Effectiveness and clinical applicability of integrated rehabilitation programs for knee osteoarthritis
Knee osteoarthritis is a common and increasing cause of pain and disability. Exercise and self-management interventions reduce pain and improve function. These interventions are usually delivered separately but, theoretically, the benefits of the physical approach of exercise and the educational approach of self-management interventions could be additive. If correct, rehabilitation programmes that integrate exercise and self-management components might be more effective. This review summarizes and comments on the clinical effectiveness, practicality, cost and implementation of recent studies of integrated rehabilitation programmes. The programmes varied considerably in content and duration, but in general were safe and effective (improving pain, physical function and other relevant variables). The length, complexity and burden of some programmes limit their acceptability, clinical applicability and increase costs. The most recent programmes have addressed these issues producing programmes that are more clinically and cost-effective than usual care. Implementation of these programmes will require considerable effort and commitment. Integrated rehabilitation programmes that are acceptable, clinically effective, deliverable and affordable may be the best way of managing the large and increasing number of people suffering chronic knee pain.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Persistent knee pain in people over 50 years of age is often attributable to knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint condition that causes physical and psychological dysfunction. Exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST) can help reduce the impact of persistent knee pain, however, access to health professionals who deliver these services can be challenging. With increasing access to the Internet, remotely delivered Internet-based treatment approaches may provide alternatives for healthcare delivery. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate whether an Internet-delivered intervention that combines PCST and physiotherapist-guided exercise (PCST + Ex) is more effective than online educational material (educational control) in people with persistent knee pain. Methods/design: We will recruit 148 people over 50 years of age with self-reported persistent knee pain consistent with knee OA from the Australian community. Following completion of baseline questionnaires, participants will be randomly allocated to access a 3-month intervention of either (i) online educational material, or (ii) the same online material plus an 8-module (once per week) Internet-based PCST program and seven Internet-delivered physiotherapy sessions with a home exercise programs to be performed 3 times per week. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3 months and 9 months with the primary time point at 3 months. Primary outcomes are average knee pain on walking (11-point numeric rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale). Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, health-related quality-of-life, perceived global change in symptoms, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts and pain catastrophising. Other measures of adherence, adverse events, harms, use of health services/co-interventions, and process measures including appropriateness and satisfaction of the intervention, will be collected at 3, 6 and 9 months. Discussion: The findings will help determine the effectiveness and acceptability of Internet access to a combination of interventions that are known to be beneficial to people with persistent knee pain. This study has the potential to guide clinical practice towards innovative modes of healthcare provision. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12614000243617.0Comments 1Citation
- "Cognitive behavioural therapy is the most frequently studied psychological intervention for pain control in individuals with arthritis  . Growing evidence supports the use of pain coping skills training (PCST), an approach based on cognitive behavioural principles, to improve pain and psychological functioning in chronic pain conditions212223. More recent evidence shows that PCST combined with exercise, delivered by specially trained physiotherapists, is effective in people with knee pain due to knee OA . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the health beliefs, experiences, treatment and expectations of people with chronic knee pain, and investigate if, how and why these change after taking part on an integrated exercise-based rehabilitation programme--Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritis knee Pain through Exercise, ESCAPE-knee pain. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with chronic knee pain, before (n=29) and after (n=23) participation on the programme. Thematic analysis was used to document people's baseline health beliefs, attitudes and cognitions, and to see if how and why these changed after completing the programme. Initially people had poor understanding and negative, fatalistic beliefs about the management or prognosis for knee pain. Following the programme the majority of participants had positive experiences describing improvement in pain, physical and psychosocial functioning, greater knowledge and understanding of their condition and treatment options, and in their ability to use exercise to control symptoms. Beliefs about the causation and prognosis of knee pain were unchanged, but their concerns about possible dangers of exercise had decreased, they appreciated how exercise could reduce symptoms (treatment beliefs) and their confidence in their ability to use exercise to effect improvements (exercise self-efficacy) increased. These improvements were attributed to the content and structure of the programme, and the care and guidance of the physiotherapist. Several expressed a need for on-going support. ESCAPE-knee pain appears to achieve improvements by increasing people's treatment belief in safety and the utility of exercise to control symptoms, rather than alteration in their beliefs about causation or prognosis. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94658828.0Comments 35Citations
- "In fact, self-management programmes11121314 and exercise [15,16] improve physical and psychosocial health and wellbeing. These interventions are usually delivered separately, but integrating self-management strategies with active participation on an exercise regimen might enhance the separate effects [17,18]. We devised a rehabilitation programme, Enabling Selfmanagement and Coping with Arthritic knee pain through Exercise (ESCAPE-knee pain), that integrates an exercise regimen with education and teaches participants simple coping and self-management strategies and skills. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic knee pain is a major cause of disability in the elderly. Management guidelines recommend exercise and self-management interventions as effective treatments. The authors previously described a rehabilitation programme integrating exercise and self-management [Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritic knee Pain through Exercise (ESCAPE-knee pain)] that produced short-term improvements in pain and physical function, but sustaining these improvements is difficult. Moreover, the programme is untried in clinical environments, where it would ultimately be delivered. To establish the feasibility of ESCAPE-knee pain and compare its clinical effectiveness and costs with outpatient physiotherapy. Pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department and community centre. Sixty-four people with chronic knee pain. Outpatient physiotherapy compared with ESCAPE-knee pain. The primary outcome was physical function assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Secondary outcomes included pain, objective functional performance, anxiety, depression, exercise-related health beliefs and healthcare utilisation. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 months after completing the interventions (primary endpoint). ANCOVA investigated between-group differences. Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in clinical outcomes. Outpatient physiotherapy cost pound 130 per person and the healthcare utilisation costs of participants over 1 year were pound 583. The ESCAPE-knee pain programme cost pound 64 per person and the healthcare utilisation costs of participants over 1 year were pound 320. ESCAPE-knee pain can be delivered as a community-based integrated rehabilitation programme for people with chronic knee pain. Both ESCAPE-knee pain and outpatient physiotherapy produced sustained physical and psychosocial benefits, but ESCAPE-knee pain cost less and was more cost-effective.0Comments 39Citations
- "In addition, self-management skills could improve adherence to regular exercise and sustain the benefits . Unfortunately, most integrated rehabilitation programmes are long, complex and expensive, and consequently have limited clinical application [23,24]. To address these issues, an integrated rehabilitation programme entitled 'Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritic knee Pain through Exercise' (ESCAPE-knee pain) was devised. "