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Braking Performance of Experienced and Novice Motorcycle Riders - Results of a Field Study

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Motorcycle riding becomes more and more popular. Since beginning of the 1990s the number of registered motorcycles rose by almost 200% in Austria. Restrictive measures for novice motorcycle drivers could prevent a significant increase of accident numbers. But still, motorcycle riding is seven times more dangerous than car driving. While development and introduction of new passive and active safety features makes car driving safer, powered two wheelers (PTWs) still show increasing numbers of accidents, deaths and injuries. It is assumed that poor braking performance of motorcycle drivers is one of the predominant reasons. Trucks have to be fitted with ABS for many years, most passenger cars on the market have ABS as standard equipment. But most of the mopeds and motorcycles still are delivered with the same braking technology like 100 years ago: Two independent braking devices with two handles. Recent studies found that braking performance of motorcycle drivers stays far behind the capabilities of their vehicles which are better than - or at least equal to - those of passenger cars. It is supposed that ABS is the most effective solution to encounter this fact and its underlying psychological reasons. A field study has been carried out including almost 800 brake test rides in total. A device for measuring deceleration - without the need for any modification on the vehicles used - was developed. The braking performance of 134 experienced motorcycle riders has been compared between test rides with their own vehicles and brake tests with an ABS-equipped motorcycle. 47 trainees were tested with the motorcycle they used during the training and compared with deceleration when braking with an ABS-equipped scooter. All the results were evaluated with respect to personal data of the participants, e.g. age, driving experience and attitudes. Finally, an epidemiological analysis of motorcycle accidents has shown that ABS would be effective in reducing PTW accident numbers.
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... In order to determine minimum SSD, AASHTO has recommended the use of a reaction time of 1 s and a deceleration rate of 3.4 m/s 2 [8,9], whereby when confronted with the need to suddenly stop a vehicle, most drivers can decelerate at a rate greater than 4.5 m/s 2 [10], such as 6 m/s 2 [5] or even 7.72 m/s² [11]. In addition, their reaction time could be less than 1 s, e.g. ...
... In unexpected situations, riders will apply hard braking instantly. Furthermore, previous studies found that motorcyclists can increase their braking capability depending on the type of brakes, the braking system, and the road condition [11,15]. ...
... Furthermore, Winkelbauer and Vavryn [11] found that non-ABS motorcyclists' maximum braking capability in expected situationw for a running speed of 60 km/h is 8.15 m/s² (mean 5.65, minimum 2.07, standard deviation 1.12), while ABS hard braking is 9.85 m/s² (mean 7.72). Both are greater than the required deceleration rate needed to avoid serious injury, i.e. 6 m/s² [5]. ...
Article
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Thus far, minimum stopping sight distance (SSD) is determined based on design speed, a minimum reaction time of 1.64 s and a deceleration rate of 3.4 m/s², whereas in certain situations the latter can be shorter than 1 s and higher than 4.5 m/s². Awareness of this can trigger speculative behavior, as can be seen from the choice of speed and/or the critical crossing gap, which is often smaller than the recommended minimum SSD. This study focused on the development of an appropriate minimum SSD model that is suited to risky conditions at an un-signalized intersection and its possible usage in accident risk evaluation, particularly for motorcyclists. The data were taken from direct measurements and related studies. Variables that potentially influence minimum SSD were tested. The results strongly suggest that the speed reduction achieved by downshifting significantly influences both the braking distance and the impact speed. Moreover, the minimum SSD obtained from the proposed model significantly differs from that obtained from a similar model recommended by AASHTO. Therefore, it is worthwhile to consider the application of the proposed minimum SSD as an accident probability indicator parameter.
... Accordingly, from the result of braking manoeuvre test it was found that for a speed choice of 40-75 km/h, level 60-67 SRV pavement condition, the obtained hard braking capability could be classified into below average, moderate and above average categories, i.e. around 3.9 m/s², 6.57 m/s² and 10.7 m/s² respectively. The below average braking deceleration rate is greater than AASHTO's recommendation, i.e. 3.4 m/s² [4], whilst the average one is similar with some previous concerned studies, i.e. 5.65 m/s² [13] and 6.6 m/s² [14]. Interestingly, the above average braking deceleration rate of 10.7 m/s², which could be achieved by 24 % or participant, is greater than both ABS motorcycle and passenger car braking deceleration rates, i.e. 7.72 m/s² [13] or 7.8 m/s² and 10 m/s² [14] respectively. ...
... The below average braking deceleration rate is greater than AASHTO's recommendation, i.e. 3.4 m/s² [4], whilst the average one is similar with some previous concerned studies, i.e. 5.65 m/s² [13] and 6.6 m/s² [14]. Interestingly, the above average braking deceleration rate of 10.7 m/s², which could be achieved by 24 % or participant, is greater than both ABS motorcycle and passenger car braking deceleration rates, i.e. 7.72 m/s² [13] or 7.8 m/s² and 10 m/s² [14] respectively. It strongly indicates that accident probability and its potential consequence are much influenced by riders braking capability. ...
... Moreover, from the MS value it could be inferred that riders in below average and moderate braking capabilities should increase their braking ability by up to 63.55 % and 35.89 % respectively. Such increasing values could be achieved because some previous concerned studies reported that it could be improved by using rear and front brakes consecutively and/or concurrently [16], where novice rider could increase their braking capability by 2.07 m/s² [13]. ...
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The increasing of traffic sign and/or light violations is a commonly views in many countries. Even it was occurred intentionally which indicates that drivers accept its possible consequences. The constant fatality index of motorcyclist strongly indicates that determinant variables behind their risky behaviour and/or accident involvement should be further investigated and managed systematically. Accordingly, this paper focuses on motorcyclist accident risk management, particularly at un-signalized segment, by combining the aggregated-individual and expert expectancy approaches. Therefore a questionnaire and braking manoeuver test were undertaken at closed circuit course. The result shows that speeding behaviour was caused by trip purpose and triggered by perception about their braking and hazard detection abilities. In addition, only 24 % of 56 % of riders who believed that their braking capability was above average could apply high braking capability so that most riders might involve in crash due to the average critical crossing gap choice at the monitored intersection. This explains that their speed choice should be deal with their braking capability. However, the overlay policy at the monitored intersection indicates that the unbalanced between mobility and safety still to be a latent issue, which virtually could be bridged by using a standardized braking capability.
... Furthermore, since previous study [15] has found that novice rider could increase their braking capability by up to 2.07 m/s² through a short time period of braking manoeuvre training, it is thought that the increased braking capability could trigger speeding behaviour, due to a decreasing in the distance that can be shortened due to the differences in braking capabilities. That is why this paper uses the ratio of available SSD and minimum SSD [9], similar to the ratio of sight distance to stopping distance [13], to be the accident probability indicator, referred to as a safety factor. ...
... Therefore, they need a little more time to practice it before reparticipate in the braking manoeuvre test. This scenario was conducted based on the findings of previous studies [7,15] which reported that braking capability could be increased technically. It may well also being influenced by their steering control capability or level of courage (consider not to fall during the braking manoeuvre). ...
... This phenomenon indicates that there is a margin of safety which could be used as an accident risk tolerance criterion. Accordingly, since braking capability could also greater than 4.5 m/s², such as 6 m/s² [11] or 7,72 m/s² [15] and even 9.7 m/s² [23], accident risk criteria should also be considered based on various riders braking capabilities. ...
Article
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Negative perceptions about accident are usually associated with speeding behavior. However, risk perception has not been considered in accident risk management. It is accepted as a personality matter, thus the number of accidents per year was used as accident risk tolerance indicator. Consequently, due to insufficient measurable indicators, it would be difficult to prevent the increasing speeding behavior. This paper discusses the improvement of accident risk tolerance indicators, i.e. safety factor and margin of safety, and their possible usage in speed management policies. These indicators were built based on the correlation between the results of interview and braking maneuver test. From this combine approach, using aggregated-individual and expert acceptance models, it was found that risk tolerance arose because motorcyclists accepted both the advantages and disadvantages gained from speeding, obtained through their riding frequency, duration of riding and/or accident involvement experienced. However, inappropriate speed due to miss-perception toward braking capability should be avoided. Inversely, an appropriate speed management should consider their travelling expectation
... 2.12). The mean braking deceleration rate, virtually, similar with previous studies' report, i.e., around 5,65 m/s² [10], 6.6 m/s² [11] and 9.8 m/s² [12]. This phenomenon strongly indicates that such perception could be wrong. ...
... The improvement of hard braking capability could be increased systematically by using rear and front brake concurrently and/or consecutively [9], where an increasing of braking deceleration rate of 2.07 m/s² could be achieved by novice rider through short time braking maneuver training [10]. The higher the braking ability, the shorter the produced stopping distance [11] so that riders with standardized braking capability have bigger opportunity to be avoided from accident and even when being involved in accident, they still have the bigger possibility to be avoided from fatal crash because according to [17] stopping distance has an inverse relationship with braking ability, exponentially. ...
... 2.12). The mean braking deceleration rate, virtually, similar with previous studies' report, i.e., around 5,65 m/s² [10], 6.6 m/s² [11] and 9.8 m/s² [12]. This phenomenon strongly indicates that such perception could be wrong. ...
... The improvement of hard braking capability could be increased systematically by using rear and front brake concurrently and/or consecutively [9], where an increasing of braking deceleration rate of 2.07 m/s² could be achieved by novice rider through short time braking maneuver training [10]. The higher the braking ability, the shorter the produced stopping distance [11] so that riders with standardized braking capability have bigger opportunity to be avoided from accident and even when being involved in accident, they still have the bigger possibility to be avoided from fatal crash because according to [17] stopping distance has an inverse relationship with braking ability, exponentially. ...
Conference Paper
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Unbalanced in mobility and safety is a latent issue because although speeding has been associated with fatal crash but excessive speed without having been punished still occurs. This study focuses on how to bridge it by identifying the reason, triggering variables and explanatory variables of speeding behavior comprehensively. A number 159 of participants which is the same monitored motorcyclist participated in braking maneuver test was successfully interviewed. Their answer was analyzed using structural equation model. The results showed that: 1) speed choice was caused by trip purpose and triggered by rider's perception about their braking and hazard detection ability, and level of familiarity with road, traffic and vehicle characteristics as well 2) such perception was built due to their riding frequency, meanwhile, that the age does not influence it is an interesting issue because it indicates that speeding behavior is customary to be a commonly matter. Moreover, speeding is an intentional risk taking behavior as riders accepted both potential advantages and possible disadvantages gained from speeding. Therefore, the required speed management, rider's perception improvement, and the consequential implication due to the result of this study was discussed, including how to intervene such perception based on education, engineering and enforcement approaches.
... strengthened by consistent findings across all these types of studies. Test-track evaluations have shown that ABS improves braking performance of both novice and experienced riders (Vavryn & Winkelbauer, 2004) and in a variety of situations (Gail et al., 2009;Green, 2006). Braking decelerations were higher and stopping distances were shorter, and typically fewer trials were required to achieve the best result with ABS. Green (2006) noted that riders without substantial experience or skill were able to achieve high levels of braking performance using motorcycles equipped with ABS. ...
Article
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Introduction: Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during hard braking and have been shown to reduce motorcyclists’ crash risk. ABS has proliferated in the United States fleet, and the objective of the current study was to update the effectiveness estimate for ABS with additional years of data and a broader variety of motorcycle types. Methods: Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years during 2003–19 were examined for 65 motorcycle models offering ABS as an optional feature. Fatal crash rates for motorcycles with ABS were compared with rates for the same models without it. Results: ABS was associated with a statistically significant 22% reduction in motorcycle driver fatal crash involvements per 10,000 registered vehicle years. Conclusion: This finding adds to the growing literature demonstrating the safety benefits of motorcycle ABS.
... Informasi yang benar tentang faktor penyebab, pemicu dan penjelas tersebut dapat dijadikan dasar pengelolaan situasi berisiko di jalan. Di sisi lain, peningkatan kemampuan pengereman pengemudi sangat mungkin dilakukan karena sejumlah peneliti terdahulu (Bartlett et al., 2007;Winkelbauer and Vavryn, 2015) telah melaporkan bahwa hal tersebut dapat ditingkatkan hingga 2,9 m/det 2 hanya dalam waktu pelatihan yang relatif singkat; yang antara lain difokuskan pada aspek cara penggunaan rem depan dan rem belakang, baik secara bersamaan maupun berurutan. ...
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Pilihan kecepatan yang tidak sesuai sudah terbukti menjadi faktor utama penyebab kecelakaan lalu lintas, terutama pada segmen jalan berisiko seperti simpang tak bersinyal, jalan menurun dan lainnya. Sejumlah penelitian terdahulu telah melaporkan bahwa peluang kecelakaan pengendara sepeda motor di persimpangan prioritas dipengaruhi oleh tidak saja pilihan kecepatan saat memasuki area persimpangan dan kemampuan pengereman pengendara arus mayor namun juga pilihan celah penyeberangan kritis pengedara jalan minor. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menentukan peluang kecelakaan tipe tabrak belakang kendaraan yang berjalan beriringan di jalan mayor akibat pilihan celah penyeberangan kritis pengendara jalan minor. Untuk itu survei kecepatan dan jarak antar kendaraan serta celah penyeberangan kritis dilakukan dengan menggunakan kamera video. Selanjutnya, peluang kecelakaan tipe tabrak belakang disimulasikan berdasarkan perbedaan kemampuan pengereman pengendara sepeda motor yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian terkait terdahulu. Diketahui bahwa hampir tidak terdapat perbedaan kecepatan antara kendaraan yang berjalan beriringan sehingga dari hasil simulasi terindikasi kuat bahwa peluang tabrak belakang sangat ditentukan oleh perbedaan kemampuan pengereman pengendara. Hal itu berarti bahwa diperlukan upaya terstruktur dan sistematis untuk memperbaiki kemampuan pengereman pengemudi dan perilaku berkeselamatan di jalan.
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Hanoi City is a typical motorcycle dominant city in Vietnam with a modal share of motorcycles of more than 80% and motorcycle riders involved in more than 70% of road fatalities. It is important to understand the major causes of motorcycle crash severity to suggest effective countermeasures. There have been studies elsewhere examining factors related to small-displacement motorcycle crash severity, but work in Vietnam is scarce. This study uses ordinal logistic regression to investigate contributory factors to the odds of severe crashes involving motorcycle riders. A distinction is made between crashes where motorcyclists are involved as the second party (i.e., as victims of the crash) on the one hand and as the first party (i.e., as the person responsible for causing the crash) on the other hand. Results show that age and gender of the first party person, size of the vehicle collided with, and presence of a pillion passenger significantly contribute to the severity of crashes in which motorcyclists are involved as the second party. Significant factors to the severity of crashes in which motorcyclists are involved as the first party are age, time of the crash, road class, size of the second party vehicle, pillion passenger presence, and riding speed. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of fatal crashes with small-displacement motorcycles in a developing city. This study helps to identify countermeasures to improve road safety of small-displacement motorcycle riders.
Article
Introduction: Motorcyclists are particularly at risk of being injured when involved in a road traffic accident. To avoid such crashes, emergency braking and/or swerving maneuvers are frequently performed. The recent development of dynamic motorcycle simulators may allow to study the influences of various disturbance factors such as sleep deprivation (SD) and time-of-day (TOD) in safe conditions. Methods: Twelve young healthy males took part in 8 tests sessions at 06:00 h, 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h after a night with or without sleep, in a random order. Participants had to perform an emergency braking and a swerving maneuver, both realized at 20 and 40 kph on a motorcycle dynamic simulator. For each task, the total distance/time necessary to perform the maneuver was recorded. Additional analysis was conducted on reaction and execution distance/time (considered as explanatory variables). Results: Both crash avoidance maneuvers (emergency braking and swerving) were affected by increased speed, resulting in longer time and distance at 40 kph than at 20 kph. Emergency braking was mainly influenced by sleep deprivation, which significantly increased the total distance necessary to stop at 40 kph (+1.57 m; + 20%; p < 0.01). These impaired performances can be linked to an increase in reaction time (+21%; p < 0.01). Considering the swerving maneuver, TOD and SD influences remained limited. TOD only influenced the reaction time/distance measured at 40 kph with poorer performance in the early morning (+30% at 06:00 h vs 18:00 h; p < 0.05). Discussion: Our results confirm that crash avoidance capabilities of young motorcyclists were influenced by the lack of sleep, mainly because of increased reaction times. More complex tasks (swerving maneuver) remained mostly unchanged in this paradigm. Practical Applications: Prevention campaigns should focus on the dangers of motorcycling while sleepy. Motorcycling simulators can be used to sensitize safely with sleep deprivation and time-of-day influences.
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Although right turning movement frequency due to exiting-entering vehicles from or to the social-economic area, particularly located nearby an intersection, could influence travel delay and/or vehicle queuing but it has not been considered when determining both the roadway and intersection capacity and performance. Consequently, they may not describe the actual problems occurred there. Accordingly, this paper investigates it by describing risky situation occurred at two un-signalized intersections which consist of similar traffic and roadway situation. Effect of the right turning frequency to the degree of saturation, delay time and accident risk then was discussed. It was found that the level of side friction were in the low-level categories so that theoretically it does not affect the travel speed and/or degree of saturation. However, the obtained delay time was around 40 s so that it triggers riders to increase their approaching speed to avoid delay which in turn increases accident risk because at the same time the opposite riders insist on crossing the major stream with average critical gap acceptance of 20 m. This strongly indicates that the right turning movement should be considered when determining road performance, urban speed limit, and traffic impact analysis
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This Report is based on the practical experiments carried out within the Frame of a master theses by Rainer Ruspekhofer. 184 subjects moved on an instumented motorcycle along a defined route on a test track. Above the speedometer, a red light was mounted. Subjects were asked to stop the vehicle whens the red light turned on as soon as they could without falling. Reaction time was measured for both front an rear wheel as well as decelereations, using a particularly adapted UDS black box by Mannesmann Kienzle. The reports Displays the results by personal cahracteristics of the riders.
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