Sequence-specific physical properties of African green monkey alpha-satellite DNA contribute to centromeric heterochromatin formation
Department Biophysical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology and Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. m.bussiek@utwente. Journal of Structural Biology
(Impact Factor: 3.23).
04/2009; 167(1):36-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsb.2009.03.010
Satellite DNA, a major component of eukaryotic centromeric heterochromatin, is potentially associated with the processes ensuring the faithful segregation of the genetic material during cell division. Structural properties of alpha-satellite DNA (AS) from African green monkey (AGM) were studied. Atomic force microscopy imaging showed smaller end-to-end distances of AS fragments than would be expected for the persistence length of random sequence DNA. The apparent persistence length of the AS was determined as 35nm. Gel-electrophoresis indicated only a weak contribution of intrinsic curvature to the DNA conformations suggesting an additional contribution of an elevated bending flexibility to the reduced end-to-end distances. Next, the force-extension behavior of the naked AS and in complex with nucleosomes was studied using optical tweezers. The naked AS showed a reduced overstretching transition force (-18% the value determined for random DNA) and higher forces required to straighten the DNA. Finally, reconstituted AS nucleosomes disrupted at significantly higher forces as compared with random DNA nucleosomes which is probably due to structural properties of the AS which stabilize the nucleosomes. The data support that the AS plays a role in the formation of centromeric heterochromatin due to specific structural properties and suggest that a relatively higher mechanical stability of nucleosomes is important in AGM-AS chromatin.
Available from: plosone.org
- "Examples are found in man ,  and plants . Satellites may give rigidity to the centromeres and facilitate the movement of chromosomes during mitosis –. The structural basis of this effect should be attributed to the repetitive DNA sequence, which will result in a regular position of nucleosomes. "
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ABSTRACT: Centromere sequences in the genome are associated with the formation of kinetochores, where spindle microtubules grow in mitosis. Centromere sequences usually have long tandem repeats (satellites). In holocentric nematodes it is not clear how kinetochores are formed during mitosis; they are distributed throughout the chromosomes. For this reason it appeared of interest to study the satellites in nematodes in order to determine if they offer any clue on how kinetochores are assembled in these species. We have studied the satellites in the genome of six nematode species. We found that the presence of satellites depends on whether the nematode chromosomes are holocentric or monocentric. It turns out that holocentric nematodes are unique because they have a large number of satellites scattered throughout their genome. Their number, length and composition are different in each species: they apparently have very little evolutionary conservation. In contrast, no scattered satellites are found in the monocentric nematode Trichinella spiralis. It appears that the absence/presence of scattered satellites in the genome distinguishes monocentric from holocentric nematodes. We conclude that the presence of satellites is related to the holocentric nature of the chromosomes of most nematodes. Satellites may stabilize a higher order structure of chromatin and facilitate the formation of kinetochores. We also present a new program, SATFIND, which is suited to find satellite sequences.
Available from: Ales Kovarik
- "The satellites investigated herein occupy, on average, at least 20 chromosomal loci (Fig. 7; Lim et al., 2004, 2005). Consequently, each locus could be composed of units with a distinct curvature, shaping higher-order superhelix structures and influencing the tight packing of DNA and proteins in heterochromatin (Rouleux-Bonnin et al., 2004; Bussiek et al., 2009). Further experiments are required to clarify these issues. "
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ABSTRACT: • Allopolyploidy, a driving force in plant evolution, can induce rapid structural changes in parental subgenomes. Here, we examined the fate of homologous subtelomeric satellites in intrasection allotetraploid Nicotiana arentsii formed from N. undulata and N. wigandioides progenitors < 200,000 yr ago. • We cloned and sequenced a number of monomers from progenitors and the allotetraploid. Structural features of both cloned and genomic monomers were studied using double-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. • Two homologous satellites were isolated from N. undulata (called NUNSSP) and N. wigandioides (NWISSP). While the NUNSSP monomers were highly homogeneous in nucleotide sequences, the NWISSP monomers formed two separate clades. Likewise, the genomic NUNSSP monomers showed less DNA conformation heterogeneity than NWISSP monomers, with distinct conformations. While both satellites predominantly occupy subtelomeric positions, a fraction of the NWISSP repeats was found in an intercalary location, supporting the hypothesis that dispersion prevents the repeats becoming homogeneous. Sequence, structural and chromosomal features of the parental satellites were faithfully inherited by N. arentsii. • Our study revealed that intergenomic homogenization of subtelomeric satellite repeats does not occur in N. arentsii allotetraploid. We propose that the sequence and structural divergence of subtelomeric satellites may render allopolyploid chromosomes less vulnerable to intergenomic exchanges.
Available from: Christopher N Topp
- "In addition, factors independent of local DNA impose a generally similar nucleosome spacing arrangement. It has long been known that centromere chromatin is more conformationally rigid than other chromatin and this has been proposed to stem, in part, from intrinsic DNA bending/nucleosome interactions [12-15]. We further support this idea with our finding that nucleosome positioning on tandem repeats adapts to the underlying AA/TT distribution. "
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ABSTRACT: Unique structural characteristics of centromere chromatin enable it to support assembly of the kinetochore and its associated tensions. The histone H3 variant CENH3 (centromeric histone H3) is viewed as the key element of centromere chromatin and its interaction with centromere DNA is epigenetic in that its localization to centromeres is not sequence-dependent.
In order to investigate what influence the DNA sequence exerts on CENH3 chromatin structure, we examined CENH3 nucleosome footprints on maize centromere DNA. We found a predominant average nucleosome spacing pattern of roughly 190-bp intervals, which was also the dominant arrangement for nucleosomes genome-wide. For CENH3-containing nucleosomes, distinct modes of nucleosome positioning were evident within that general spacing constraint. Over arrays of the major ~156-bp centromeric satellite sequence (tandem repeat) CentC, nucleosomes were not positioned in register with CentC monomers but in conformity with a striking ~10-bp periodicity of AA/TT dimers within the sequence. In contrast, nucleosomes on a class of centromeric retrotransposon (CRM2) lacked a detectable AA/TT periodicity but exhibited tightly phased positioning.
These data support a model in which general chromatin factors independent of both DNA sequence and CENH3 enforce roughly uniform centromeric nucleosome spacing while allowing flexibility in the mode in which nucleosomes are positioned. In the case of tandem repeat DNA, the natural bending effects related to AA/TT periodicity produce an energetically-favourable arrangement consistent with conformationally rigid nucleosomes and stable chromatin at centromeres.
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