovata, integra. Petala ovata. Labium
trilobum, eroso-dentatum.
Type: Vietnam, Lai Chau Prov., Sin Ho Distr., Ma
Quai Municipality, Can Ti 2 village, around point
22º24’18’’N, 103º22’45’’E. Remnants of
broad-leaved evergreen closed primary forest on
steep mountain slopes composed with sandstone at
elev. about 1100 m a.s.l. Epiphyte on tall mossy trees.
Flowers orange. Not common. 17 Nov. 2006. Nguyen
Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham Van The, HAL 9854
(Holotype, HN; Isotype, LE).
Miniature epiphyte with very short, abbreviated
stem 1-2 cm long and 4-6 close, rosulate, imbricate,
slightly laterally compressed or almost cylindrical,
very fleshy, succulent subulate leaves. Leaves
lanceolate-ensiform, straight, or slightly falcate,
obtuse, ovate or almost round in section, 2-8 cm long,
up to 6 mm wide, articulate at the base (subgenus
302 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 11. Oberonia trichophora Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Leaf transect. c: Fragment of inflorescence. d: Floral bract. e: Flowers, frontal view
and view from behind (all drawn from the type by author).
Oberonia). Inflorescence 12-14 cm long,
many-flowered, much longer than leaves. Scape
1.5-2 cm long, covered with numerous thread-like
whitish bracts. Rachis 10-12 cm long, longitudinally
ridged; flowers usually arranged in distant regular
whorls, each with 7-9 flowers. Floral bracts
broadly-ovate to ovate, irregularly-dentate along
margin, 1.2-1.7 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, reflexed
and spreading, suddenly drawn at the apex into very
long hair-like whitish thread 5-7 mm long, much
longer than flowers. Pedicel and ovary 0.9-1.1 mm
long. Flowers orange, widely opening, 2-2.5 mm
across. Sepals sub-similar, ovate, with entire edges,
concave, obtuse to acute, 1-1.8 mm long, about 0.8
mm wide. Petals ovate, slightly longer than sepals,
distinctly erose-dentate along margin. Lip distinctly
3-lobed, square in outline, 1.5-1.7 mm long and wide,
with concave round fovea at the base, irregular
erose-dentate along all margin. Side lobes orbicular
to obliquely-ovate, about 0.6-0.7 mm long and wide.
Median lobe orbicular to obovate, 0.8-1 mm across,
emarginate, usually with small central dent. Column
short, stout, 0.3-0.4 mm tall and wide. Anther cup
hemispherical, about 0.2-0.3 mm across.
Etymology: Species name reflects characteristic
appearance of scape and inflorescence rachis covered
with numerous long thread-like bracts.
Flowering time: October-December.
Ecology: Broad-leaved evergreen forests on
sandstone at elev. about 1100 m a.s.l. Canopy
epiphyte on tall trees.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province, Sin Ho
District).
Note: This rare species superficially resembles O.
langbianensis Gagnep., known from southern
Vietnam, but strikingly differs in numerous
long-pointed thread-like floral bracts. Probably, this
species is local endemic of mountain regions of
northwestern part of the country.
Sunipia nigricans Aver., sp. nov. Figs. 12 & 13
Inflorescentia erecta, 7-12 cm lg., 15-22-flora.
Flores late aperti, atroviolacei vel subnigri, 8-12 mm
in diam. Pollinarium unum, polliniis 4 globularibus
in caudicula communi indivisa dispositis.
Type: VIETNAM, Lai Chau Prov., Phong Tho
Distr., Sin Suoi Ho Municipality, Sa Ma Pho village,
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 303
Fig. 12. Sunipia nigricans Aver. a: Flowering plant. b: Flower, side view. c: Flattened flower, frontal view. d: Flattened lip. e: Lip basal callus.
f: Column, frontal view. g: Pollinarium. h: Pedicel and ovary (all drawn from the type by author).
around point 22°32’17’’N, 103°32’41’’E. Secondary
open evergreen broad-leaved dry forest and secondary
woodlands on very steep mountain slopes composed
predominantly with weathered granite at elev. about
1200-1400 m a.s.l. Creeping epiphyte in canopy
of tall tree on steep shady rocky slope along stream.
Occasional. 15 Dec. 2006. Nguyen Tien Hiep,
L.Averyanov, Phan Ke Loc, Pham Van The, Nguyen.
Tien .Vinh, HAL 10792a. (Holotype, HN; Isotype,
LE).
304 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
Fig. 13. Sunipia nigricans Aver. Digital herbarium specimen of the type (HAL 10792a).
December, 2007 Averyanov: New species of orchids from Vietnam 305
Creeping epiphyte. Rhizome rigid, dark gray,
1.5-2 mm thick, with 6-10 close pseudobulbs and
numerous rigid wiry flexuose roots. Pseudobulbs
broadly-ovate to sub-spherical, 7-10 mm across,
green with purple-brown
tint, finely verrucose, later finely wrinkled with 1
apical leaf. Leaves rigid, coriaceous, erect,
oblong-lanceolate, conduplicate, slightly unequally
bilobed at apex, 3-5 cm long, 0.5-0.9 cm wide.
Inflorescence arising from the base of pseudobulb,
sub-dense raceme 4-6 cm long, commonly with
15-22 flowers, on erect rigid stalk, usually 4-5 cm
long, covered with 3-6 black close narrow sheaths.
Floral bracts yellowish, narrowly-cuneate, acute, 4-6
mm long, less than 1 mm wide. Pedicel and ovary
sub-erect, dark-violet, 5-6.5 mm long, 0.5-1 mm
wide. Flowers not resupinate, widely opening, with
light unpleasant smell. Tepals dark violet to nearly
black, straight, rigid. Median sepal narrowly-ovate,
bilobed at apex, 5-6 mm long, 2.5-3.5 mm wide, with
3 distinct nerves. Lateral sepals free,
narrowly-oblong, obtuse, 5-6 mm long, 2-2.5 mm
wide, with 1 nerve. Petals obovate to
broadly-obovate, broadly-obtuse and retuse at apex,
2.6-3 mm long, 2.2-2.6 mm wide, with 1 nerve. Lip
dark violet with dull greenish-violet center, fleshy,
ovate triangular, 5-6 mm long, 3-4 mm wide,
indistinctly trilobe, with small bifid callus at the base,
finely warty along midvein; median lobe oblong,
sometimes shortly emarginate at apex, side lobes
broadly-triangular with obtuse to roundish apex.
Column dark to light violet, fleshy,
shortly-cylindrical, 2-2.4 mm tall, 1.5 mm wide, with
very short column foot and persistent, immobile
operculum. Pollinia 4, solid, yellow, pyriform to
nearly spherical, 0.5 mm across, on 1 fleshy, short,
white, cylindrical stipe, 0.6-0.8 m long, terminated
with large hemispheric viscidium.
Etymology: Species is named after dark violet,
nearly black color of flowers.
Flowering time: March – April.
Ecology: Primary and secondary evergreen
broad-leaved forests and secondary woodlands on
steep granite mountain slopes at elevation 1200-1400
m a.s.l. Creeping epiphyte in canopy of tall trees.
Distribution: Vietnam (Lai Chau Province,
Phong Tho District).
Note: From all known representatives of the
genus, our plant strikingly differs in alone common
unbranched pollinarium stipe terminated with 4
pyriform or spherical solid pollinia. According to this
features described species occupies obviously
isolated taxonomical position in the genus. Probably,
this rare strictly endemic plant has very limited
distribution in mountain regions of northern-western
Vietnam.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Author cordially thanks all participants and
organizers of field botanical explorations in Vietnam,
particularly Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep and Prof. Phan Ke
Loc for their key role in organization of expeditions
according to numerous investigation programs. I also
wish to thank authorities of the Institute of Ecology
and Biological Resources of the Academy of Science
and Technology of Vietnam. Field exploration
works, results of which are presented in this
publication, were supported in different parts from
investigation programs of U.S.A. National
Geographic Society - "Exploration of highland flora
and vegetation in Lai Chau & Son La Provinces,
north-western Vietnam", 2006 (#8074-06); Henry
Lice Foundation, Vietnam Botanical Conservation
Program; American Orchid Society, 2003-2005
Discovery of endemic orchid flora in remote
limestone areas of Northern Vietnam”; WWF
Indochina Programme, Green Corridor Project in
Thua Thien – Hue Province, VN085301, “Lowland
flora and vegetation. Preliminary survey”, 2005 and
Fauna & Flora International, “Hoang Lien Son
Project”. I also cordially thank Dr. Alexander
Sennikov for his kindest correction of our use of the
Latin language.
LITERATURE CITED
Averyanov, L. V. 2005. New orchids from Vietnam.
Rheedea. 15: 1-19.
Averyanov, L. V. 2005. Dendrobium vietnamense – a
new species from limestone mountains of
north-western Vietnam. Journ. Orchideenfr. Jahr.
12, Heft 4, 4. Quartal: 355-360 (Bilingual,
Germany and English).
Averyanov, L. V. 1994. Identification guide to
Vietnamese orchids (Orchidaceae Juss.).
S.-Petersburg. World and Family. 432pp. (in
Russian).
Averyanov, L. V. and A. L. Averyanova. 2003.
Updated checklist of the orchids of Vietnam.
Vietnam National University Publishing House,
Hanoi. 102pp. (bilingual, in English and in
Vietnamese).
Averyanov, L. V. and A. L. Averyanova. 2005. New
orchids from Vietnam. Komarovia. 4: 1-35.
Averyanov, L. V. and P. G. Efimov. 2006. New
orchids from Vietnam. Rheedea. 16: 1-14.
306 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 4
越南蘭科新種
Leonid V. Averyanov(1)
(收稿日期:2007 715 日;接受日期:2007 95)
摘 要
2005-2007 年在越南野外採集的標本經鑑定後發現 10 種蘭科新種,分別命名為
Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse,
Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O.
trichophora and Sunipia nigricans,並提供繪圖及描述。
關鍵詞:蘭科、分類、Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum
paraemarginatum, Bulbophyllum sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera
rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, Oberonia trichophora,
Sunipia nigricans, 新種、越南。
___________________________________________________________________________
1. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Prof. Popov str., 2, St.-Petersburg, 197376,
Russian Federation. Email: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
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Bulbophyllum ovalifolium (Blume) Lindl., an epiphyte orchid species was collected from several region in Bali and maintained in “Eka Karya” Bali Botanic Garden. The orchid is a common and widespread species in Southeast Asia, thus makes the flower has high variability. Here a study through morphological characters on the flower was done to give more information and understandable of characteristic range. The species was found at altitude range 700 to 2000 m a.s.l., the morphological observation was conducted on 2014 to 2015 particularly in the flowering season. There were three variants of flower based on the differences on size, colour, and the lip. The character on lip surface was found as spot character with three types of surface: coarsely verrucose, scattered verrucose, and glabrous.
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New combinations in Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) are made to correspond to the revised classification of the genus in Genera orchidacearum, vol. 6. Several new sections introduced in that publication are formally described and validated here.
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Dendrobium vietnamense – a new species from limestone mountains of north-western Vietnam
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Seven new species of orchids viz: Calanthe duyana, Dendrobium chapaënse, Epipactis alatus, Gastrodia major, G. punctata, Platanthera epiphytica and Zeuxine bidupensis discovered recently from Vietnam are described with illustrations. Their morphological characters that make them taxonomically distinct from their respective most allied species are highlighted. K K K
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Определитель является результатом таксономического исследования орхидных Вьетнама - наиболее крупного семейства цветковых растений вьетнамской флоры. Учитываются данные, накопленные в мировой литературе по систематике орхидных, анализируются многочисленные гербарные коллекции и коллекции живых растений, в том числе собранные автором на протяжении многих лет в малоизученных районах страны. Изложена система семейства и приведены ключи для определения всех видов орхидных, известных к настоящему времени для Вьетнама, выяснено их распространение и определен эндемизм. Создается необходимая основа для организации охраны и рационального использования представителей этого интересного, но быстро вымирающего семейства, имеющего важное народнохозяйственное значение в национальной экономике Вьетнама.
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The paper summarizes all hitherto reported data on the orchids of Vietnam and provides brief information on valid names, distribution (inside and outside the country), living forms, ecology, frequency and conservation status of the species.
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Seven new species of orchids viz. : Calanthe duyana, Dendrobium chapaěnse, Epipactis alatus, Gastrodia major, G. punctata, Platanthera epiphytica and Zeuxine bidupensis discovered recently from Vietnam are described with illustrations. Their morphological characters that make them taxonomically distinct from their respective most allied species are highlighted.
In crevices of rocky cliffs along mountain stream, in water. Flowers purple. 15
  • Paratypes Averyanov
Paratypes: VIETNAM, Gia Lai – Kontum Prov., Kon Ha Nung. In crevices of rocky cliffs along mountain stream, in water. Flowers purple. 15 May 1985. Averyanov L., et al., LX-VN 1966, Soviet Union – Vietnamese Eexpedition (HN, LE).
2 ft.; fairly common in thicket, on moist sandy soil; fl. lavender, fragrant
  • Le Ht
Ht. 2 ft.; fairly common in thicket, on moist sandy soil; fl. lavender, fragrant. W.T.Tsang 29471, 3rd Indo-China Expedition (HN, LE).
Hoang Lien Son Project " . I also cordially thank Dr. Alexander Sennikov for his kindest correction of our use of the Latin language
  • Flora Fauna
  • International
Fauna & Flora International, " Hoang Lien Son Project ". I also cordially thank Dr. Alexander Sennikov for his kindest correction of our use of the Latin language. LITERATURE CITED
National Geographic Society
  • U S A Programs
programs of U.S.A. National Geographic Society -"Exploration of highland flora and vegetation in Lai Chau & Son La Provinces, north-western Vietnam", 2006 (#8074-06);