Alcohol Craving Scale Based on Three Factors
Psychiatry Service, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. European Addiction Research
(Impact Factor: 2.1).
04/2009; 15(3):135-42. DOI: 10.1159/000210043
Alcohol craving is a central aspect of alcoholism about which various explanatory theories and assessment questionnaires, based on such craving, have been developed. However, there are no instruments for the assessment of craving in line with the integrative hypotheses recently formulated that propose three types of craving: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and loss of control.
The construction and validation of a craving scale based on three factors. We expect to obtain a correlation between each factor and associated variables from prior studies. We also expect significant differences in craving between alcoholic individuals and controls.
The scale was administered to 209 alcohol-dependent subjects and 137 controls.
Alcohol Craving Scale Based on Three Factors (ACS-3F); Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale.
We confirmed the existence of the three factors initially proposed in the structure of the instrument, with high reliability. The relationship between the scale and the measures employed for its validation was confirmed. Adequate capacity of the scale to discriminate between the sample of alcoholics and the controls was observed.
The ACS-3F has adequate psychometric properties and may be useful in future research and in clinical practice.
Available from: Antonio Cándido
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ABSTRACT: This study addresses, from theories of associative learning, the impulsivity and craving in patients with a diagnosis of substance dependence in abstinence, habitual use and relapse. We present a new method for the assessment of desire based on discount curve self description, in which patients describe how they perceive the temporal evolution and intensity of their desire. At the same time, through a brief questionnaire about emotion and desire -developed by the authors-and the Plutchik Impulsivity Scale, we set out to check whether positive or negative emotions increase, decrease, or are uninvolved in changes of desire and impulsivity. Perception of the evolution of desire in patients from the Relapse and Habitual Use groups is similar and presents a hyperbolic curve, but the Relapse group presented greater impulsivity. Moreover, a relationship is found in patients from the Relapse group between the hyperbolic increase of desire, the pleasurable states and impulsivity. The higher scores on impulsivity and the hyperbolic evolution of desire in patients who have recently suffered a relapse indicate the need to consider and specifically address these aspects as relevant to psychotherapy and/or pharmacological therapy.
Available from: Ginés Juan Cano Cervantes
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ABSTRACT: En este estudio se aborda desde las teorías del aprendizaje, el rol de la impulsividad y el deseo de consumo en pacientes con diagnóstico de dependencia de sustancias en abstinencia, consumo habitual y recaída. Para ello, se presenta un nuevo método de valoración del deseo basado en las �curvas de descuento�, en el que los pacientes deben describir como perciben la evolución temporal e intensidad de su deseo. Al mismo tiempo, a través de un breve cuestionario sobre emoción y deseo elaborado por los autores y de la Escala de Impulsividad de Plutchik, se pretende comprobar si las emociones positivas o negativas aumentan, disminuyen o no están implicadas en los cambios de deseo e impulsividad. La percepción de la evolución del deseo de los pacientes pertenecientes a los grupos Recaída y Consumo Habitual es similar y presenta una forma hiperbólica, sin embargo, el grupo Recaída presentaba una mayor impulsividad. Además, se halla relación en pacientes de este grupo Recaída entre incremento del deseo de forma hiperbólica, estados placenteros e impulsividad. La mayor puntuación en impulsividad y la evolución hiperbólica del deseo en pacientes que han sufrido recientemente una recaída muestra la necesidad de tener en cuenta y tratar específicamente estos aspectos como relevantes en terapia psicológica y/o farmacológica.
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ABSTRACT: Cocaine has become a noticeable part of the European drug scene and is the second most commonly used illicit drug among the general population. Craving is a core issue in cocaine dependence and is strongly associated with lapse and/or relapse. However, no craving scale exists in French. The objective of our study was to assess the reliability and validity of a French language version of the 10-item Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief (CCQ-Brief).
A total of 131 individuals ranging in age from 18 to 65 years were enrolled in a 12-month outpatient treatment program in 2009. The participants were seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. They completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the French version of the CCQ-Brief. At the end of the interview, a Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS) was completed by a clinician blind to the subject's treatment group. We evaluated the internal consistency of the French CCQ-Brief using Cronbach's α coefficient and the correlation of each item with the total scale using the Pearson's coefficient. We conducted an exploratory factorial analysis followed by a scree test. Only items with factor loading >0.3 were retained. The convergent validity of the French CCQ-Brief was assessed using Pearson's correlation between the CCQ-Brief and the CGIS.
The mean (SD) score of the 10-item CCQ-Brief was 3.4 (1.5). Cronbach's α coefficient 0.88 and remained high even when an item was deleted (ranging from 0.86 to 0.88), indicating that this tool possesses a high internal consistency. Each item exhibited a strong correlation with the total score ranging from 0.62 to 0.83. All items presented factor loadings ranged from 0.47 to 0.83. The correlation between the CCQ-Brief and the CGIS was high (r=0.49, p<0.0001), indicating a sufficient convergent validity.
The French version of the CCQ-Brief is a reliable and valid instrument that can provide a comprehensive assessment of cocaine craving in treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients.
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