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Time Motion and Notational Analysis of 21 Point and 15 Point Badminton Match Play

Authors:
  • Universiti of Science Malaysia
  • Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math, Howrah, India.

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the time motion and notational variables of 21 point singles' badminton play and of the old scoring system (15 points for males and 11 for females). Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) state-level badminton players with a mean age of 15.7 ± 1.2 years participated in this study. They were initially tested using incremental treadmill test following Bruce protocol to obtain individual maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) value. VO2max of the male and female participants were 47.1 ± 5.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 39.8 ± 6.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively. On a separate day, they played a simulated badminton match using 21 points (Trial 1) and 15 / 11 points (Trial 2) scoring system. During the trials, a video camera was used for time-motion and notational analysis throughout the match. The statistical analysis showed that total number of shots and rallies in a match were the only variables which were significantly higher in the 15 points compared to 21 points in men's singles match play (331.2 ± 51.6 vs 463.5 ± 24.7 (total shots) and 70.2 ± 1.2 vs 97 ± 6.6 (total rallies) respectively). Even though female players had a greater point difference (10 points) in the new scoring system compared to the male counterparts, there were no significant differences in all parameters measured. The patterns of play which were analyzed on the basis of notational variables were also similar in both scoring systems. However, some differences in the time motion and notational analysis were found between genders suggesting that there should be different training regimens for men and women in their respective disciplines due to greater intensity, speed of play and the longer rally lengths in men's singles. Therefore, it is recommended that players should impart more emphasis in the development and improvement of the skills/techniques rather than making any drastic changes to the training programme to develop their physical fitness to meet the demands of the match with the 21 point scoring system.
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ISSN 1750-9823 (print)
International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering
Vol. 02 (2008) No. 04, pp. 216-222
Time Motion and Notational Analysis of 21 Point and 15 Point
Badminton Match Play
Chee Lee Ming, Chen Chee Keong and Asok Kumar Ghosh
+
Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
(Received July 15, 2008, accepted October 02, 2008)
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the time motion and notational
variables of 21 point singles’ badminton play and of the old scoring system (15 points for males and 11 for
females). Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) state-level badminton players with a mean age of 15.7 ± 1.2 years
participated in this study. They were initially tested using incremental treadmill test following Bruce protocol
to obtain individual maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) value. VO2max of the male and female
participants were 47.1 ± 5.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 39.8 ± 6.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively. On a separate day,
they played a simulated badminton match using 21 points (Trial 1) and 15 / 11 points (Trial 2) scoring system.
During the trials, a video camera was used for time-motion and notational analysis throughout the match. The
statistical analysis showed that total number of shots and rallies in a match were the only variables which
were significantly higher in the 15 points compared to 21 points in men’s singles match play [331.2 ± 51.6 vs
463.5 ± 24.7 (total shots) and 70.2 ± 1.2 vs 97 ± 6.6 (total rallies) respectively]. Even though female players
had a greater point difference (10 points) in the new scoring system compared to the male counterparts, there
were no significant differences in all parameters measured. The patterns of play which were analyzed on the
basis of notational variables were also similar in both scoring systems. However, some differences in the time
motion and notational analysis were found between genders suggesting that there should be different training
regimens for men and women in their respective disciplines due to greater intensity, speed of play and the
longer rally lengths in men’s singles. Therefore, it is recommended that players should impart more emphasis
in the development and improvement of the skills/techniques rather than making any drastic changes to the
training programme to develop their physical fitness to meet the demands of the match with the 21 point
scoring system.
Keywords: Time motion analysis, notational analysis, badminton.
1. Introduction
The game of badminton started back in 2000 years ago and it is known as “battledore and shuttlecock” in
Ancient Greece and later “Poona” in India during the 18
th
Century. A series of changes in the scoring system
was also observed since the Badminton Association of England published the first set of rules in September
13, 1893 (Bischof, 2006). In December 2005, the Badminton World Federation –BWF (formally known as
International Badminton Federation – IBF) experimented with the 3 x 21 point scoring system and made its
first debut at the Saiqi Invitational World Cup 2005 in Yunan Province, Yiyang, China (Badminton Asia,
2006).
The change from the traditional 3 x 15 point system to the rally point system was proposed to regulate
the playing time and to simplify the system for television viewers. The changes in the scoring system affect
how players score points and to win the game as the number of points per game is increased for all matches
(Percy, 2007). The differences in the physiological demands could be expected between the new (21 points)
and the old (15 points for doubles and men’s singles while 11 points for women’s singles) scoring system.
However, it could be quantitatively explained and supported by gathering information relating to the
technical and tactical aspects of performance (Carlson et al., 1985; Hughes, 1988). Time motion analysis has
proven to be particularly important in directing coaches to look into a player’s game requiring attention and
in the development of training techniques (Liddle et al., 1996).
+
Corresponding author.
Associate Professor, Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malayasia.
Email address:
asokghosh@kb.usm.my. Ph: +609 7664823 (O); Fax: +609 7641945.
Published by World Academic Press, World Academic Union
International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering, 2 (2008) 4, pp 216-222
217
To promote an understanding of specific game demands and thus assist the creation of game-specific
training schedules, the nature, extent and intensity of movement has to be assessed (Green et al., 1976; Reilly,
1976; Withers et al., 1982; Mayhew, 1985; Docherty et al., 1988; Allen, 1989; Salmoni et al., 1991; Lothian,
1994; Liddle et al., 1996). Hence, the present study was undertaken with a view to
analyse and compare
the time motion variables and notational variables of singles’ badminton play following 21 point
scoring system and 15 point scoring system.
2. Methods
This study has been approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, School of Medical Sciences,
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan. Each subject gave written informed consent before the
start of the study.
Subjects and general design
Eight male and eight female badminton players’ between 14 to 17 years were recruited for this study.
They are physically fit, competitive and being in regular training under the badminton project (Projek
Gemilang) and badminton core sports programme (Sukan Teras). Each subject who participated in this study
has at least two years of competitive experience in badminton at state level and they are familiar with both 15
or 11 points and 21 points scoring system. All the subjects were free from any serious injury or health
problems. Anthropometric measurements of all subjects such as height, weight and percentage of body fat
were presented in Table 1. The present study was carried out in the following phases:
Phase 1: Laboratory test to determine the individual VO2max
Phase 2: Experimental Trial 1 – 21 points simulated match
Phase 3: Experimental Trial 2 – 15 points (men) and 11 points (women) simulated match
Laboratory test
Before the test began, subjects were equipped with a heart rate monitor (T61, Polar Electro Oy, Finland)
and a mouth piece fixed to a headgear with breathing hose connected to a gas analyzer (V-Max Spectra,
USA). This metabolic measurement system was selected to measure oxygen uptake (VO
2
), carbon dioxide
production (VCO
2
) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of the subjects during the exercise test. Once the
metabolic measurement system was calibrated, the test began with recording the resting heart rate and
followed by the incremental treadmill test.
Subjects performed a graded exercise test on a motor-driven treadmill (Quinton
TM
, Model 18-60, USA)
using the Bruce protocol where the work load was increased by changing both the speed and percent grade.
During the first stage (minutes 1 to 3) of the test, subjects ran at a 1.7 mph at a 10% grade. At the start of
second stage (minutes 4 to 6), the grade was increased by 2%, and the speed was increased to 2.5 mph. In
each subsequent stage of the test, the grade increased 2%, and the speed was increased either 0.8 or 0.9 mph
until subjects was exhausted. The subjects ran on the treadmill until volitional exhaustion despite verbal
encouragement towards the end of the test. Blood samples of 1 ml were withdrawn from antecubital vein
immediately after the test to determine the blood lactate concentrations. Subjects were advised to perform
active cool down for 5 minutes on the treadmill. The results were recorded and then analysed to determine
the fitness level of each individual.
Experimental trials
In Trial 1, subjects are paired up to play against each other using the 21 point rally system. In Trial 2, the
same pair played against each other using the old scoring system whereby the men’s singles used the 15
point scoring system and the women’s singles used the 11 point scoring system. The matches were played in
best of 3 games. These two trials were separated by a 1 week. All the subjects were requested to maintain the
same type of training or physical activity 7 days prior to each experimental trial and were told to refrain from
strenuous training 24 hour prior to each experimental trial.
All the matches during the experimental trials were conducted as an official tournament, which means
that there were umpires, line judges and were in accordance with rules as set by the Badminton World
Federation – BWF. According to Cabello and Gonzalez-Badillo (2003), it was necessary to take account of a
factor that may affect the results obtained, such as the intensity with which the match was contested. To
consider the results obtained as representative of maximum effort, the match had to be hard fought with the
players performing to their full capacity. This was controlled by choosing for analysis the matches that a
priori were likely to be the most hotly contested – that is, between players of the same level by using
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Chee Lee Ming, et al: Time Motion and Notational Analysis of 21 Point and 15 Point Badminton Match Play
218
information obtained from results in other competitions and from their respective coaches – as well as the
importance of the result within the competition. Thus, in the present study, the subjects were matched
according to their playing level as determined by the coach.
Time motion and notational analysis
A digital video camera was placed at one of the side lines to record each match played for time motion
analysis purposes. All the video were analysed through Utilius® fairPLAY Lite version 4.0.3 (CCC GmbH,
Germany). From the recoded tapes, the duration of each match and game, the duration of rally and rest, and
number shots and rally were recorded. From these data, the following variables were calculated for each
game:
Work density = rally time divided by rest time
Average shots per rally = total number of shots divided by total number of rallies in a game
Shots per rally time (shots·sec-1) = number of shots performed in the rally divided by duration of the
rally
Effective playing time (EPT, expressed in percent of the total time of playing in a game) = rally time
divided by rally + rest time expressed in percent
Besides time motion analysis, a hand notational analysis was done whereby frequency of all shot types
and unforced errors were measured from the recoded match. Each stroke-move was noted and categorised
into service, clear, drop shot, smash, net, lob, hit, block and whip. In addition, the unforced errors were also
analysed and divided into 3 types namely: in the net, out of court and misjudged. The purpose was to
compare the patterns of play between the two different scoring systems.
Calculations and statistics
All the analysis were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 14.0. Paired
T-tests (2-tailed) analysis was used to compare mean difference in each variable (rally time, rest time, work
density, set duration, game duration, average shots per rally, shots per rally time, effective playing time)
between the 21 point and 11 point / 15 point match play. Independent T-tests was used to compare the
variables between genders in the 21 points match play. Level of significance was accepted when p value was
less than 0.05 (p<0.05). Results were reported as mean ± standard deviation.
3. Results
Laboratory test
Peak values for blood lactate concentrations and heart rate obtained at exhaustion during VO
2
max test in
male players were 10.9 ± 2.5 mmol·L
-1
and 190.5 ± 6.2 beats·min
-1
respectively. Meanwhile in female
players, peak values for blood lactate concentrations and heart rate were 10.8 ± 1.6 mmol·L
-1
and 195.7 ± 7.2
beats·min
-1
respectively. Maximal oxygen uptake is presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Physical characteristics and physiological profiles of the subjects
Age
(years)
Height
(cm)
Weight
(kg)
BMI
(kg·m
-2
)
Percentage
Body Fat (%)
VO
2max
(ml·kg
-1
·min
-1
)
Males
(n = 8)
16.1 ± 0.8 167.1 ± 3.3 62.1 ± 9.2 22.2 ± 3.2 20.6 ± 3.9 47.1 ± 5.2
Females
(n = 8)
15.2 ± 1.3 157.4 ± 6.8 53.2 ± 7.5 21.5 ± 3.2 27.9 ± 4.8 39.8 ± 6.2
Data as means ± SD VO
2max
Maximal Oxygen Uptake
Experimental trials
Sixteen simulated matches were conducted in the Experimental Trial 1 and 2 whereby the players were
paired accordingly to their standard of play based on the recommendation of their coach. Eight matches (4
men’s singles and 4 women’s singles) were played in Trial 1 (21 points for both male and female players)
and the other eight matches were played in Trial 2 (15 points for the males and 11 points for the females).
During the trials, players were advised to play at their best, regardless 2 or 3 games. In Trial 1, only 1 male
and 3 female pairs played the 3
rd
game. However in Trial 2, only 1 male and 1 female pair played the 3
rd
game. Therefore, for statistical analysis, only the first 2 games were taken into consideration. The time
motion analysis of 16 badminton matches with 2 games each are tabulated in Table 2.
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International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering, 2 (2008) 4, pp 216-222
219
Table 2: Time motion analysis of 21 points and 15 points (11 points in female) between the paired badminton players in
the respective simulated match plays.
Male Female
Trial 1
(21 points)
Trial 2
(15 points)
Trial 1
(21 points)
Trial 2
(11 points)
Match duration (minutes) 17.27 ± 2.67 24.06 ± 2.38 17.14 ± 0.97 18.30 ± 6.09
Average game duration
(minutes)
8.64 ± 1.33 12.03 ± 1.19 8.57 ± 0.49 9.15 ± 3.04
Rally time (seconds) 4.62 ± 0.86 4.63 ± 0.49 4.16 ± 0.24 4.03 ± 0.59
Rest time (seconds) 9.71± 1.32 10.29 ± 1.42 10.53 ± 0.35 10.18 ± 1.51
Work density 0.48 ± 0.07 0.46 ± 0.07 0.40 ± 0.02 0.40 ± 0.01
Number of shots per
match
331.25 ± 44.74
*
463.5 ± 21.41 † 242.5 ± 8.96 275 ± 84.91
Number of rallies per
match
70.25 ± 1.26 97 ± 6.68 †† 70 ± 2.16 77.25 ± 23.92
Average shots per rally 4.74 ± 0.78 ** 4.77 ± 0.47 3.48 ± 0.10 3.58 ± 0.42
Shots per rally time (s
-1
) 1.03 ± 0.22 *** 1.03 ± 0.47 0.84 ± 0.31 0.89 ± 0.60
Effective playing time -
EPT (%)
32.22 ± 3.34 31.19 ± 3.32 28.30 ± 0.77 28.37 ± 0.31
Data are presented as means ± S.D.
† denotes a significant difference from male’s 21 points scoring system (p<0.05).
†† denotes a significant difference from male’s 21 points scoring system (p<0.01).
* denotes a significant difference from the females in the 21 points scoring system at p<0.05.
** denotes a significant difference from the females in the 21 points scoring system at p<0.01
*** denotes a significant difference from the females in the 21 points scoring system at p<0.001.
Meanwhile, for notational analysis; distributions of the various types of strokes and unforced errors of
the male and female players during the two experimental trials are shown Figure 1 and 2 respectively.
Figure 1: Distributions of various types of
strokes and unforced errors of the male
players during the two experimental trials
Figure 2: Distributions of various types of
strokes and unforced errors of the female
players during the two experimental trials
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Chee Lee Ming, et al: Time Motion and Notational Analysis of 21 Point and 15 Point Badminton Match Play
220
4. Discussion
Time motion analysis
Findings from the present study showed that there were no significant differences in time motion
between the two scoring systems except for number of shots and rallies in males’ match play. Even though
female players had a greater point difference (10 points) in the new scoring system compared to the male
counterparts, the time motion between the 2 scoring systems was not affected by this difference. Although
there were variations in the game duration in racket sports, a badminton match normally lasts between 20 to
90 minutes depending on the level between the players and number of sets played. In the present study, the
average of 2 games match duration was 17.2 ± 2.6 minutes and 24.0 ± 2.3 minutes in the 21 points and 15
points respectively. Therefore, the average match and game duration in the 15 points were slightly longer
than the 21 points in men’s singles match play. Female players, however, did not show any difference in the
21 and 11 point game and match duration.
Hughes (1995) suggested that elite players were expected to play considerably longer rallies at their level.
From the rally and rest times; work density or work:rest ratio was calculated. The present study found that
the work density in both scoring systems was approximately 0.5 (1:2) which appeared to be similar to the
values reported by Cabello and Gonzalez-Badillo (2003) and Faude et al. (2007). Although no statistical
significance was found, results from this research showed that match duration in 15 points (male) and 11
points (female) was longer than playing in the 21 points. However rally time, rest time and work density
were not affected in both trials.
The average number of shots in male’s 21 points and 15 points, and female’s 21 points and 11 points
match play were 331.25 ± 44.74, 463.5 ± 21.41, 242.5 ± 8.96, and 275 ± 84.91 respectively. At the same
time, number of rallies also varies between scoring systems and genders. Male players showed a significantly
higher number of rallies in the 15 points compared to 21 points match play (p<0.01). No differences were
found in the female counterparts. Average number of shots per rally in males’ match play was approximately
4.74 compared to 3.48 in female players. Male players showed significantly higher values in average shots
per rally and shots per rally time than female in the 21 points scoring system. This means that males played
more shots and at a faster pace than female players. However, Cabello and Gonzalez-Badillo (2003) and
Faude et al. (2007) observed higher average shots per rally with 6.06 ± 1.08 and 5.1 ± 3.9 respectively. The
discrepancies of the results might be influenced by the players’ style of play (Smekal et al., 2001).
Interestingly, in this study, it was seen that both shots per match and rallies per match were higher in 15
points (11 points in female) than in 21 points scoring system. These results also affects the game and match
duration, suggesting an increased metabolic demand in the 15 and 11 points system. In addition, the different
resting intervals between the 2 scoring systems (in 21 points, 60 seconds interval when one side reaches 11
points and 2 minute break between game; while in 15 points, 90 seconds interval between 1
st
and 2
nd
game
and 5 minutes interval between 2
nd
and 3
rd
set) would propose changes to the physiological response.
There was little variation in the shots per rally time between scoring systems in both genders. There were
1.03 ± 0.22 shots·s
-1
in men’s 21 points, 1.03 ± 0.47 shots·s
-1
in men’s 15 points, 0.84 ± 0.31 shots·s
-1
in
women’s 21 points and 0.89 ± 0.60 shots·s
-1
in women’s 11 points match play. The results were significantly
higher in men’s 21 points badminton match compared to the females. These data showed that males were
playing at a faster pace than females. The values obtained were similar to studies done by Liddle and
O’Donoghue (1998) whereby average shots per rally time in men and women’s singles match was 1.00 ±
0.04 shots·s
-1
and 0.86 ± 0.03 shots·s
-1
respectively.
Notational analysis
The play patterns were similar in the 21 points and 15 points (11 points in female) in both genders. In the
21 and 15 points men’s singles match play, lob was the most frequently used stroke followed by net, clear,
smash, drop shot, whip, block and lastly hit. In the females, however, clear was the most highly used stroke
followed by drop shot, lob, net, whip, smash and block in both scoring systems. Similar to the male players,
hit was the least stroke used in match play.
The male’s playing patterns were similar to studies done by Hong and Tong (2000) who performed a
notational analysis investigation into playing patterns of the world’s top singles badminton players in
competition and found that lob was the most popular shot followed by the smash, net and clear. They added
that majority of the shots were returned to the forecourt and it is also where the most “effective” shots were
returned, with the rear court producing the majority of “ineffective” shots. Liddle et al. (1996) observed that
54% of shots in the singles match play were overhead. Ghosh et al. (2002) reported that three most popular
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International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering, 2 (2008) 4, pp 216-222
221
strokes played in badminton were the over head smash, over head toss and over head drop. In the present
study, we found that clear, lob, drop shot and net were among the mostly used strokes in single’s match play.
The distributions in types of unforced errors in both genders were also found to be similar in the 21
points and 15 points (11 points in female) in the present study. The unforced error made most by the players
was the ‘in the net’. Male players made more errors by hitting the shuttle out of court compared to
‘misjudged’ errors. Female players, however, produced more ‘misjudged’ errors and followed by ‘out of
court’ errors.
Findings by Har (2007) showed that they were no significant differences between the number of
unforced error and types of strokes of winners and losers, and both players produced more unforced errors in
‘out of court’ followed by ‘in the net’ and ‘misjudged’. Evans (1998) reported that players showed an
increased number of errors when playing the clear compared to other shots while smash have a high winner-
to-error ratio. However, the probability of making mistakes differed by standard of play in players. Dobson
(2001) found that sub-elite players were shown to make a significantly higher percentage of errors than elite
players although patterns of play appear to be the same among them. A well planned game strategy could
lead to victory. Hong and Tong (2000) suggested that the most important strategy for producing a winning
performance was a pressure and attack game.
5. Conclusion
There was a significant difference in the time motion analysis between the 21 and 15 points men’s
singles badminton match play on the basis of total number of shots and number of rallies in a match. The
patterns of play which were analysed through notational analysis also remained unchanged in both scoring
systems. The male players played lesser shots and shorter rallies in the 21 points compared to 15 points
match. Due to intermittent nature of the game, players need to develop both the aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
The above information can help coaches to plan sports specific training programmes to improve aerobic and
anaerobic capacity. By understanding the play patterns, a coach should know what the most favoured shots
are and avoid the most commonly made mistakes, thus arrange strategy to obtain more points during game.
6. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Malaysian state level badminton players who
spent time to participate in this research with commitment, patience, and contribution throughout the data
collection process. The study was sponsored by Universiti Sains Malaysia (Grant No.: 304/PPSP/6131576)
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... Passé le cadre réglementaire, d'emblée, on note un contraste entre le foisonnement des recherches récentes sur la structure temporelle du match (Abia´n et al., 2014, Abian-vicen et al., 2013Cabello & Lees, 2004;Cabello Manrique & González-Badillo, 2003;Chen & Chen, 2008, 2011Faude et al., 2007;Ming, Keong, & Ghosh, 2008) et le peu d'ouvrages didactiques qui s'intéressent à la question du temps en raquette lors des vingt dernières années (Thibaut, 1993 ;Limouzin, 1998 ;Sève, 2000). ...
... Enfin, au plan de la performance, de nombreuses études récentes s'intéressent à la question du temps en sport de raquette et notamment en badminton (Abia´n et al., 2014, Abian-Vicen et al., 2013Cabello & Lees, 2004;Cabello Manrique & González-Badillo, 2003;Chen & Chen, 2008, 2011Faude et al., 2007;Ming, Keong, & Ghosh, 2008). ...
... et 24.1 sec. (Abian-Vicen et al., 2013;Cabello & Lees, 2004;Cabello Manrique & González-Badillo, 2003;Chen & Chen, 2008;Faude et al., 2007;Ming, Keong & Ghosh, 2008). Quant au temps de jeu effectif, il est De plus, ces données temporelles, descriptives, ne sont qu'à de rares exceptions près (Laffaye et al., 2015) reliées directement à la nature du point joué. ...
Article
Analyse de la dynamique temporelle d'un set en badminton en fonction de niveaux de pratique: réflexions sur les stratégies couramment proposées en EPS Résumé Dans la littérature en badminton, l'aspect spatial prime sur l'aspect temporel. Les études sur la structure temporelle sont exclusivement descriptives, relatives au haut niveau, et produisent des données génériques et adynamiques, comme si le rapport au temps était le même pour l'ensemble des joueurs et sur l'ensemble du match. Notre étude vise à montrer que le rythme du set se réorganise avec les mobiles du badiste. 50 sujets, classés dans les cinq étapes du curriculum conatif du joueur de badminton ont porté un accéléromètre lors d'un set filmé. Nos résultats, portant sur l'analyse des 1806 points joués, montrent que le rapport temps d'échange / temps de non-jeu n'augmente pas de manière linéaire avec l'expertise et que le différentiel entre la quantité de mouvement en jeu et pendant les phases de repos se réorganise d'étape en étape. Il y a donc des rythmes ou temporalités spécifiques en fonction des mobiles. Par ailleurs, au sein même de certaines étapes, on observe une variation de ces facteurs en fonction de l'évolution du rapport de force et / ou du moment du match pour les experts et les grands débutants. En pédagogie, c'est donc la spécificité du jeu qui devrait orienter le choix didactique entre jeu au temps / jeu au point afin d'envisager la temporalité de manière plus responsable. Mots clés : badminton, temporalité, quantité d'activité physique, conation, stratégie responsable 50 eJRIEPS 42 juillet 2017
... Before 2006, 3 games of 15 points were used to be played, but now it has changed to 3 games of 21 points in a match [8]. This triggered increased demand for scientific research on badminton due to changes in physical, technical and physiological conditions [9,10]. ...
Article
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Point difference in individual sports for performance or match analysis is a very niche area. The purpose of the present study was to compare the point difference between the winners and losers in three different phases of international badminton women's singles matches. The data were only restricted to the 2019 World Championship matches of the women's singles category for which the data of 105 games were used. The variables that were selected for analyzing the performance were maximum point difference and maximum consecutive points. The points for each game were divided into three different phases and accordingly the data were collected for all the games. In all the phases, the winners were found to be significantly (p < .05) ahead of the losers and the difference kept on increasing significantly over the phases with medium to large effect size. All the players who were ahead in the first phase of the game have won 70.47% of the matches. Similarly, players who were not ahead at any point of time in the first phase of the game, 75% had lost the game. Winners also had significantly (p < .05) higher consecutive points than the losers (ES = .65). On average, the winners were 6 points ahead of the losers in the second and the third phase of the game. In badminton, the first seven points are most crucial as they significantly increase the chances of winning. In this study, compared to the losers, winners kept on increasing the point difference in every phase. Whereas, in losers, the point difference reduced from phase 1 to phase 3. The results are helpful in enhancing the winning chances by tracking players' performance, developing strategies and tactics based on point difference.
... A successful badminton matchup will hold the opponent in spatial pressure to hit the badminton to the opponent's most disadvantageous area. e athlete widens the gap with the opponent when hitting the ball, inducing the opponent to create a large distance between the shots, making it impossible to return the ball in the next round, and at the same time consuming the opponent's physical strength [14,15]. A professional badminton player should learn to fully control the integration of space, time, and tactics. ...
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Human pose estimation is an important task in physical education, which can provide a valuable reference for teachers and students. We propose a human pose estimation method based on part affinity field. Firstly, the correlation of position information and orientation information between limb regions is maintained by part affinity field. Then the key points of limb pose are localized by part confidence map, and finally, the part affinity field is integrated to correlate all the acquired feature key points to obtain the human pose estimation. With the aid of computer vision technology, the students’ training movements can be compared with the standard movements. It enables the students to feel the standard movements and badminton hitting points more intuitively. In the experiment, we set up a comparison experiment to compare the teaching mode of the method in this paper with the traditional teaching mode. The experimental results prove that through the teaching mode of our method, students have more standard strokes, more smooth skill switching between badminton serves and strokes, and higher badminton stroke scores. At the same time, such a teaching system adds a lot of fun to the course and makes the students’ participation higher.
... Sports with a net (e.g., volleyball and tennis) feature the match based on rallies 4,5 , which consists of the time the ball remains in play between serve at any athlete or team make a point. ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare temporal indicators according to the type of set and final score difference. Twenty-five teams of male beach volleyball players (15 – 17 years old) competed in Brazilian School Championship, national stage. 21 matches, 42 sets, and 1374 rallies were observed. The variables analyzed were rally duration, rest time between rallies, total work time, total rest time, duration of the set, rest time : work time ratio, and the number of rallies. Time indicators were compared between the type of set (1st set Vs. 2nd set) and balance categories according to the difference in the final score (unbalanced, moderate balance, and balanced), using t-test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 1st and 2nd set, although a moderate effect was observed in total work time between sets. Moreover, the final score difference influences the duration of set, total work time, and total work-rest show a linear tendency between balanced levels. The temporal indicators do not seem to change concerning the type of set. However, there is a tendency for an increase in working time from the 1st to the 2nd set. Finally, the score influences the duration of the set, total work time, and total rest time, without modifying the effort : rest ratio.
... Research has widely described the statistical aspects of the temporal structure of badminton matches [1,3,4]: (i) the match duration is about 45-65 minutes; (ii) the average duration of a point is approximately nine seconds; (iii) the number of strokes per point is about [8][9][10]. Additionally, other studies have focused their attention on understanding the differences between these parameters when considering the context, such as gender, modalities, or situational variables (number of sets, intervals of play, quality of opponent, etc.) [5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
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The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to investigate the distribution of the strike positions of badminton players while quantifying the corresponding standard entropy and using an alternative metric (spatial entropy) related to winning and losing points and random positions; and (ii) to evaluate the standard entropy of the receiving positions. With the datasets of 259 badminton matches, we focused on the positions of players’ strokes and the outcome of each point. First, we identified those regions of the court from which hits were most likely to be struck. Second, we computed the standard entropy of stroke positions, and then the spatial entropy, which also considers the order and clustering of the hitting locations in a two-dimensional Euclidean space. Both entropy quantifiers revealed high uncertainty in the striking position; however, specific court locations (i.e., the four corners) are preferred over the rest. When the outcome of each point was taken into account, we observed that the hitting patterns with lower entropy were associated with higher probabilities of winning points. On the contrary, players striking from more random positions were more prone to losing the points.
... Although some difficulties were encountered while finding supportive literature related to the playing characteristics of men's doubles badminton athletes, the findings of this study appear to be similar in measurements to junior badminton athletes studied by Ming et al. In their research, Ming et al. [25] explained that junior badminton athletes often take drop shots and drive shots. When observed and compared, the findings in both studies actually differ. ...
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The primary aim of this study is to assess the VO2max and anthropometric characteristics of men’s double category; Next is to analyze match characteristics of men’s double category; and finally, to compare the heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentration calculated on-court with that obtained under laboratory conditions during an incremental test. 12 junior badminton players from Jaya Raya Badminton Club were enrolled as the subjects for this study. All participants were partnered up in 6 pairs (pair 1 to pair 6). During the first session (laboratory condition), VO2max was measured by using a velocity dependent ramp test (INCS) based on incremental protocols. During the second session (on-court condition), the participants played a simulated match on court. A total of 350 rallies were analyzed. Statistical analyses revealed that double junior men’s players hit the shuttlecock more often using drive shots techniques (466 shots). The ANOVA revealed significant differences regarding fB between pair 3 vs pair 6 (p=0.004), pair 4 vs pair 6 (p=0.030), and pair 5 vs pair 6 (p=0.023). For the lactate measures, ANOVA revealed significant main effects of time (p=0.001) and group (p=0.001). Furthermore, the significance of HR average among laboratory and on-court conditions was established with the help of an independent t-test. The study demonstrated that the physiological characteristics of Indonesian men’s double category are intermittent activities of high and low intensities, interspersed by short recovery periods. It was also discovered that the adrenergic strategy results in enhanced HR and lactate levels in the laboratory than on-court conditions.
... What makes badminton exciting and interesting is attributed by its fast playing rhythm and constant interaction by players between offensive and defensive shots throughout the match, constantly struggle throughout the game (El-Gizawy, 2015). Moreover, current 21-point system when compared to the old system (15-point in male, 11point in female) has displayed more aggressive strategy (greater intensity, faster speed of play and longer rally lengths) (Abian et al., 2014;Phomsoupha & Laffaye, 2015) thus these put emphasis on technical skill effectiveness of badminton shot to meet the demands of the current game (Ming et al., 2008). Performing various shots in badminton requires elegant and delicate techniques, which must be constructed and delivered through precise coordination and control (Glazier, 2017). ...
... Badminton is an overhead motion sport requiring rapid arm movements from a wide variety of postural positions, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation 1 and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes 2 . In badminton match, overhead is the most frequently performed stroke that takes up approximately 44.6% in men's singles 3 and approximately 57% in women's singles 4 . Overhead motion is unnatural and highly dynamic, often exceeds physiological range of movements of body joints, and shoulder acts as a vital segment that transfers energy from trunk and lower limbs 5 . ...
Conference Paper
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Shoulder is one of the most common sites of badminton injury. Identifying risk factors of shoulder pain could better prevent shoulder injury. The purpose of this study was to identify intensity and risk factors of shoulder pain in college badminton players. Basic parameters (age, badminton experience, training hours per day, training times per week, etc.), physical fitness (hand grip strength, finger floor distance (FFD), heel buttock distance (HBD), straight leg raising (SLR), shoulder flexibility, balance, general joint laxity, shoulder and trunk joint range of motion, etc.) and intensity of shoulder pain were investigated using medical check-up among 15 male university badminton players (aged 18-21). The results showed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and players with present shoulder pain had greater SLR degree, weaker balance ability and trunk right rotation deficit. Visual analog scale (VAS) showed moderate shoulder pain in both groups of players with present and previous shoulder pain (51.8 mm and 40.6 mm, respectively). Greater SLR, weak balance ability and asymmetric trunk rotation are risk factors of shoulder pain. Identifying players with specific risk factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury.
... ADMINTON is a non-contact racket sport requiring rapid arm movements from a wide variety of postural positions, with the shoulder in abduction/ER [1] and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes [2]. In badminton match, overhead is the most important stroke that is approximately 44.6% (17% clear, 13.8% smash and 13.8% drop), followed by 23.4% lob, 18.1% net and 13.9% others in men's singles [3] and approximately 57% (24.7% clear, 8.6% smash and 23.7% drop) followed by 15.1% lob, 15.1% net and 12.8% others in women's singles [4]. Due to these characteristics of badminton, injuries are occasionally caused. ...
Conference Paper
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Badminton is one type of racket sports that requires repetitive overhead motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes. These characteristics could be stressful for body regions that may cause badminton injuries. Regarding racket players including badminton players, there have not been any studies that have utilized medical checkup to evaluate epidemiology and mechanism of injuries. In addition, epidemiology of badminton injury in school age badminton players is unknown. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the badminton injuries, physical fitness parameters, and intensity of shoulder pain using medical checkup so that the mechanisms of shoulder injuries might be revealed. The second purpose of this study was to survey the distribution of badminton injuries in elementary school age players so that injury prevention can be implemented as early as possible. The results of this study revealed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and present shoulder pain players had smaller weight, greater shoulder external rotation (ER) gain, significantly thinner circumference of upper limbs and greater trunk extension. Identifying players with specific of these factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury. This study also shows that there are high incidences of knee, ankle, plantar, and shoulder injury or pain in elementary school age badminton players. Injury prevention program might be implemented for elementary school age players.
... clear, 13.8% smash and 13.8% drop) in all strokes of men's singles [4], and 57.0% (24.7% clear, 8.6% smash and 23.7% drop) in women's singles, respectively [4,5]. Th e forehand overhead stroke motion consists of four phases: preparation, acceleration, hit and follow-through. ...
Article
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This study aimed to adopt a teaching method using task analysis for badminton forehand overhead clear coaching experiment and evaluate the coaching effects. Sixty male participants (mean age: 14.6 years old) without badminton training experience were recruited. All the participants were assigned into two groups (30 participants in either group). Task analysis teaching method was applied in one group as task analysis group and conventional teaching method was applied in the other group as control group. Before the coaching experiment, there were no differences in physical fi tness and badminton level between the two groups. Motor skills were evaluated using phase performance score. Badminton forehand overhead clear skills were evaluated using shuttlecock landing performance score. After the experiment, motor skills (25.8 ± 1.3 vs. 51.8 ± 3.7, p < 0.01) and badminton forehand overhead clear skills (22.2 ± 2.4 vs. 54.0 ± 6.4, p < 0.01) in task analysis group improved signifi cantly. In control group, motor skills (25.2 ± 1.4 vs. 36.2 ± 2.8, p < 0.01) and badminton forehand overhead clear skills (23.2 ± 2.9 vs 50.8 ± 5.2, p < 0.01) also improved signifi cantly. Two-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the coaching effects of task analysis group were signifi cantly better than control group both of motor skills (51.8 ± 3.7 vs. 36.2 ± 2.8, p< 0.01) and badminton forehand overhead clear skills (54.0 ± 6.4 vs. 50.8 ± 5.2, p < 0.05). In conclusion, task analysis teaching method could boost badminton motor skill learning and develop motor skill abilities.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the demands of singles and doubles badminton through heart rate and time motion analysis. 10 elite male badminton players with a mean (± SD) age of 28.6 (± 3.5) years were initially tested in the laboratory to establish a maximum heart rate and predicted VO2 max. using the 20m Multi-Stage Fitness Test (Leger and Lambert, 1982). Their heart rates were then monitored during singles and doubles competition, with the length of match, time spent rallying/resting and shots per rally recorded. Maximum heart rate ranged from 182 to 205 bpm (mean 192.6 ± 7.5 bpm) and predicted VO2 max. ranged from 50.2 to 58.2 ml. kg.-1min.-1 (mean 54.5 ± 2.5 ml. kg-1 min.-1). No significant difference was noted for length of match, however mean heart rate as a percentage of maximum was significantly greater (p < 0.01) for singles (89%) than doubles (79%) as was peak heart rate (p< 0.01) being 98% and 91% of maximum for singles and doubles respectively. This would indicate that singles induces a greater training effect but that doubles falls well within the range specified for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness (ACSM, 1990). A notational analysis of one subject from the group, under competition conditions, was undertaken to attempt to provide a more detailed account of the demands placed on the singles and doubles player. These results are explained by a longer mean rally time during singles (p < 0.05) and a greater percentage of time spent above 90% H.R. max. (p < 0.01). Additional evidence from the notational analysis revealed that a greater distance was travelled with a higher average velocity during singles play. The movements and technical skills involved in badminton were classified into low, medium and high intensity activities, with a greater proportion of the singles match spent performing high and medium intensity activity. Both qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis have demonstrated that singles play is more physiologically demanding than doubles and therefore the two disciplines may require different training intensities.
Article
A methodology to assess work rate in competitive professional football was designed and validated. The technique required monitoring by observation the intensity and extent of discrete activities during match play and was found to have a measurement error of less than one percent. Performance was observed over 51 games. A complete match typically involved approximately nine hundred separate movement activities per player. The overall distance covered per game was observed to be a function of positional role, the greatest distance covered in outfield players being in mid fielders, the least in centre backs.
Article
The purpose of the study was to profile the playing patterns of the world's top badminton players in single competition games. A total of 10 matches including the matches from the second rounds, the quarterfinals, the semi-finals and the final from the 1996 Hong Kong Badminton Open Tournament were video taped. The videotapes were then notated frame-by-frame to analyse the players' strokes. The court was divided into 6 areas. The strokes were identified as 2 types of serves and 9 types of returns. Each stroke was classified into one of six categories of effectiveness. The notation found that the players played 2.3 games per match. Each game was played with 47.61 rallies and each rally contained 7.37 shots. The analysis profiled the percentage distribution of shots with respect to court-areas; the frequency with which the players used the different serves; the area the players returned the most shots to; a rank order of the different return shots; and the playing effectiveness in relation to each court-area. The study further identified the types of strokes used for killing shots and isolated the critical factors influencing winning or losing a match.
Article
Notation analysis can enhance the coaching process, and can provide information for virtually all decisions made with respect to long term and short term strategies, training, selection and scouting for talent. This applies to analysis of movement, actions and skills of individuals and teams.Notation systems in sport developed rapidly from racket games to team sports. Initially all systems were manual. The development and growth in power and sophistication, together with a decrease in cost, of the micro-computer in the early 1980s has enabled sports analysts to use this tool to simplify data handling. Far greater amounts of data can now be handled, processed and analysed in a fraction of the time taken previously.Computerized systems, for analysing team games, from Canada and Britain are described. Applications to association football, hockey, Rugby Union and American football have provided insights into successful patterns of play in these games. Recent work, in both these countries, gives a clear indication of likely trends in sport notation systems, given the pace of developments within the microelectronics industry. These may be extended to include applications to areas outside sport.
Article
The International Badminton Federation (IBF) recently introduced some rule changes to make the game faster and more entertaining. These affect how players score points and win games: the number of points per game is increased for all matches; players can score on their opponents' serves; doubles pairs only have one serve rather than two; setting is replaced by a bounded two-point advantage. We assess the overall fairness and discriminatory ability of both systems by applying combinatorial, probabilistic and simulation methods to extrapolate known probabilities of winning individual rallies into probabilities of winning games and then matches. We also measure how well the rule changes meet the IBF's aspirations by comparing the numbers of rallies per game and the scoring patterns within each game under both sets of rules. We then relax the above model assumptions by considering frequentist methods for estimating the probability that a singles player or doubles pair will win an individual rally, as this parameter is always unknown in practice. For demonstrating our results, we use actual performance data from the 2006 Commonwealth Games to assess and compare the two scoring systems – did all the right players win? Finally, we resolve the difficulties of parameter estimation by developing subjective Bayesian methods for specifying the probabilities of winning individual rallies. We then describe how to propagate this information with observed data to determine posterior predictive distributions for match outcomes, so enabling us to predict match outcomes for given scenarios before and during play.