Article

Does Mentoring Matter? A Multidisciplinary Meta-Analysis Comparing Mentored and Non-Mentored Individuals

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The study of mentoring has generally been conducted within disciplinary silos with a specific type of mentoring relationship as a focus. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively review the three major areas of mentoring research (youth, academic, workplace) to determine the overall effect size associated with mentoring outcomes for protégés. We also explored whether the relationship between mentoring and protégé outcomes varied by the type of mentoring relationship (youth, academic, workplace). Results demonstrate that mentoring is associated with a wide range of favorable behavioral, attitudinal, health-related, relational, motivational, and career outcomes, although the effect size is generally small. Some differences were also found across type of mentoring. Generally, larger effect sizes were detected for academic and workplace mentoring compared to youth mentoring. Implications for future research, theory, and applied practice are provided.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Enough empirical studies on mentoring have been conducted so far to serve nine metaanalyses in the mainstream management and organizational psychology literature (Allen et al., 2004;Dickson et al., 2014;Eby et al., 2008;Eby et al., 2013;Ghosh, 2014;Ghosh and Reio Jr, 2013;Kammeyer-Mueller and Judge, 2008;O'brien et al., 2010;Underhill, 2006), and around 20 meta-analyses that appeared in journals or edited books that examined mentoring in contexts other than the workplace (e.g., medicine, education, community and youth). Furthermore, workplace mentoring has been included in meta-analytic work on antecedents of career success (Ng and Feldman, 2014). ...
... and expectations for advancement ( =.27, d = .56). Eby et al. (2008) extended the context where mentoring takes place by considering studies in youth and academic mentoring in addition to workplace mentoring. With respect to subjective career success ("career attitudes") Eby et al.'s findings were close to Allen et al.'s. ...
... These results cast some doubt upon how compelling the case for mentoring for objective career success was (Eby et al., 2008;Kammeyer-Mueller and Judge, 2008). This issue was partly resolved when Kammeyer-Mueller and Judge (2008:277) found that mentoring receipt offered significant career benefits over and above the benefits of other established predictors of success, such as personality and education, which forced them to note that "this strengthens our appreciation of mentoring". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on mentorship and developmental networks within the context of careers. The various forms of mentoring are considered, along with the reasons that developmental networks have received attention as supplement rather than replacement of traditional mentoring. The chapter reviews empirical evidence demonstrating that mentoring and developmental networks are linked with career outcomes, and discusses the relative contribution of traditional mentoring relationships and the rest of developmental ties on career success. The two candidate mechanisms for the link between mentoring and career success, the performance and the political route, are presented and evidence for each is reviewed. Furthermore, factors that increase the probabilities of individuals’ involvement in mentoring relationships and of participation in developmental networks are discussed. Though the literature has paid nearly exclusive attention to their positive aspects, the chapter also looks at the darker sides of mentorship and developmental networks. These are not limited to negative mentoring experiences, but they extend to evidence in favour of the political route for the link of mentoring with career success along with the possibility that mentoring may serve as a means of transmitting and perpetuating unethical mentalities. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.
... The literature relating to role models draws from a variety of theoretical frameworks, orientations, and research methodologies (see, e.g., Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz, & Lima, 2004;Eby, Allen, Evans, Ng, & Dubois, 2008;Zand et al., 2009). There are many definitions of role models in the research literature, both in terms of role models' personal characteristics and the function of a role model relationship. ...
... Some scholars define the mentoring relationship as one in which the role model provides personal support to an individual who needs a relational infrastructure and guidance (Rhodes, 2005). Domains in which role models provide support and guidance also vary, and can include academic, workplace, and community settings (Eby et al., 2008). Programs and structures for role models vary depending on whether the intention is to enhance specific skills, such as literacy (da Costa, Klak, & Schinke, 2000), or to prevent problem behaviors such as truancy, drug use, or other criminal activity (see, e.g., the Check and Connect Student Engagement Intervention Model by Sinclair, Christenson, & Thurlow, 2005). ...
... Thompson and Kelly-Vance (2001) describe a further example from a specific mentoring program: Boys who had mentors from the Big Brothers/Big Sisters program (who had not previously experienced academic success) had significantly higher scores in areas of reading and math than boys who did not have mentors. A meta-analysis of general mentoring outcomes for mentees in hearing populations that investigated the broader impact of mentoring on attitudes, achievement, and motivation to continue in work and educational pursuits demonstrated a significant, but small, overall effect size of mentoring (Eby et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although deaf role model projects have existed for some time and their benefits and outcomes for deaf children/young people and their parents have been recorded, almost no attention has been paid to the experiences of the deaf people who take on these roles. Additionally, the experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores available literature on role models for supporting families of deaf children and hearing practitioners. Most deaf people (about 95%), all over the world, have hearing parents and do not meet deaf adults and sign language before the age that formal primary education starts. The majority of hearing parents do not come in touch with deafness even after their child is diagnosed of being deaf. But it's really crucial for families to have resources that allow them to help their child develop language and have full interaction with their family. Additionally, deaf role models can play a vital role in the development of deaf children's knowledge, skills, and perceptions. Further work would be also required to understand the longer-term benefits and further developments that deaf role models may wish to initiate.
... Accordingly, we argue that two key parameters of the social context-perceived cohort norms and the extent of career guidance received-help shape the probability and direction of shifts in problematic behaviors. We focus on these aspects of the social context because, in navigating the uncertainties of the transition, newcomers tend to emulate those in the same developmental stage and thus face similar challenges (Polach, 2004;Wendlandt & Rochlen, 2008) and look for insights from those with greater knowledge and experience (Eby et al., 2008;Ostroff & Kozlowski, 1993). ...
... The life course perspective suggests that a behavior change is more likely when it is supported by a sustaining context, a situation that provides "monitoring, social support, growth experiences, and the emergence of a new self-identity" (Elder & Shanahan, 2006, p. 687). Accordingly, we argue that the availability of mentoring, a developmentally oriented interpersonal relationship with a more experienced and/or senior individual (Eby et al., 2008), may increase the likelihood for the C2W transition to function as a catalyst, facilitating a downward shift in alcohol use and misuse. ...
... Research suggests that mentoring is negatively related to substance use in general (Eby et al., 2008) and the initiation of alcohol use among youth in particular (Grossman & Tierney, 1998). Specifically, mentoring can provide mentees with career-related support by developing their human capital through challenging work assignments, goal reflection, exposure to powerful others, and sponsorship for skill development (Wang & Fang, 2020;Young & Perrewe, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent and under what conditions do college graduates disengage from employment‐incompatible behaviors during the college‐to‐work transition? Drawing from the life course perspective, we proposed a model highlighting considerable stability of employment‐incompatible behaviors during initial months of organizational socialization. Our model predicted that maturing out of such behaviors, which is expected by employers and beneficial to career adjustment, would be more likely to occur given a conducive transition context. Using a large dataset tracking graduates from their last semester in college to up to approximately 1.5 years after graduation and with alcohol use as our empirical referent, we demonstrated that a pattern of high‐risk drinking behavior may remain even after the transition into full‐time employment. We further showed that lower levels of perceived cohort drinking norms and higher levels of mentoring were associated with a higher probability of maturing out, manifesting in a transition from a high‐risk drinking profile before graduation to a moderate drinking profile after starting full‐time employment. Finally, we found that maturing out was associated with lagged outcomes including lower levels of sleep problems and depression and fewer work days lost to absenteeism, thus underscoring the consequential nature of behavior profile shifts during the college‐to‐work transition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... A commonly used intervention is academic mentoring which is associated with both positive career outcomes as well as positive self-image, emotional adjustment and psychological well-being. 1 Extensive literature indicates that mentorship is of substantial benefit to both the mentor and the mentee, a relationship that has been examined in nearly all disciplines. 2 Given this, many institutions of higher education reportedly encourage undergraduate mentorship. ...
... Interestingly, studies of the effect of academic mentoring have shown that the most significant benefits lie within improvement of academic performance, attitudes and retention. 1 A key aspect that contributes to persistence and retention in STEM is science identity with low science identity, particularly within Hispanic women, found in undergraduate students majoring in biology, chemistry and physics. 26 The undergraduate experience is a critical period in a scientist's development as this is when a sense of belonging and scientific identity emerges. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate undergraduate biomedical education student opinions and expectations on mentorship. Methods A survey was administered to students enrolled in the undergraduate biology, neuroscience and nursing programs at a large public research-intensive university. The survey queried demographics, previous mentorship experiences, ideal qualities of mentors, benefits/value of mentorship and future plans for seeking mentorship. Survey responses were evaluated using either t-test comparisons or one-way ANOVA. Results The majority of the respondents were female and were interested in pursuing professional schools (nursing and medicine). Survey results indicate high student interest in receiving mentoring, but few were active participants in a mentoring relationship. Respondents indicated either lack of knowledge or discomfort in identifying a mentor. While faculty mentors versus peer mentors were preferred, respondents indicated that mentoring by either faculty or peers would be of value. Survey results indicate that desired benefits of mentoring included guidance in future education and career decisions, networking and career advice. Conclusion The major conclusions are that despite high student interest in being mentored, their participation in mentoring is very low. These finding are supportive of the development of structured mentoring programs to facilitate and enhance mentoring of undergraduate STEM students and aid in their academic career progression.
... These different definitions are hindered by the belief that mentoring should be described in terms of the person (mentor) and their characteristics (knowledge, attributes, skills, experience), while others choose to describe it in terms of the relationship and the bond between mentee and mentor. Despite this, mentoring is gaining acceptance as a means of developing high quality practitioners (Eby et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mentoring has become an important aspect of professional development for young coaches. Too often young coaches are left on their own to develop their coaching skills once they leave college. For first year coaches, all the duties and responsibilities that go along with being a coach can seem overwhelming. Where does one turn for help? This paper provides a model mentoring program that can be adopted for use by high school coaches
... The associated anxiety or worry about adapting to the 'new normal' of isolation and uncertainty in the new remote work arrangements may require more effort on the part of employees, leading to increased levels of exhaustion and other negative health outcomes (Brosschot et al., 2006). Additionally, research has consistently demonstrated that professional isolation is associated with impaired employee wellbeing (Charalampous et al., 2019;Van Zoonen & Sivunen, 2021), such that workers experiencing professional isolation may experience less satisfaction related to their belongingness needs and perceive losses in their opportunities for professional development (e.g., mentoring; Eby et al., 2008). Together, these factors can result in increased illbeing among teleworkers (Charalampous et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing from conservation of resource theory and the social support resource theory, this study examines how the severity of an exogenous disruptive event – the COVID‐19 pandemic – in one’s community influences teleworkers’ well‐being outcomes indirectly through their perceptions of pandemic‐related threat and experience of professional isolation, as well as the buffering effect of friendship on these relationships. Utilizing time‐lagged data from participants of a two‐wave survey panel (N = 351) and objective data of COVID‐19 severity from counties around the United States, we found that perceived threat, but not professional isolation, mediated the negative effect of proportion of confirmed COVID‐19 cases in the community on teleworkers’ well‐being outcomes. Further, consistent with our predictions, support from friends significantly weakened the negative effects of threat and professional isolation on well‐being. Key theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Undoubtedly, mentoring positively correlates with the achievement of mentee outcomes. 24 Residency training programs should be structured in a manner that encourages mentors and senior supervisors to pass their own experience to the next generation and actively supervise residents' research projects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Research sets the foundation for evidence-based practice in medicine. Globally resident doctors in various specialties are facing major obstacles to accomplish high quality research projects. Understanding these obstacles may help residents achieve their maximum research potential. This current study was undertaken to document the experience, attitude, and perceived barriers toward research among Saudi ophthalmology residents. Methodology: A specific questionnaire was developed and validated for the purpose of this study. The questionnaire was distributed online via email to actively enrolled residents in all five ophthalmology training programs in Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of a total number of 193 ophthalmology residents in all five training programs, 147 responded to the questionnaire yielding a 76.1% response rate the mean age of participants was 27.6 ±1.8 and the number of males and females was almost equal. The vast majority [96.4%] have worked on at least one research project before starting residency training. Involvement was mainly in the phases of concept and design [72.5%], proposal preparation [85.9%], the three most frequent obstacles to conducting research projects for trainees were burden of other activities [4.27], lack of protected time for research [4.11] and too many regulations in obtaining ethical approval [3.67]. Discussion: Our current study shows that ophthalmology residents understand the importance of clinical research, but they are facing a considerable number of barriers toward accomplishing high-quality research projects. Findings of our study may help program directors to address these barriers and improve the incorporation of research along with clinical training in residency curricula.
... While learning is the primary purpose of all mentoring relationships, there are different roles which are emphasized across different settings (Eby, Allen, Evans, NG & DuBois, 2008). At the community level, youth mentoring which involves a relationship between a non-parent adult and a child, adolescent or young adult, focuses on undesirable behaviour, detrimental peer relationships and academic setbacks arising from socioeconomic and/or family circumstances (DuBois, Holloway, Valentine & Cooper, 2002). ...
... Mentorship fosters a supportive learning relationship between an individual who is willing and able to share knowledge, experience and wisdom with another individual who is ready and willing to benefit from this exchange, to enrich their professional journey [18]. During the last 2 decades attention has focused on improving patient care and the need for health organizations to maintain the public's trust by ensuring that nurses and other health professionals demonstrate competence in their work [19]. ...
... Entendemos por mentoría, en palabras de Eby et al. (2008), una relación interpersonal orientada al desarrollo entre un individuo más experimentado o mentor y otros individuos a acompañar, llamados mentees (a partir de aquí, "personas mentorizadas"). Más concretamente, en relación con la mentoría a líderes escolares, este trabajo se inspira en la definición de mentoría adoptada por el proyecto LEI y la entiende como "un proceso de acompañamiento individualizado que pretende ayudar a los directivos escolares a desarrollar nuevas competencias y un específico estilo de dirección" (Tintoré, 2020, p. 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION. Mentoring is one of the most effective systems for developing leadership for school principals. To date, the publications focus on specific aspects of mentoring. The present study aims to review mentoring with school principals offering a systemic view that includes data from previous reviews, contributions from the latest research, and a framework for incorporating mentoring into leadership development programs. Two objectives guide the development of this research: (i) to carry out a descriptive analysis of the bibliography (evolution, location, type of studies) and (ii) to analyze the factors that affect its effectiveness (conditions for good mentoring, difficulties and benefits). METHOD. A review of the literature is performed following the procedures defined for this purpose. The search is carried out in the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases, using the terms "educational mentoring" as the search equation and inclusion criteria: academic publications referring to educational mentoring, published between 2000 and 2020. Related to educational mentoring, 290 references were obtained, of which 114 documents (39%) refer to mentoring principals. The final sample after screening consists of 48 articles on managerial mentoring. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The references are analyzed in-depth, showing an increase in studies on mentoring principals as of 2010, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries and through qualitative research. The analysis indicates that the accompaniment mechanisms for school directors have received a substantial boost in many parts of the world, have increased their percentage importance compared to other types of mentoring and are classified as a critical element in management training programs. We incorporate an analysis of the effects of mentoring on the participating agents and recommendations for including it in development programs.
... Most of our participants (68%) felt that having a mentor, as a wise and trusted counselor, followed by a natural flair towards research are the keys to academic excellence. A healthy and strong mentormentee relationship stems based on consideration, great camaraderie, existing features of commonality, and virtues of confidentiality (11). Leaders are people with the capability to explicitly articulate protocols, augment productivity, motivate team members to achieve the desired goal to create a sustainable change in any profession (12). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Urology, traditionally a maledominated specialty, keeping pace with the quickly changing gender landscape, has been characterized by waves of feminization. This study aims to understand the perspectives of women urologists on the obstacles to their career development, and the impact of such hurdles on their professional roles in urological education, practice, and leadership. Methods: 119 female urology residents/consultants were surveyed via a webinar-based platform, covering relevant questions on domains of Academia, Mentorship, Leadership, Parenting, and Charity. Statistical analysis was done using frequency distribution based on the responses. Results: 46.8% of the respondents felt that there is an under-representation of women in academia. ‘Having a good mentor’ was the most important factor for a novice to succeed in academia (68%). The most important trait in becoming a good leader was ‘good communication skills’ (35%), followed by ‘visionary’ (20%). The greatest challenge faced by leaders in the medical field was considered as ‘time management’ (31.9%). Only 21.2% of the participants felt difficulty in having a work-personal life balance, whereas 63.8% of them found it difficult only ‘sometimes’. As a working parent, ‘the guilt that they are not available all the time’ was considered the most difficult aspect (59.5%), and ‘more flexible schedule’ was needed to make their lives as a working parent easier (46.8%). 34% of the respondents were affiliated with some charitable organizations. The biggest drive to do charity was their satisfaction with a noble cause (72.3%). Conclusions: Need for increased encouragement and recruitment of females into urology, and to support and nurture them in their career aspirations.
... Our meta-analytic summary is limited to the constructs that have been studied in the literature. Consistent with best methodological practice, we included relationships in our meta-analysis that were investigated in k ≥ 3 independent samples (e.g., Eby et al., 2008;Rudolph et al., 2017). This criterion led to the exclusion of career success as an outcome of career exploration. ...
... Our meta-analytic summary is limited to the constructs that have been studied in the literature. Consistent with best methodological practice, we included relationships in our meta-analysis that were investigated in k ≥ 3 independent samples (e.g., Eby et al., 2008;Rudolph et al., 2017). This criterion led to the exclusion of career success as an outcome of career exploration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Career exploration refers to the exploration of the environment and the self with the aim of gathering career-related information. On the basis of Lent and Brown's (2013) model of career self-management (CSM), the current meta-analysis examined the antecedents and outcomes of career exploration among college students (K = 109, N = 34,969 students). We found support for the applicability of the CSM model to the context of students' career exploration. Specifically, positive associations were found for the association of the three core person-cognitive variables self-efficacy for career exploration and decision-making (r c = 0.52), outcome expectations (r c = 0.31), and career-exploratory goals (r c = 0.42) with career exploration. Results of path analyses suggest that the effects of both self-efficacy and outcome expectations on career exploration are mediated by career-exploratory goals. Further, in line with the CSM model, career exploration was positively related to career-related support (r c = 0.33) and negatively related to barriers (r c = − 0.15). Moreover, career exploration was associated with important career-related outcomes, such as career decidedness (r c = 0.22), and perceived employability (r c = 0.35). Exploratory moderator analyses revealed that some relationships are influenced by sample (i.e., age, gender, cultural background) and measurement (e.g., publication date) characteristics. The findings of this meta-analysis highlight several implications for the further development of the CSM model, future research on students' career exploration, and career development practice.
... Mentors are experienced employees who provide consistent guidance and support to newer employees (Gibson, 2004;see also, Fowler et al., 2007). There are multiple benefits associated with receiving mentorship in organizations including higher job satisfaction and positive career outcomes (e.g., higher salaries, receiving promotions; Allen et al., 2004;Eby et al., 2008;Misra et al., 2017;Noe, 1988). Moreover, in college, having supportive mentors can promote women students' academic achievement (Blake-Beard et al., 2011;Downing et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Black women face unique and harmful biases because of their intersecting and multiple marginalized identities, which are different from those experienced by Black men and White women (Crenshaw in s. Cal. l. Rev., 65, 1467., 1991). As organizations work to create more inclusive environments for minoritized employees, it is important to test effective messaging and identity-safe cues (i.e., cues that enhance feelings of identity acceptance) for Black women. In the current research, we investigate a new identity-safe cue — in-group organizational endorsement. This technique involves two components: (a) learning about the successful experiences of a former Black female employee and (b) a persuasive message asserting that out-group employees can be supportive role models and mentors within the organization. In a pilot experiment (N = 182) and Study 1 (N = 236), Black female participants were more likely to believe role models and mentors can have different identities, to anticipate more identity-safety, and to have higher attraction to an organization that was endorsed by a former Black female employee compared to a White woman employee. Study 2 (N = 214) further demonstrated that in-group organizational endorsement was effective among Black female students early in their college career. Relative to a control group, Black female students in their 1st – 3rd year who received the in-group endorsement intervention indicated higher identity-safety at their university and were more likely to pursue professional interactions with out-group members. For institutions that are actively working to promote inclusivity and pro-diversity norms among their employees, in-group organizational endorsement is one effective identity-safety signal for communicating such environments.
... Small or non-significant effects were observed across a variety of performance criteria (e.g., speed/quantity, accuracy, performance complaints, and contextual performance). Comparing these null findings to the positive performance effects observed in meta-analyses of other work practices such as mentoring (Eby et al., 2008), coaching (Theeboom et al., 2014), and multisource feedback (Smither et al., 2005), we can conclude that EPM appears to be a relatively ineffective intervention if one's goal is improving worker performance. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461), while taking into account the characteristics of the monitoring. Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM increases worker stress and strain, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work.
... One contributing factor may be that in-group favouritism and bias lead underrepresented group members to receive less instrumental help-advice, feedback, referrals or assistance on tasks-than White men [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] . Such instrumental help can be critical to career success, especially for members of historically marginalized groups [13][14][15] . Thus, increasing the rate at which assistance is offered to women and racial/ethnic minorities might be one way to reduce identity-based inequities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Receiving help can make or break a career, but women and racial/ethnic minorities do not always receive the support they seek. Across two audit experiments—one with politicians and another with students—as well as an online experiment (total n = 5,145), we test whether women and racial/ethnic minorities benefit from explicitly mentioning their demographic identity in requests for help, for example, by including statements like “As a Black woman…” in their communications. We propose that when a help seeker highlights their marginalized identity, it may activate prospective helpers’ motivations to avoid prejudiced reactions and increase their willingness to provide support. Here we show that when women and racial/ethnic minorities explicitly mentioned their demographic identity in help-seeking emails, politicians and students responded 24.4% (7.42 percentage points) and 79.6% (2.73 percentage points) more often, respectively. These findings suggest that deliberately mentioning identity in requests for help can improve outcomes for women and racial/ethnic minorities.
... Small or nonsignificant effects were observed across a variety of performance criteria (e.g., speed/quantity, accuracy, performance complaints, and contextual performance). Comparing these null findings to the positive performance effects observed in meta-analyses of other work practices such as mentoring (Eby et al., 2008), coaching (Theeboom et al., 2014), and multisource feedback (Smither et al., 2005), we can conclude that EPM appears to be a relatively ineffective intervention if one's goal is improving worker performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The benefits and importance of mentoring have been long established and span a wide variety of vocational fields both in and outside of academia [2,7]. In the academic realm, the supervision benefits are commonly mutual [6]: the advisor extends her ability to conduct research by delegation, extends her influence network, etc. and the advisee learns the important skills needed to conduct scientific research, receives various types of academic support, etc. Focusing on the advisee, prior research has shown that the doctoral advisor's identity and characteristics can have a far reaching effect on a doctoral student's future career. ...
Preprint
One of the first steps in an academic career, and perhaps the pillar thereof, is completing a PhD under the supervision of a doctoral advisor. While prior work has examined the advisor-advisee relationship and its potential effects on the prospective academic success of the advisee, very little is known on the possibly continued relationship after the advisee has graduated. We harnessed three genealogical and scientometric datasets to identify 3 distinct groups of computer scientists: Highly independent, who cease collaborating with their advisors (almost) instantly upon graduation; Moderately independent, who (quickly) reduce the collaboration rate over ~5 years; and Weakly independent who continue collaborating with their advisors for at least 10 years post-graduation. We find that highly independent researchers are more academically successful than their peers in terms of H-index, i10-index and total number of citations throughout their careers. Moderately independent researchers perform, on average, better than weakly independent researchers, yet the differences are not found to be statistically significant. In addition, both highly and moderately independent researchers are found to have longer academic careers. Interestingly, weakly independent researchers tend to be supervised by more academically successful advisors.
... J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f pay greater dividends than seeking out mentoring relationships. However, mentoring has many benefits despite its null relationship with PE and likely should not be ignored as part of a more general career development strategy (Eby et al., 2008;Ng et al., 2005). ...
Article
Personality predicts performance, but the moderating influence of occupational characteristics on its performance relations remains underexamined. Accordingly, we conduct second-order meta-analyses of the Big Five traits and occupational performance (i.e., supervisory ratings of overall job performance or objective performance outcomes). We identify 15 meta-analyses reporting 47 effects for 9 major occupational groups (clerical, customer service, healthcare, law enforcement, management, military, professional, sales, and skilled/semiskilled), which represent N = 89,639 workers across k = 539 studies. We also integrate data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) concerning two occupational characteristics: 1) expert ratings of Big Five trait relevance to its occupational requirements; and 2) its level of occupational complexity. We report three major findings. First, relations differ considerably across major occupational groups. Conscientiousness predicts across all groups, but other traits have higher validities when they are more relevant to occupational requirements: agreeableness for healthcare; emotional stability for skilled/semiskilled, law enforcement, and military; extraversion for sales and management; and openness for professional. Second, expert ratings of trait relevance mostly converge with empirical relations. For 77% of occupational groups, the top-two most highly rated traits match the top-two most highly predictive traits. Third, occupational complexity moderates personality–performance relations. When groups are ranked by complexity, multiple correlations generally follow an inverse-U shaped pattern, which suggests that moderate complexity levels may be a “goldilocks range” for personality prediction. Altogether, results demonstrate that occupational characteristics are important, if often overlooked, contextual variables. We close by discussing implications of findings for research, practice, and policy.
... Unfortunately, formal mentorship training is lacking, and departments, much less disciplines as a whole, rarely have a formalized mentorship structure with little recourse for failed mentor-mentee relationships. This is deeply concerning as, undoubtedly, mentorship is key for success at all stages of an academic career (Allen et al., 2004;Beres & Dixon, 2016;Carey & Weissman, 2010;Dreher & Ash, 1990;Eby et al., 2008;Kram, 1988;Tenenbaum et al., 2001). Most academics are left with experiential, but informal mentorship training. ...
Article
Background Quality mentorship is crucial for long-term success in academia and overall job satisfaction. Unfortunately, formal mentorship training is lacking, and there is little recourse for failed mentor–mentee relationships. Methods We performed a literature review to understand the current state of mentorship research with a focus on: (1) what mentorship is and why it is important for success; (2) establishing mentor-mentee relationships; and (3) the role of diversity, equity, and inclusion. Results From the literature review, we compiled a number of mentorship recommendations for individuals, departments, institutions, and professional associations. These recommendations focus on building a mentorship network, establishing formalized mentorship training, how to build a productive and mutually beneficial mentor–mentee relationship, and instituting a system of mentorship accountability . Conclusion We hope that by centralizing this information and providing a list of resources and actionable recommendations we inspire and encourage others to make meaningful changes in their approach to mentorship to create a more kind, caring, and equitable environment in which to conduct our work.
... The field of public health is such that needs guidance and coaching for goal-oriented navigation [18]. Mentoring in this phase of career development creates an enabling environment for trainees to internalize skills for interpretation of public health realities, research, and population health interventions [19]. It is not surprising that academic and research-oriented public health physicians are willing to mentor and be mentored. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Conflicting schedules and geographic access limit prospects for mutually beneficial relationships between experts and early career professionals. A formal long-distance mentorship program could address these barriers and potentially bridge the gap of traditional face-to-face mentorship. This study was done to determine the feasibility of implementing a formal long-distance mentorship program amongst public health physicians of Nigeria. Method A mixed-method study comprising of in-depth interviews and surveys was used to collect information from members of the Association of Public Health Physicians in Nigeria. A total of 134 survey participants were recruited consecutively during an annual scientific meeting of the association. In-depth interviewees were purposively selected to ensure diversity in expertise, experience, and social stratifiers such as age. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results Public health physicians of Nigeria are willing to participate in a formal Long-Distance Mentorship Program, and four elements of feasibility were highlighted as necessary for implementing the program. Namely i) capacity to coordinate LDMP, ii) technical expertise and individual competence to provide mentorship, iii) financial capacity to implement and sustain LDMP, and iv) demand for mentorship by mentees. There is a consensus that the organizational structure of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria and West African College of Physicians provide an enabling environment to initiate a LDMP for public health physicians of Nigeria. The vast human resources with various expertise and the annual National conferences can be leveraged upon to champion and administer the program. However, there is a need for an administrative structure and technical expertise to enable proper coordination. More so, the need for demand creation and the financial requirement was considered gaps that need to be filled to be able to ensure feasibility. Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between the dependent variable (preferred role- mentor/mentee) and independent variables (age, year of graduation, and the number of years of practice), while the binary logistic regression model showed that physicians are more likely to participate as mentors with each unit increase in the number of years of practice. This further buttressed the need to commence the mentoring process as soon as trainees gain entrance into the program, as mentorship does not just prepare them for excellent public health practice, but also builds their capacity to mentor the younger and upcoming public health physicians. Conclusion There are enabling structures to incorporate a formal long-distance mentorship program for public health physicians in Nigeria, and physicians are willing to participate in such a program. However, the feasibility of establishing a successful and sustainable program will require robust coordination, technical expertise, demand creation, and financial commitment at both institutional and college levels.
... Mentoring has been studied largely within the context of large corporations where it is used for training and succession planning [16]. While there is no universal consensus on any particular definition or form, mentoring is typically thought of as a hierarchical relationship between a senior and a junior organizational member to help the protégé advance with the organization [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The concept of mentorship has gained widespread popularity in literature across different walks of life owing to the significant benefits attached to it. Purpose: This paper intends to discuss the need for mentorship in radiography, as an indispensable tool for a sustainable healthcare transformation, taking clues from other health science disciplines and medicine. Method: Authors reviewed relevant literature on the subject to have an in-depth and updated knowledge both in the health sciences as well as in other disciplines. Search engines such as Google Scholar, My Websearch, and data base such as Science Direct, Hinari, Taylor and Francis and Medknow were consulted. Several articles that discussed mentorship across various disciplines were reviewed. Those with ideas and concepts that fit into the purpose of the study were included. Results: Several definitions and types of mentorship exist across different walks of life based on literature. However, we decided to adopt the definition of mentorship and types of mentorship by Feldman, who defined mentorship as a dynamic, reciprocal relationship in a work environment between an advanced career incumbent and a beginner, aimed at promoting the development of both. The uniform agreement across various disciplines is that mentoring is a crucial component of success. However, its application in radiography is inadequate. Conclusion: In view of the apparent benefits accruable to mentorship globally, stakeholders in radiography should make mentorship a priority, if we must maintain our role in a sustainable healthcare transformation.
... The importance of effective mentoring to early-stage investigators (ESIs) in academic research has been well documented. [1][2][3] Of particular significance is the need for consistent, tailored mentoring that takes into account the challenges faced by ESIs who are attempting to build research careers. The mounting barriers to successful retention of ESIs in academic medicine, including high student loan burdens, decreased availability of tenure-track positions, and declining funding for research, have intensified this need. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted almost all sectors of academic training and research, but the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research mentoring has yet to be documented. We present the perspectives of diverse, experienced mentors in a range of HIV research disciplines on the impact of COVID-19 on mentoring the next generation of HIV researchers. In November to December, 2020, we used an online data collection platform to cross-sectionally query previously-trained HIV mentors on the challenges related to mentoring during the pandemic, surprising/positive aspects of mentoring in that context, and recommendations for other mentors. Data were coded and analyzed following a thematic analysis approach. Respondents (180 of 225 mentors invited [80% response]) reported challenges related to relationship building/maintenance, disruptions in mentees’ training and research progress, and mentee and mentor distress, with particular concerns regarding mentees who are parents or from underrepresented minority backgrounds. Positive/surprising aspects included logistical ease of remote mentoring, the relationship-edifying result of the shared pandemic experience, mentee resilience and gratitude, and increased enjoyment of mentoring. Recommendations included practical tips, encouragement for patience and persistence, and prioritizing supporting mentees’ and one's own mental well-being. Findings revealed gaps in HIV mentors’ competencies, including the effective use of remote mentoring tools, how to work with mentees in times of distress, and the prioritization of mentor well-being. Mentors are in a unique position to identify and potentially address factors that may lead to mentees leaving their fields, especially parents and those from underrepresented backgrounds. We discuss implications beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.
... have also described the benefits of mentoring across the developmental continuum from youth in the education setting through adulthood in the workplace, that discussed specific behavioral outcomes. Eby et al.'s (2008) study included different types of mentoring and correlated the support provided by mentors with positive behavioral, attitudinal, relational, motivational and career outcomes. This review was the first to establish a positive relationship between workplace mentoring and work attitudes. ...
Article
The US Navy requires leaders of competence and character in combat. The elements of competence are developed in numerous schoolhouses, but the path for developing leaders of character is less well-defined, influenced by individuals and organizational culture. If the Navy fails to develop ethical decision-makers, it could cost the trust of the American people or combat effectiveness in wartime. For centuries, mentors have demonstrated influence on their protégés. One possible vehicle for ethical decision-making is the more intentional use of mentors to serve as role models for ethical leadership. We know little about the development of ethical decision-making in Navy leaders and the influence that mentors have on their preparation for command. This study investigated the impact of mentors in developing ethical leaders. I surveyed 42 Navy officers who served in command about their mentoring experiences. In addition to survey results, I interviewed 16 former Commanding Officers and thematically analyzed their leader development, preparation for command and how they evolved their ability to make ethical decisions. I found that mentors were often in the chain of command and provided support as young officers navigated the challenges of the workplace. Mentors were role models throughout their protégés’ careers and helped them establish a mental model of what good leadership looked like as their protégés prepared for command. Lastly, mentors influenced their protégés’ ethical leadership and helped them make ethical decisions in command. I will use the results of this study to recommend that the Navy include a more intentional approach to mentoring future commanding officers (COs) and to prepare COs by mentoring them for ethical decision-making. I also recommend that further study should be conducted on the impact of mentoring on ethical leadership.
Article
Within the context of modern, turbulent careers, perceived employability (PE)—one's perceived chances of obtaining a new job—has risen in importance as a crucial psychological resource that enables individuals to better cope with and navigate this environment. Increased attention to the construct has brought tremendous interest into its determinants. Several models of employability determinants have been proposed to account for PE, each taking a different perspective concerning what it means to be employable. Although hundreds of studies evaluating relationships between variables outlined by these models and PE have been carried out, the literature is scattered and contradictory. The various predictor models outline unique sets of PE determinants. Further, the specific operationalizations of these determinants vary widely across studies, as do the empirical findings. There also exists a paucity of research attempting to compare and contrast findings between these models, thus the relative strengths and weaknesses of these various frameworks in accounting for PE are unknown. To address these issues, drawing upon influential models of PE determinants, we carry out a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature, spanning 202 studies (k = 221 independent samples). We observed evidence suggesting that, among the various models applied, Movement Capital dimensions (i.e., human capital, social capital, career insight, adaptability) consistently exhibited the most robust correlations with PE. We also observed some evidence suggesting that certain relationships are truncated for unemployed individuals as compared to employees or students. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel widmet sich dem Thema „Onboarding“ bzw. der Integration neuer Mitarbeiter/innen. Wir gehen zuerst auf allgemeine theoretische Grundlagen ein und beschreiben dann die Management-, Human Potential Management- sowie Führungspraxis des Onboardings. Am Ende des Kapitels zeigen wir verschiedene Praxisfälle des Onboardings: Onboarding in Kleinbetrieben, Jobrotation im Onboardingprozess, Onboarding im virtuellen Bereich sowie Integration von „bestehenden“ Mitarbeiter/innen in neue Funktionen. Darüber hinaus befasst sich das folgende Kapitel mit Mentoring-Programmen im Rahmen der Human Potential Management Praxis.
Article
Background Participating in research opportunities during undergraduate education is met with myriad benefits. Students learn the scientific research process, how to think critically, develop transferable skills, refine public speaking, build a professional network, and gain confidence. Despite the numerous benefits of undergraduate research participation, underrepresented and minority (URM) students (e.g., first-generation, low-income, and historically underrepresented students) often do not engage in these valuable undergraduate research opportunities. Objective To begin breaking down some of these historical barriers to participation, we developed the Students Tackling Advanced Research (STAR) Scholars Program. Method A holistic educational outreach program was designed to facilitate underrepresented undergraduate students’ involvement in research and help them understand why research is important in a greater context. Conclusion Students who participated in STAR Scholars self-report positive impacts on understanding what research is, ways to seek out research opportunities, and what steps to take toward future educational and professional goals. Teaching Implications It is imperative to explicitly target barriers that underrepresented students face to allow for equity and inclusion in research and academia. Workshops and activities designed to demystify research, build networking and professional skills, and provide mentorship to students are successful in breaking down these barriers and increase student confidence and competence.
Article
The purpose of this study is to know the evolution of trust with mentors and satisfaction during a mentoring program at the university context, as well as the perceptions of the agents involved. The participants were 181 mentors and 678 mentees from fourteen faculties of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. The condition for participating in the study was to have evaluated at least five mentoring meetings. The scale used collects informationn on the satisfaction of the mentor and his mentees with different aspects of the meetings and the level of trust with the men-tor.thThe results show a high level of trust in the mentors and a high level of satisfaction from both mentors and mentees throughout the sessions of the mentoring program. In addition, there are significant statistical differences between mentors and mentees in the satisfaction with the content and the behavior of the mentor, obtaining the mentees higher scores in both variables. The evolution of satisfaction throughout the sessions and their contents allows designing improvement proposals in the mentoring program in relation to the mentors as well as in the way to approach the topics.
Article
In this article, we identify challenges and best practices associated with a formal mentoring program at a US military service academy. Although research has shown that mentored individuals benefit in numerous ways, little information exists regarding the effectiveness of formal mentoring in the military context. Because substantial time is dedicated to mentoring cadets in military academies, a research study on cadet mentoring experiences could yield preliminary evidence useful for validating current practices and/or pinpointing areas in need of improvement in such a highly structured environment.
Article
Mentoring is a valuable resource that enhances outcomes like career success. Applying conservation of resources theory, we examine the interaction effects of workers’ management aspirations and lengthy career interruption(s) on the mentoring-career success relationship. Utilizing 259 older professional workers, we test these relationships with both cross-sectional and time-separated data. Although the pattern of results was similar when comparing the cross-sectional data to the time-separated data, we found that relationships were stronger within the cross-sectional data, resulting in the support of two additional hypotheses. With the time-separated data, we found evidence of a three-way interaction. Specifically, mentoring is more valuable for the perceived career success of workers with higher management aspirations who had not experienced a lengthy career interruption than it is for workers with higher management aspirations who had experienced a lengthy career interruption or for workers with lower management aspirations regardless of whether they had experienced a career interruption.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative review paper is to identify for practitioners ways of matching mentors and protégés to enhance the effectiveness of formal mentoring programs. Design/methodology/approach The paper qualitatively reviews the best available evidence of ways to match mentors and protégés to maximize mentorship outcomes. Findings Two factors to consider when making mentor–protégé matches emerged from the research literature (1) the matching process (i.e., how matches are made and facilitated by practitioners such as incorporating participant input on matches): and (2) individual characteristics (i.e., individual differences that may serve as matching criteria such as experiential, surface-level, and deep-level characteristics). This qualitative review resulted in three practical recommendations to practitioners interested in matching mentors and protégés using evidence-based methods: (1) match based on deep-level similarities, (2) consider developmental-needs of protégés during matching, and (3) seek mentors' and protégés’ input before finalizing matches. Research limitations/implications Limitations of the research reviewed are highlighted: measures of perceived similarity, relative effectiveness of matching-related factors, limited research investigating the role of dissimilarity on mentoring outcomes, and linear relationship assumptions between matching-related factors and mentoring outcomes. Practical implications The authors’ recommendations suggested greater use of valid psychometric assessments to facilitate matching based on actual assessed data rather than program administrators' personal knowledge of mentors and protégés. Originality/value The literature on mentor–protégé matching is missing practical guidance on how to apply the research. This highlights a need for a qualitative review of the literature to identify what matching processes and criteria are most effective, providing a “one-stop-shop” for practitioners seeking advice on how to construct effective mentor–protégé matches in formal mentorship programs.
Article
Although mentoring often confers valuable benefits to the protégé, mentoring may also entail costs (e.g., time, effort, ego threat), resulting in added stressors and strain. Drawing on the job demands-resources model, the present quantitative review examines how mentoring influences protégé stressors and strains. We reviewed 90 published and unpublished studies with at least one mentoring variable and one stressor or strain measure to identify commonly studied relationships to analyze (e.g., mentoring functions received and role conflict). Due largely to heterogeneity in the operationalization of mentoring, only 18 samples representing six effects could be aggregated. Results indicate that mentoring may have both positive and negative relationships with stressors and strains. This is consistent with the job demands-resources theory, which suggests that job demands induce strain, but these job demands may be mitigated by resources that may be available via characteristics of the mentoring relationship.
Article
Mentoring relationships can be important for promoting the success and persistence of undergraduates, particularly for students from historically underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. While mentoring is often cited as important for attracting and retaining students from underrepresented groups in STEM, little is known about the differential mentoring processes that can result from similar and dissimilar mentor-protégé pairs. The present study tests the process-oriented mentorship model (POMM) regarding how mentor-protégé similarities and the moderating role of contact frequency influence mentorship quality and STEM research career persistence intentions among faculty-mentored Hispanic STEM majors in their senior year of college. The results indicate that mentor-protégé similarity matters. Specifically, higher levels of mentor-protégé psychological similarity were related to higher levels of psychosocial support and relationship satisfaction. Hispanic students with a Hispanic faculty mentor reported engaging in more coauthoring opportunities than peers with non-Hispanic mentors. Among those with higher contact frequency, students with same-gender mentors had higher levels of relationship satisfaction than peers with different-gender mentors; however, there were no differences among those with low contact frequency. Additionally, protégés who reported coauthoring support were more likely to also report commitment to pursuing a STEM research career.
Article
Counselling is considered to be an important policy tool to prevent early school leaving, yet little is known about the effect of counselling on student outcomes. We investigate the effect of a novel type of counselling in Norwegian schools: the student welfare counsellor. These counsellors are employed by local welfare offices but placed in upper secondary schools, serving as a link between the student and support services by addressing financial, health or family-related issues and helping students into appropriate welfare office programmes. Using a difference-in-differences approach with variation in treatment timing, we find that moving this counselling service to schools kept students in school longer, although completion rates in upper secondary education did not increase. Effects are more pronounced for students with a minority background. These results suggest that moving available services closer to students can influence the educational attainment of at-risk youth – at least in the short run.
Article
Academic motivation is an essential predictor of school success in K 12 education. Accordingly, many meta-analyses have examined variables associated with academic motivation. However, a central question remains unanswered: What is the relative strength of the relations of both student variables (achievement, socioemotional variables, and background variables) and instructional variables (teacher variables, interventions, and technology) to academic motivation? To address this question, we conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses of constructs that focus on the question “Do I want to do this activity and why?” We included 125 first-order meta-analyses published before January 2021, with 487 first-order effect sizes, that investigated variables associated with academic motivation in K 12 education and were based on more than 8,839 primary studies and comprised almost 25 million students. We computed second-order standardized mean differences (SMD) using a two-level meta-analysis with robust variance estimation, considering moderators and including the methodological qualities and publication status of the meta-analyses. Our results showed that student variables (SMD = 0.39) and instructional variables (SMD = 0.43) had medium and similar second-order effect sizes. Of the student variables, socioemotional variables (SMD = 0.52) and achievement (SMD = 0.46) were more important than background variables (SMD = 0.19). Of the instructional variables, teacher variables (SMD = 0.61) were more important than interventions (SMD = 0.36) and technology (SMD = 0.35). Overall, the results provide the field with a clearer depiction of which student and instructional variables relate most closely to students’ academic motivation and thus have implications for the design of future interventions to foster students’ academic motivation in school.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to analyse the satisfaction levels of participants (mentees, mentors, and technical-research team) of a university mentoring programme. The GuíaMe-AC-UMA is aimed at gifted high school students. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the IX edition was carried out in an online format. The results were compared to those of the in-person edition (VII edition) to assess whether there were differences between the editions. For this purpose, three versions (one for each participant type) of a Likert-type questionnaire were distributed among the participants of the 22 workshops offered by the GuíaMe-AC-UMA Programme. A total of 224 responses were received: 21 from the mentors, 181 from the mentees and 22 from the technical-research team. The results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the development of the workshops by all participants. While the mentees preferred the in-person edition, the rest of the participants showed no difference in satisfaction levels between editions. A similar result was observed when correcting for the subject area of the workshop. The in-person edition was valued higher than the online version by all. The overall level of satisfaction shown by all participants and the support for continuation of the programme suggest that this type of educational offer is beneficial and satisfactory for all involved, in accordance with previous research on mentoring programmes. These results indicate that programmes focused on young pre-university students with high abilities are valued; these results encourage us to continue the programme.
Article
Mentoring programs have historically focused on the relationship between the mentor and mentee as the primary means for supporting academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes among youth participating in these programs. However, research also indicates that other significant relationships, like family relationships, are important in promoting positive youth outcomes. The current exploratory study takes an ecological approach by examining family relationships as a potential moderator of youth mentoring outcomes. Participants were adolescent girls who participated in a year-long, gender-specific, school-based mentoring program (n = 69), or served as controls (n = 59). Data were collected from pre- and post-intervention surveys. Multiple regression analyses tested for an interaction between participants’ family relationship characteristics and their intervention status on various social-emotional, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Results indicated that higher levels of family support significantly predicted higher youth academic plans, and lower family deviant beliefs significantly predicted fewer delinquent behaviors; however, the interactions between family and intervention status were not significant. Findings suggest that family relationship characteristics merit attention when seeking to promote youth outcomes. Implications include supporting ecological frameworks for mentoring by refining targets of mentoring interventions to consider the role of family factors.
Article
This article examines how cultural contexts influence the demonstration of resilient behaviors of women senior managers in large organizations. We compare the experiences of Malaysian and Australian women overcoming key challenges and obstacles in their career journeys by engaging in the resilience strategies of network leveraging, learning, and adaptability. Our findings reveal the unique, complex, and contextual nature of career resilience, and show how resilience can be demonstrated, often differently, across culture and context. Our study adds to the existing body of literature in the areas of careers, gender in the workplace, and resilience, by highlighting how senior women sustain and navigate their career paths within the constraints of their socio‐cultural contexts. Practical and scholarly implications are discussed.
Article
For careers in public service, meritocracy is espoused and idealized with formal structures for advancement. However, career development is also relational. Scholars have long discussed the benefits of mentoring both for psychosocial support and career advancement in organizations. While mentoring is recognized as important for career advancement, less is known about the nature of mentoring in male-dominated public sector organizations. In this paper we explore how mentoring functions in the U.S. Army—a male-dominated public service organization. Using data from a mixed method study, including survey data from approximately 1,200 Army personnel and analysis of 27 focus groups with 198 participants, we find that mentoring quality matters for all employees, but it matters more for women. We also find that mentoring is gendered, shaping the career trajectories of women and men in different ways.
Article
What determines success in academia? Both researchers and academics have disagreements regarding the notion of success and its determinants in academia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of political skill on employees’ subjective career success and the mediating and moderating role of mentoring and career adaptability in the said relationship respectively. The hypothesized relationships were tested utilizing a representative stratified random sample of 362 faculty members employed in the public sector universities of Pakistan. Results revealed that political skill positively influences subjective career success. The mediation model was supported and as expected: mentoring mediated the link between political skill and career success. The moderated relationship between mentoring and career success was stronger for individuals with higher career adaptability. The study adds to the understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in the political skill-career success nexus. Moderating role of career adaptability in the relationship between political skill and subjective career success was also probed, which further adds to the theoretical contribution of the study. The findings suggest that academics must realize that they need to be politically skilled, should be proactive in seeking mentoring relationships and should better equip themselves to cope with the work uncertainties.
Article
Walking the Talk: Toward a Values-Aligned Academy is the culmination of 18 months of research interviews across the Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA). Conducted by the HuMetricsHSS Initiative as an extension of their previous work on values-enacted scholarly practice, the interviews focused on current systems of evaluation within BTAA institutions, the potential problems and inequalities of those processes, the kinds of scholarly work that could be better recognized and rewarded, and the contexts and pressures evaluators are under, including, as the process progressed, the onset and ongoing conditions of COVID-19. The interviews focused primarily on the reappointment, promotion, and tenure (RPT) process. Interviewees outlined a number of issues to be addressed, including toxicity in evaluation, scholars’ increased alienation from the work they are passionate about, and a high-level virtue-signaling of values by institutions without the infrastructure or resources to support the enactment of those values. Based on these conversations, this white paper offers a set of recommendations for making wide-scale change to address systematic injustice, erasure, and devaluation of academic labor in order to strengthen the positive public impact of scholarship.
Article
Introduction: In medical education, mentoring has the important function of supporting and complementing student’s education through their relationship with a teacher, which fosters student’s global development. Objective: to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a mentoring program in a private school from the perspective of mentors and mentees; to identify, among students who did not participate in mentoring, the reason for not participating, knowledge about the concept of mentoring and the desire to participate in the future. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The study participants included mentors, mentees and students who did not participate in the mentoring program. All participants answered a semi-structured questionnaire and the answers were submitted to a qualitative approach analysis. Results: The answers were divided into two broad categories: strengths - bonding, exposing feelings/self-disclosure, mentoring as a two-way street, space for integration - and weaknesses - organization and scheduling difficulties, conducting group dynamics and addressed topics, of integration between group members. The students who did not participate in mentoring attributed their non-participation to lack of time and reported they wanted to participate in the future. Conclusion: the reports showed strengths and weaknesses of mentoring for mentors and mentees, as well as aspects to be improved. Prospective studies of mentoring programs are needed to identify aspects that promote the development of participants and reduce their suffering, as well as their impact on medical education.
Article
Introduction: In medical education, mentoring has the important function of supporting and complementing student’s education through their relationship with a teacher, which fosters student’s global development. Objective: to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a mentoring program in a private school from the perspective of mentors and mentees; to identify, among students who did not participate in mentoring, the reason for not participating, knowledge about the concept of mentoring and the desire to participate in the future. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The study participants included mentors, mentees and students who did not participate in the mentoring program. All participants answered a semi-structured questionnaire and the answers were submitted to a qualitative approach analysis. Results: The answers were divided into two broad categories: strengths - bonding, exposing feelings/self-disclosure, mentoring as a two-way street, space for integration - and weaknesses - organization and scheduling difficulties, conducting group dynamics and addressed topics, of integration between group members. The students who did not participate in mentoring attributed their non-participation to lack of time and reported they wanted to participate in the future. Conclusion: the reports showed strengths and weaknesses of mentoring for mentors and mentees, as well as aspects to be improved. Prospective studies of mentoring programs are needed to identify aspects that promote the development of participants and reduce their suffering, as well as their impact on medical education.
Article
Full-text available
There is a widespread belief that youth mentoring contributes to students’ holistic competency development, but research has not yet provided enough clarity on how exactly this contribution is made possible. To address this gap, in the current study we explore different mentoring strategies and their impacts on mentees’ holistic competency development in an extracurricular mentoring programme for secondary school students in Hong Kong. Informed by both mentors’ interviews and mentees’ written/video reflections, we present three scenarios illustrative of the connection between mentoring strategies and impacts. Through detailed vignettes, we offer a productive and situated approach to understand the extent to which certain mentoring strategies are more likely to contribute to particular holistic competency outcomes.
Article
There is an increasingly large disparity in college graduation rates among low-income and first-generation college students. Research suggests that the main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of access to information and knowledge about the college process. First-generation students have fewer people in their social network who went to college and thus cannot help them navigate the difficult and multi-step process of finding, applying, and enrolling in college. Mentoring, however, has been proven to be a successful intervention for helping these populations navigate the post-secondary process. This paper evaluates a school-based hybrid mentoring program to attempt to measure the relationship between mentors and how students in New York City navigated the post-secondary process and enrolled in college. Findings show that program lessons, number of months matched, and meeting out of program are important program elements in increasing a student’s likelihood of graduating high school and enrolling on-time in college.
Chapter
The values of gender equality are being promoted worldwide. The importance of gender equality for sustainable development is well highlighted by the United Nations Sustainable Goal 5 which notes that the need to end all discrimination against women and girls. Nowadays, most modern scholars argue that the world has made great progress towards gender balance, however, it is far from perfect. For encouraging and empowering women to remain active in every field, it is important to raise awareness about their rights, with emphasis on the vital role of girls and women in the workforce. This is especially important for the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) field where women are still underrepresented. This study aims to report on the materials and tools (digital and traditional) that can be used for sensitizing and raising awareness on issues related to gender-equality and women’s empowerment. On this endeavor, we collected information on existing materials used in different contexts through national consultations in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Slovenia. The tools and materials collected uncover the various levels of gender equality material available - digital and traditional - taking into account the various facets of gender-equality and provide a comprehensive view to the wider academic and industrial community. This study is expected to provide structured knowledge on a new and rapidly developing topic and add more information to existing contour of knowledge regarding available gender-sensitive materials and tools.
Article
Despite its historical importance for human achievement in many fields, mentorship has received meager research attention until relatively recently. Now recognized as a distinct personal relationship, mentorship is linked to a variety of psychological benefits to mentees including greater self-esteem, well-being, career focus, and leadership capability. Mentors have also been found to experience gains related to generativity. However, lacking has been a meaningful conceptualization of mentorship based on humanistic psychological concerns related to the “whole person.” In particular, the idea that mentoring can facilitate the self-actualization process has been neglected in the literature. In this article, we draw upon Maslow’s writings, particularly related to Daoism, to propose a new conceptual model. For at the time of his sudden death, he was directly seeking to apply Daoist notions to a variety of helping relationships including teaching, counseling, psychotherapy, and even friendship and parenting. After differentiating growth-centered mentorship from skill-centered mentorship, we delineate the former’s essential features based on Maslow’s unfinished legacy in this domain. These aspects include (a) incorporating and fostering the far goal of self-actualization; (b) guiding mentees to better identify their calling by identifying peak and foothill experiences; (c) helping mentees to overcome what Maslow termed the Jonah complex, as well as what subsequent researchers have dubbed the imposter syndrome; and (d) recognizing the mutuality of growth for both participants into a potentially synergic relationship.
Book
Full-text available
This thoroughly updated Second Edition of the Handbook of Youth Mentoring presents the only comprehensive synthesis of current theory, research, and practice in the field of youth mentoring. Editors David L. DuBois and Michael J. Karcher gather leading experts in the field to offer critical and informative analyses of the full spectrum of topics that are essential to advancing our understanding of the principles for effective mentoring of young people. This volume includes twenty new chapter topics and eighteen completely revised chapters based on the latest research on these topics. Each chapter has been reviewed by leading practitioners, making this handbook the strongest bridge between research and practice available in the field of youth mentoring.
Article
Full-text available
Research conclusions in the social sciences are increasingly based on meta-analysis, making questions of the accuracy of meta-analysis critical to the integrity of the base of cumulative knowledge. Both fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) meta-analysis models have been used widely in published meta-analyses. This article shows that FE models typically manifest a substantial Type I bias in significance tests for mean effect sizes and for moderator variables (interactions), while RE models do not. Likewise, FE models, but not RE models, yield confidence intervals for mean effect sizes that are narrower than their nominal width, thereby overstating the degree of precision in meta-analysis findings. This article demonstrates analytically that these biases in FE procedures are large enough to create serious distortions in conclusions about cumulative knowledge in the research literature. We therefore recommend that RE methods routinely be employed in meta-analysis in preference to FE methods.
Article
Full-text available
Over 1,000 U.S. Army officers responded to two surveys over a two-year period. Results indicated that mentoring was positively related to affective commitment and continuance commitment and negatively related to "turnover behavior.". The relationship with affective commitment was moderated by the conditions of mentorship (supervisory versus nonsupervisory) but not by the type of mentoring support provided (career-related versus psychosocial). Affective commitment partially mediated the negative relationship between mentoring and actual turnover behavior ten years later.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study investigating the effects of mentoring in a sales setting. Salespeople who had manager mentors inside the organization where they work had high performance and a low intention to leave. Those with peer mentors inside the organization also had a low intention to leave but lower performance. Salespeople with mentors outside the organization where they work had high performance but also a high intention to leave. Finally, salespeople with no mentor had relatively low performance and a high intention to leave. These results suggest that manager mentors inside the organization produce the best combination of results. Study results also raise serious questions about the effects of peer mentoring and mentors outside the organization. The findings suggest two important hypotheses for testing: (1) that peer mentors produce low turnover intentions and high commitment in poor performers, and (2) that mentors outside the organization produce high turnover intentions and low commitment in high performers.
Book
Full-text available
Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
Article
Full-text available
Organizations have become increasingly interested in developing their human resources. One tool that has been explored in this quest is mentoring. This has led to a surge in mentoring research and an increase in the number of formal mentoring programs implemented in organizations. This review provides a survey of the empirical work on mentoring that is organized around the major questions that have been investigated. Then a conceptual model, focused on formal mentoring relationships, is developed to help understand the mentoring process. The model draws upon research from a diverse body of literature, including interpersonal relationships, career success, training and development, and informal mentoring. Finally, a discussion of critical next steps for research in the mentoring domain is presented.
Article
Full-text available
This research brief highlights studies of nationally- and locally-based youth mentoring programs. The programs were evaluated on an experimentally based design which compared a group of youth randomly assigned to a mentoring program with a group of youth who were not so assigned. The study found overall that mentoring programs can be effective tools for enhancing the positive development of youth. Mentored youth are likely to have fewer absences from school; better attitudes towards school; fewer incidents of hitting others; less alcohol and drug use; and improved relationships with their parents or caregivers. One cautionary note was that mentoring of short duration might do more harm than good. Considerations that policymakers and practitioners may want to keep in mind are addressed. The most important policy consideration suggested is that, in general, mentoring programs are worth the investment. (Contains 19 references.) (JDM)
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that mentorships are quite important in the development of junior professionals in a range of fields, including psychology. Yet some evidence suggests that clinical doctoral students may be less frequently mentored by graduate faculty than other psychology doctoral students. Results of a survey of 800 clinical and experimental psychology doctorates who earned the degree in four distinct time frames from 1945 to the present indicated that clinical PhDs (53%) were indeed less likely than experimental PhDs (69%) to be mentored. Potential explanations for this discrepancy include the nature of clinical training, diffusion in clinical training, the advent of professional training models. The implications of less frequent mentoring for clinical doctorates are discussed, and several recommendations for addressing this phenomenon are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Research conclusions in the social sciences are increasingly based on meta-analysis, making questions of the accuracy of meta-analysis critical to the integrity of the base of cumulative knowledge. Both fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) meta-analysis models have been used widely in published meta-analyses. This article shows that FE models typically manifest a substantial Type I bias in significance tests for mean effect sizes and for moderator variables (interactions), while RE models do not. Likewise, FE models, but not RE models, yield confidence intervals for mean effect sizes that are narrower than their nominal width, thereby overstating the degree of precision in meta-analysis findings. This article demonstrates analytically that these biases in FE procedures are large enough to create serious distortions in conclusions about cumulative knowledge in the research literature. We therefore recommend that RE methods routinely be employed in meta-analysis in preference to FE methods.
Article
We used meta‐analysis to review 55 evaluations of the effects of mentoring programs on youth. Overall, findings provide evidence of only a modest or small benefit of program participation for the average youth. Program effects are enhanced significantly, however, when greater numbers of both theory‐based and empirically based “best practices” are utilized and when strong relationships are formed between mentors and youth. Youth from backgrounds of environmental risk and disadvantage appear most likely to benefit from participation in mentoring programs. Outcomes for youth at‐risk due to personal vulnerabilities have varied substantially in relation to program characteristics, with a noteworthy potential evident for poorly implemented programs to actually have an adverse effect on such youth. Recommendations include greater adherence to guidelines for the design and implementation of effective mentoring programs as well as more in‐depth assessment of relationship and contextual factors in the evaluation of programs.
Article
Initially, achieving lean manufacturing required major investment. At present, the leap from traditional manufacturing to more modern, leaner practices is already affordable, brought about by the increasing sophistication of packaged software applications. With the availability of Internet-based software in manageable chunks, manufacturers can address one aspect of their operations at a time, and gradually add more compatible pieces to build the full picture.
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled: Who are Natural Mentors? Development of Natural Mentor Relationships Dimensions of Natural Mentoring Relationships Functions and Psychological Processes Individual Differences Conclusion References Who are Natural Mentors? Development of Natural Mentor Relationships Dimensions of Natural Mentoring Relationships Functions and Psychological Processes Individual Differences Conclusion References
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled: Social Scientists Examine Mentoring Mentoring in Practice Integration Note Reference Social Scientists Examine Mentoring Mentoring in Practice Integration Note Reference
Chapter
This literature review examines the prevalence and role of informal student–faculty mentorships, focusing on the formation, development, and dissolution of such relationships within graduate education, with reference to the undergraduate context. Empirical research on the graduate level more clearly distinguishes informal from formal mentoring, giving it priority attention here. Content is organized around seven topics: clarification of informal mentoring; benefits and drawbacks of spontaneous relationships; personality characteristics of mentor and protégé; functions of mentoring; frameworks of informal mentoring phases; formation, development, and termination; and new types of mentoring relationships.
Article
Mentoring is now widely accepted as a useful tool for helping individuals develop their careers, and for organizations to enhance their human resource capability. Using the results from the 2000 Career Progression Survey, this paper sketches the status and nature of mentoring evident in the New Zealand Public Service (NZPS). In particular, the survey results show that mentoring is now practiced throughout NZPS, and contrary to evidence elsewhere, women - specifically, women managers - are more likely to be mentored than their male counterparts. The paper also compares the survey results with existing jurisdictional and conceptual evidence, in particular on Hale's (1995) categorization of four sets of problems in mentoring. While evidence on two of the four questions ('recognition' and 'mentor identification') is corroborated in the NZPS, further inquiry is necessary on the 'variance' and 'socialization' problems.
Article
This chapter contains section titled:
Article
There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
There has been extensive debate among scholars and practitioners concerning whether self-beliefs influence academic achievement. To address this question, findings of longitudinal studies investigating the relation between self-beliefs and achievement were synthesized using meta-analysis. Estimated effects are consistent with a small, favorable influence of positive self-beliefs on academic achievement, with an average standardized path or regression coefficient of .08 for self-beliefs as a predictor of later achievement, controlling for initial levels of achievement. Stronger effects of self-beliefs are evident when assessing self-beliefs specific to the academic domain and when measures of self-beliefs and achievement are matched by domain (e.g., same subject area). Under these conditions, the relation of self-beliefs to later achievement meets or exceeds Cohen's (1988) definition of a small effect size.
Article
Mentor relationships have been identified as contributing to resilience in high-risk youth. Despite their promise, as well as a recent increase in volunteer mentoring programs, our understanding of mentor relationships rests on a base of observational data and very few empirical studies. Literature in several fields is reviewed and synthesized as it bears on mentoring. Although the literature converges on the importance of mentor relationships in shaping and protecting youth, many programmatic and conceptual issues remain unresolved. These issues constitute a compelling research agenda for this emerging field.
Article
Despite a growing body of research about mentoring, definitional, theoretical, and methodological deficiencies reduce the usefulness of existing research. This article provides a critical review of the literature on mentoring, with an emphasis on the links between mentoring and undergraduate academic success. The first section describes a variety of ways in which mentoring has been defined within higher education, management, and psychology. Issues related to developing a standard operational definition of mentoring within higher education are discussed. The second section provides a critical review of empirical research about mentoring and undergraduate education. The third section describes four different theoretical perspectives that could be used in future research about mentoring. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns, are addressed.
Article
Based on a four-year, qualitative study of graduate students, the article discusses graduate student development, students' perceptions of the academic career, and graduate students' suggestions for improving graduate socialization experiences. The article concludes with recommendations and policy questions for faculty advisors, chairpersons, teaching assistant supervisors, and graduate deans.
Article
The efficacy of the Hedges and colleagues, Rosenthal-Rubin, and Hunter-Schmidt methods for combining correlation coefficients was tested for cases in which population effect sizes were both fixed and variable. After a brief tutorial on these meta-analytic methods, the author presents 2 Monte Carlo simulations that compare these methods for cases in which the number of studies in the meta-analysis and the average sample size of studies were varied. In the fixed case the methods produced comparable estimates of the average effect size; however, the Hunter-Schmidt method failed to control the Type I error rate for the associated significance tests. In the variable case, for both the Hedges and colleagues and Hunter-Schmidt methods, Type I error rates were not controlled for meta-analyses including 15 or fewer studies and the probability of detecting small effects was less than .3. Some practical recommendations are made about the use of meta-analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mentoring is examined in the context of the changing nature of work. In this context, the construct of mentoring is expanded to consider its use under a variety of situations facing today's organizations such as more participative work arrangements, corporate restructuring, and domestic and international expansion. A typology that differentiates mentoring on two primary dimensions is presented: the form of the relationship (lateral or hierarchical mentor-protege relationship) and the type of skill development obtained through the mentoring experience (job-related or career-related). Specific examples of alternative forms of mentoring that can be used to help individuals and organizations adapt to organizational change are presented. An agenda for future research, as well as implications for counselors and human resource management professionals, is presented.
Article
There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled: Models of the Consequences of Mentoring Relationships The Protégé Framework The Mentor Framework Moderating Effects of Relationship Quality Summary and Insights Limitations Needed Research Conclusion Reference Models of the Consequences of Mentoring Relationships The Protégé Framework The Mentor Framework Moderating Effects of Relationship Quality Summary and Insights Limitations Needed Research Conclusion Reference
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled:
Article
In summarizing individual means by treatment in tables and figures it is recommended that 84% confidence intervals be produced. Doing this will add an extra dimension to interpretation - allowing an assessment of statistical significance at the 5% level. With 84% confidence intervals, in terms of a range of plausible values for the population mean, interpretation would be different compared to the standard 95%. However, 84% confidence intervals do still also describe a plausible range for the means. In a context with plots by time a multiplicity issue may be raised which will need to be accounted for. However, such graphs are often produced only for exploratory purposes and so any assessment of statistical significance may be made in this context. Relaxing the confidence intervals around individual means is something that has been discussed for sometime now [1-3] and in a context with figures such as Figure 1 does add to the value of diagrammatic representation of studies [4]. When quoting the difference between two means 95% should still be used.
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled:
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled: Prevalence of Mentoring in Academia Targeted Mentoring Groups Mentoring in Undergraduate and Graduate Programs General Characteristics of Mentoring Programs Developing a Mentoring Program Barriers to Developing a Mentoring Program Recommendations Reference Prevalence of Mentoring in Academia Targeted Mentoring Groups Mentoring in Undergraduate and Graduate Programs General Characteristics of Mentoring Programs Developing a Mentoring Program Barriers to Developing a Mentoring Program Recommendations Reference
Article
Research on mentorships has suffered from fragmentation of key issues; specifically, type of mentoring relationship, functions served by the mentor, and outcomes of the mentoring relationship. A field study was conducted comparing 212 protégés who were involved in informally developed mentorships, 53 protégés involved in formal mentor-ship programs, and 284 individuals who did not have mentors. Individuals in informal and formal mentorships were compared along two mentoring dimensions: psychosocial and career-related functions. All groups were compared on three outcome measures: organizational socialization, job satisfaction, and salary. Results indicated protégés in informal mentorships reported more career-related support from their mentors and higher salaries than protégés in formal mentorships. For all outcome variables, protégés in informal mentorships also reported more favorable outcomes than nonmentored individuals. However, outcomes from protégés in formal mentorships were generally not significant from the other two groups. Implications for mentorship practices and research are discussed.
Article
Using data on former students of fourteen private colleges and universities, this paper examines patterns of alumni giving. The data are taken from the College and Beyond survey, which covers individuals who entered the institutions in the fall of 1951, 1976, and 1989. Contributions by these former students to these colleges and universities tend to be quite concentrated, with half of all donations being given by the most generous 1 percent of the sample. A higher level of contribution is associated with higher income, with having participated in extracurricular activities in college, with having had a mentor in college, and with the degree of satisfaction in one's undergraduate experience. The projected donations for the most generous of these alumni over the course of a lifetime are quite high, with totals for the 1951 cohort exceeding those from the 1976 cohort.
Article
Using the contest- and sponsored-mobility perspectives as theoretical guides, this meta-analysis reviewed 4 categories of predictors of objective and subjective career success: human capital, organizational sponsorship, sociodemographic status, and stable individual differences. Salary level and promotion served as dependent measures of objective career success, and subjective career success was represented by career satisfaction. Results demonstrated that both objective and subjective career success were related to a wide range of predictors. As a group, human capital and sociodemographic predictors generally displayed stronger relationships with objective career success, and organizational sponsorship and stable individual differences were generally more strongly related to subjective career success. Gender and time (date of the study) moderated several of the relationships examined.
Article
A conceptual model was tested in which the effects of mentoring relationships on adolescents' academic outcomes were hypothesized to be mediated partially through improvements in parental relationships. The parameters of the model were compared with those of an alternative, in which improved parental relationships were treated as an outcome variable rather than a mediator. The study included 959 young adolescents (M age = 12.25 years), all of whom applied to Big Brothers Big Sisters programs. The adolescents were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group and administered questions at baseline and 18 months later. The hypothesized model provided a significantly better explanation of the data than the alternative. In addition to improvements in parental relationships, mentoring led to reductions in unexcused absences and improvements in perceived scholastic competence. Direct effects of mentoring on global self-worth, school value, and grades were not detected but were instead mediated through improved parental relationships and scholastic competence. Implications of the findings for theory and research are discussed.
Article
Many studies over the last 20–25 years have examined the benefits of mentoring for the protégé and the organization. A review of these studies being published revealed that there is not only a lack of studies utilizing or reporting comparison group information but also a general lack of experimental research about mentoring. This quantitative meta-analytic review provides a critical analysis of the effectiveness of mentoring, with an emphasis on research designs that compared career outcomes of mentored individuals to non-mentored individuals. The overall mean effect size of mentoring was significant, indicating that mentoring does improve career outcomes for individuals. Individual career outcomes were analyzed and reported. Informal mentoring produced a larger and more significant effect on career outcomes than formal mentoring. There is a need for more research comparing protégés and non-protégés to determine if it is the receipt of mentoring or individual characteristics that leads to career success.
Article
This study asked graduate students at the University of California about their relationships with their advisors, satisfaction, and academic success. Both the women and men students worked primarily with male advisors, but not disproportionately to the availability of male and female professors. Instrumental help and networking help contributed positively to productivity (i.e., publications, posters, and conference talks). Psychosocial help contributed to students' satisfaction with their mentor and with their graduate school experience. The results are interpreted and implications are discussed in a framework of recent research on mentoring in organizations.