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Effect of Pilates and Taiji Quan Training on Self-Efficacy, Sleep Quality, Mood, and Physical Performance of College Students

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Methods of exercise such as Pilates and taiji quan, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on physical and mental characteristics, have been studied more often in samples of older participants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a semester of either Pilates or taiji quan training on perceived self-efficacy, sleep quality and mood, as well as strength and balance in college-age individuals. Self-efficacy was found to be improved in the Pilates and taiji quan groups and there was a trend towards improvement in sleep quality. Mood was found to be improved significantly in the Pilates group while the taiji group showed a trend towards improvement. There were no changes or group differences in the strength or balance measures. Pilates and taiji quan are effective exercise modes to improve mental parameters in college-age individuals.
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Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2009) 13, 155163
Bodywork and
Journal of
Movement Therapies
COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY
Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on
self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical
performance of college students
Karen Caldwell, Ph.D.
a,
, Mandy Harrison, Ph.D.
b
,
Marianne Adams, MFA
c
, N. Travis Triplett, Ph.D.
b
a
Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, Appalachian State University,
Boone, NC, USA
b
Department of Health, Leisure and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
c
Department of Theatre and Dance, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
Received 3 September 2007; received in revised form 29 November 2007; accepted 4 December 2007
KEYWORDS
Pilates;
Taiji quan;
Perceived
self-efficacy;
Sleep quality;
Mood;
Physical
performance
Summary Methods of exercise such as Pilates and taiji quan, which have been shown
to have beneficial effects on physical and mental characteristics, have been studied
more often in samples of older participants. The purpose of this investigation was to
examine the effects of a semester of either Pilates or taiji quan training on perceived
self-efficacy, sleep quality and mood, as well as strength and balance in college-age
individuals. Self-efficacy was found to be improved in the Pilates and taiji quan groups
and there was a trend towards improvement in sleep quality. Mood was found to be
improved significantly in the Pilates group while the taiji group showed a trend towards
improvement. There were no changes or group differences in the strength or balance
measures. Pilates and taiji quan are effective exercise modes to improve mental
parameters in college-age individuals.
&2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction
In developing his method, Joseph Pilates ‘‘com-
bined the mental focus of and specific breathing of
yoga with the physicality of gymnastics and other
sports’’ (Ungaro, 2002, p. 8) for the ideal of
attaining a complete coordination of body, mind,
and spirit (Gallagher and Kryzanowska, 2000).
The mindbody approach is further elucidated by
the principles (CCCPFB) that Pilates founded his
method on: centering,concentration,control,
precision,flow,and breath (Adamany and Loigerot,
2004;Adams and Quin, 2007;Gallagher and
Kryzanowska, 1999;Siler, 2000;Ungaro, 2004).
ARTICLE IN PRESS
www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/jbmt
1360-8592/$ - see front matter &2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2007.12.001
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 828 262 6045;
fax: +1 828 262 2128.
E-mail address: caldwllkl@appstate.edu (K. Caldwell).
Anecdotal evidence suggests that as the Pilates
method increases core strength, the natural flex-
ibility of the spine and limbs returns. However,
there has been little research on the effectiveness
of Pilates exercise and any studies found have been
poorly controlled (Herrington and Davies, 2005).
A recent review of literature identified only three
published clinical trials investigating the effective-
ness of Pilates training in healthy adults (Bernardo,
2007).
Another mindbody method is taiji quan (also
transliterated as tai chi chuan), an ancient Chinese
martial art characterized by slow circular move-
ments, breath regulation, and concentration or
mindfulness. It is a low-impact, moderate-intensity
aerobic exercise (Lan et al., 2004). Most studies of
the effect of taiji quan practice have focused on
middle-aged to older adults and have documented
improvements in health parameters such as im-
mune function, balance, and strength.
Perceived self-efficacy is related to mainte-
nance, effort, and performance of various specific
behaviors, including health-promotion activities
(Bandura, 1997;Noble and Robertson, 1996).
Perceived self-efficacy is one’s judgment of his/
her ability to perform a specific activity. This
judgment is based on four sources of information:
(1) mastery experiences that serve as indicators of
capability; (2) vicarious experiences [observations
of others] that alter efficacy beliefs through
transmission of competencies and comparison with
the attainments of others [if she can do it, I can do
it]; (3) verbal persuasion and social influences that
one possesses certain capabilities [you can dance
very well]; and (4) physiological and affective
states from which people partly judge their
capableness, strength, and vulnerability to dys-
function [my stomach is in knots, I feel exhausted]
(Bandura, 1997).
Research reviewed by Bandura (1997) across a
wide variety of activities shows that, controlling for
ability, one’s reported perceived self-efficacy re-
garding a specific task remains a significant
contributor to performance accomplishment. Using
pre- and post-exercise program self-efficacy and
physical fitness measures, McAuley et al. (1991)
investigated the influence of both short- and long-
term exercise programs on physical activity self-
efficacy, adherence to exercise self-efficacy and
physiological function of middle-aged, previously
inactive adults. Both short- and long-term groups
showed significant gains in physical activity and
adherence self-efficacy as well as significant gains
in physiological functioning.
An additional important health indicator is sleep
quality. Epidemiologic studies have consistently
shown an association between self-reports of
exercise and better sleep, and exercise is often
recommended as an important sleep aid (Hublin
et al., 2001). However, experimental studies
demonstrate that there is no single effect of
exercise on sleep (O’Connor and Youngstedt,
1995;Youngstedt et al., 2003). King et al. (1997)
found a regular moderate-intensity exercise pro-
gram to be effective in improving sleep complaints
of older adults, and Li et al. (2004) found improved
sleep quality in older practitioners of taiji quan.
In addition to the effects of exercise on self-
efficacy and sleep quality, the differential effects
of various types of moderate physical exercise on
mood enhancement are still a question of interest.
A number of studies have shown that changes in
mood and anxiety through physical exercise may be
related to the form of the exercise (Berger and
Owen, 1988, 1992;Jin, 1989, 1992). Taiji quan
practice, with its emphasis on physical and mental
training, has been found to have a positive impact
on mood in a number of these studies, but most of
these are focused on middle-aged to older adults.
The few studies that include college-aged stu-
dents (aged 1830) have generally found positive
effects of taiji quan on the self-assessed physical
and mental health of college students. Jin’s (1989)
study of 33 beginning (average age: 33.279 years)
and 33 experienced (average age: 37.7714.3
years) taiji quan practitioners found that the
practice of taiji quan raised heart rate, increased
noradrenaline excretion in urine, and decreased
salivary cortisol concentration at levels comparable
to those found with moderate exercise. The
subjects also reported improvements in mood and
fatigue. A second study by Jin (1992) focused on the
efficacy of taiji, brisk walking, meditation, and
reading in reducing mental and emotional stress
(n¼96). Mood states were improved and salivary
cortisol levels dropped significantly for all treat-
ments. However, the adrenaline level after taiji
quan exercise dropped more in comparison with
that after meditation, and the noradrenaline level
was higher after taiji quan than after reading. Taiji
participants also reported greater reduction of
state anxiety and enhancement of vigor as com-
pared to the reading control group, but this
discrepancy disappeared when expectancy regard-
ing the outcome of treatments was used as a
covariate. Szabo et al. (1998) compared aerobic
dance, weight training, martial arts, taiji quan,
yoga and music appreciation and found the com-
bined taiji and yoga group reported higher levels of
tranquility than all other exercise groups. This
group also reported lower psychological distress,
fatigue, and exhaustion than participants in the
ARTICLE IN PRESS
K. Caldwell et al.156
martial arts group. Wang et al. (2004) reported on a
3-month intervention of taiji quan in 30 college
students (mean age: 24.2372.74 years). Using a
pre- and post-test design comparing scores on the
multidimensional SF-36v2 health survey question-
naire, general health and bodily pain were sig-
nificantly improved as were the mental health
measures of vitality, role function, and perceptions
of mental health.
Balance plays a critical role in any activity. Static
balance involves minimizing postural sway in a
motionless stance, i.e., sitting or standing while
dynamic balance involves the ability to maintain
control of the center of gravity while moving it over
the base of support, i.e., walking, climbing stairs,
and getting up from a chair. A variety of exercises
have been shown to have a positive effect on
balance especially in older adults. Johnson et al.
(2007) found a significant change in dynamic
balance in healthy adults after completing 10
Pilates-based exercise sessions, and Kaesler et al.
(2007) found improvement in some components of
static and dynamic postural sway in their sample of
older adults. Similar improvements in balance in
older adults have been found in studies of taiji quan
(Busing, 2005;Yuhua et al., 2007).
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to
better understand the effect of Pilates and taiji
quan training in healthy young adults on perceived
self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, strength, and
balance. Studies of other modes of exercise have
included these variables, but at this point no
studies have documented effects of Pilates or taiji
participation on these variables in the college-age
population.
Methods
Study design
Study participants were recruited from five physi-
cal education classes (three Pilates mat classes and
two taiji quan classes), and two recreation classes
(an outdoor leadership class and a special recrea-
tion class) served as a control group. Subjects were
students at a moderately sized state university in
the fall and spring semesters of one academic year.
The Pilates classes met twice a week for 75 min
each class period or three times per week for
50 min each class period for a 15-week semester.
The instructors was comprehensively trained and
certified in the Pilates method. The Chen style
taiji quan classes met twice a week for 50 min
each session for 15 weeks and followed principles
outlined by Yang (2005). Participants in the
recreation classes were actively involved in their
own preferred forms of exercise outside of class,
but the class content was theoretical. During the
first week of class, at mid-term and at the end of
the semester, students were asked to complete in
class a survey instrument containing self-regulatory
efficacy scales, sleep quality indexes, mood scales,
and demographic questions. At the beginning
and end of the semester, students in five of the
classes (three Pilates, one taiji quan, and one
special recreation) were assessed for balance and
strength.
Procedures
Self-efficacy
A four-item self-regulatory efficacy instrument
(Harrison and McGuire, 2008) was used as well as
a self-efficacy measurement specific to either
Pilates or taiji quan because self-efficacy measures
must be specific to the activity being measured
(Bandura, 1997). Since no measurement tools of
Pilates self-efficacy (PSE) were found, a 14-item,
seven-point Likert-type scale on widely accepted
principles of the Pilates method was developed
(Table 1). Other experienced Pilates practitioners
reviewed the instrument to establish face validity
of the scale, and initial testing resulted in high
inter-item reliability (Cronbach’s alpha ¼.935).
Scores on the PSE scale potentially ranged from
14 to 98 with higher scores indicating greater self-
efficacy. A 12-item Taiji Quan Self-Regulatory
Efficacy Scale (TSE) was also developed and
reviewed by experienced practitioners. Initial
testing resulted in high inter-item reliability (Cron-
bach’s alpha ¼.897). Scores potentially ranged
from 12 to 84 with higher scores indicating greater
self-efficacy.
Sleep quality
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; Buysse
et al., 1989) was chosen for this investigation and
consists of 19 self-rated questions related to
normal sleep habits. The possible range of scores
is 021 points with lower scores indicating better
sleep quality. The Pilates group completed the PSQI
at beginning and end of the semester, but the other
groups completed an abbreviated form addressing
only daytime dysfunction and subjective sleep
quality. A PSQI global score 45 has served as a
marker to distinguish sleep disturbances in insom-
nia patients versus controls (Backhaus et al., 2002).
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Effect of Pilates and taiji quan on performance of college students 157
Mood
The Four Dimensional Mood Scale (Huelsman et al.,
1998) was utilized in this investigation and is a 20-
item adjective checklist using a five-point Likert
format (1 ¼not at all, 5 ¼extremely). Scores on
the four scales are the mean response to the items
on the scale: positive energy (six items), tiredness
(seven items), negative arousal (seven items), and
relaxation (nine items). There is evidence for
generally good internal consistency of the scales
as well as concurrent and discriminant validity
(Huelsman et al., 2003).
Strength and balance
A subset of participants (n¼67) were assessed for
lower body back and leg strength through the use of
a back and leg dynamometer. Subjects were asked
to exert three maximal effort isometric pulls while
standing on the dynamometer platform. The
strength reading was obtained from the dynam-
ometer dial and the highest reading used for
analysis.
This smaller group of participants was also
assessed for balance ability when standing on
a force platform on the dominant leg with the
eyes closed. Postural sway was measured during
this postural control test. The test was con-
ducted on a specialized balance platform with a
computer and software package (AMTI Balance
Clinic, Boston, MA, USA) used to record and analyze
the results.
Results
Demographics
Statistical analyses were conducted using the
Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS),
version 14 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A total of
127 students participated in the study (Pilates
n¼51, taiji quan n¼35, special recreation
n¼41), but data was available at all three points
in time for only 98 participants (Pilates n¼41,
taiji quan n¼29, special recreation n¼28).
A Chi-square on possible differences in gender and
independent t-tests on possible differences in age,
and hours of weekly exercise were non-significant
when the complete data group was compared with
the group eliminated from the study. Participants
included in the study ranged in age from 18 to
32 years of age (mean ¼21.27, S.D. ¼2.24).
Groups differed significantly by gender distribution:
Pilates ¼37 female and 4 male; taiji quan ¼4
female and 25 male; special recreation ¼9 female
and 19 male. An additional initial difference
between the groups was that the special recreation
group reported significantly higher levels of weekly
exercise (mean ¼10.50, S.D. ¼6.72) compared to
the Pilates (mean ¼5.03, S.D. ¼2.89) and taiji
quan groups (mean ¼6.03, S.D. ¼3.90). The fol-
lowing comparisons in the groups across time were
calculated using linear mixed model statistical
analyses using a Toeplitz residual covariance stru-
cture. Mixed model analyses provide a framework
for analyzing data with dependent observations
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Table 1 Items from Pilates self-efficacy (PSE) instrument based on six principles of Pilates.
Principle Item from PSE
Centeringthe ability to focus attention on one small
sensation.
I can move from my core strength. I can maintain
correct posture.
Concentrationability to focus one’s attention as the
mind wills the body into action, or the mind/body
connection.
I can feel the articulation of my spinal column. I can
visualize myself doing the exercises correctly. I can
sense how I am doing the exercises by using an internal
focus. I can modify the exercises as needed.
Controlpromotes injury prevention and is
empowering, mindfulness helps to produce
coordinated results.
I can coordinate smooth movements of my arms and
legs. I can move with a sense of control in movement. I
can lower myself to the floor with control.
Precisionthe ability to avoid sloppy, mindless
movements, increases the likelihood of producing the
desired results.
I can move with a sense of precision in movement. I
can release unnecessary muscle tension.
Flowtransitional ability, the ease from which one
moves from one experience or exercise to the next.
I can smoothly transition from one movement to
another.
Breathawareness and control of the breath can lead
to increased lung capacity, efficiency, coordination of
physical functioning and optimal muscular patterning
in everyday tasks.
I can focus completely on coordinating my breath with
body movements. I am aware of using my breath
efficiently.
K. Caldwell et al.158
using an iterative process of calculating a residual
covariance structure. This results in estimates of
the degrees of freedom for the F-statistics.
Measurements
Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy specific to Pilates as measured by the
PSE increased significantly over the course of the
semester from an initial mean of 64.6 to a final
mean of 88.9 (paired t-test, t(40) ¼13.05,
p¼.0005). Self-efficacy specific to taiji quan as
measured by the TSE also increased over the course
of the semester from an initial mean of 57.6 to a
final mean of 63.2 (t(28) ¼4.504, p¼.0005).
Participants perceived themselves as being more
able to control their movements mindfully at the
end of the semester than at the beginning. Initial
PSE scores and initial self-regulatory efficacy scores
were significantly correlated (r(39) ¼.36, p¼.02),
and TSE scores and initial self-regulatory efficacy
scores correlated at a similar level (r(27) ¼.32,
p¼.09).
A mixed model analysis of self-regulatory
efficacy scores found a significant group effect
(F(2, 99.95) ¼5.135, p¼.008), time effect
(F(2, 117.02) ¼3.201, p¼.044), and group by
time interaction (F(4, 116.92) ¼3.212, p¼.015).
The Pilates group rated their self-regulatory effi-
cacy higher than the special recreation group at the
beginning of the semester, and the Pilates group
scores were significantly higher at the end of
the semester than at the beginning of the class
(Figure 1). Self-regulatory efficacy scores for the
other two groups were essentially unchanged from
the beginning to the end of the semester.
Sleep quality
In the Pilates group sleep quality as measured by
the PSQI showed some improvement from beginning
(n¼40, mean ¼6.22, S.D. ¼3.12) to end of the
semester (mean ¼5.37, S.D. ¼3.58) (t(39) ¼1.891,
p¼.066). Pilates participants were sorted using
the PSQI scores into groups that scored the same as
insomniacs (PSQI45) and normal sleepers. At the
beginning of the semester 52.5% of the Pilates
participants (n¼21) scored in the same range as
insomniacs, but that number had reduced signifi-
cantly by the end of the semester to 35% (n¼14) of
the Pilates participants (w
2
(1, n¼40) ¼9.528,
p¼.002).
Using the abbreviated sleep quality scale (three
items, Cronbach’s alpha ¼.757), a mixed model
analysis of the Pilates classes, taiji quan classes
and only one special recreation class (n¼81) found
no statistically significant differences although the
groupeffectbarelymissedsignicance(F(2, 78.61) ¼
2.749, p¼.07) (Figure 2). One special recreation
class was dropped from this analysis because data
was not available for the three-item sleep quality
items at the end of the semester. The Pilates and
taiji quan groups demonstrated a trend towards
improved sleep quality over the course of the
semester while the special recreation class demon-
strated improved sleep mid-semester and an end of
semester worsening of sleep quality.
Mood
A mixed model analysis of positive mood scores
(positive energy) found significant differences
ARTICLE IN PRESS
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Pre Mid Post
Time
Sleep quality score
Pilates
Tai j i
Special Rec
* #
Figure 2 Sleep quality scores. Values expressed as
mean7S.E.: , significant difference from pre-test
value; #, significant difference from special recreation
value.
19
20
21
22
23
24
Pre Mid
Time
Self-efficacy score
Pilates
Tai j i
Special Rec
* #
Post
Figure 1 Self-efficacy scores. Values expressed as
mean7S.E.: , significant difference from pre-test
value; ], significant difference from special recreation
value.
Effect of Pilates and taiji quan on performance of college students 159
across time (F(2, 129.58) ¼5.155, p¼.007) and
group by time (F(4, 129.59) ¼2.463, p¼.048).
Initially, the special recreation group positive mood
scores were higher than the Pilates group, but by
the end of the semester, the Pilates positive mood
scores had increased to the same level as the
special recreation group, which remained essen-
tially the same as the beginning of the semester.
The taiji quan group scores trended upward from
the beginning to the end of the semester but not as
much as the Pilates group (Figure 3).
A mixed model analysis of tired mood scores
found no significant differences across group or
time, and the group by time interaction barely
missed statistical significance (F(4, 135.86) ¼2.345,
p¼.058). Using a similar analysis of relaxed mood
scores, significant group (F(2, 95.09) ¼6.442,
p¼.002) and time (F(2, 129.60) ¼6.814, p¼
.002) effects were found. Using estimated marginal
means, the taiji group reported significantly higher
relaxation scores than the Pilates group, and
the Pilates scores at the end of the semester
were significantly higher than at the beginning
(Figure 4).
A mixed model analysis of negative mood scores
found a significant group by time interaction
(F(4, 136.54) ¼3.840, p¼.005). The Pilates and
taiji groups experienced a decrease in negative
mood mid-semester and returned to beginning
semester levels by the end of the semester, while
the special recreation group experienced a spike in
negative mood scores which reduced by the end of
the semester to levels similar to their scores at the
beginning of the semester (Figure 5). In other
words, the difference in groups occurred mid-
semester, and the negative mood scores were
similar at the end of the semester by group as they
had been at the beginning of the semester. Strength and balance
Initial dynamometer measures were correlated to
the age of participants (r¼.24) and the number of
hours participants reported exercising weekly at
the beginning of the semester (r¼.41). Strength
varies by gender, so gender was used as a factor in a
mixed model analysis of the 67 individuals for
whom strength measures were available at both
the beginning and end of the semester. An effect
was found only for gender (F(1, 61) ¼59.773,
p¼.001). When the effects of gender were
considered, there were no differences between
the groups from the beginning to the end of the
semester in terms of leg and back strength as
measured by the dynamometer. Regarding balance,
a mixed model analysis using the 61 individuals
for whom beginning and end of semester mea-
sures were available yielded no group or time
effect.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
Pre Mid Post
Time
Positive mood score
*
Pilates
Tai j i
Special Rec
Figure 3 Positive mood scores. Values expressed as
mean7S.E.: , significant difference from pre-test value
(Pilates group only).
2.8
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4
Pre Mid Post
Time
Relaxed mood score
Pilates
Taiji
Special Rec
*
Figure 4 Relaxed mood scores. Values expressed as
mean7S.E.: , significant difference from pre- and
mid-test values (Pilates group only); y, significant
difference from Pilates value.
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.3
Pre Mid Post
Time
Negative mood score
Pilates
Tai j i
Special Rec
Figure 5 Negative mood scores. Valued expressed as
mean7S.E.: y, significant difference between Pilates and
special recreation group.
K. Caldwell et al.160
Discussion
Overall, the results of this investigation were
similar to other studies performed in older popula-
tions and/or with similar exercise modes (Pilates,
taiji). Study results indicate that students who
participated in Pilates classes experienced signifi-
cant improvements in self-efficacy and positive
mood, with trends towards improved sleep quality
and a reduction in negative mood over the course
of a semester. The taiji group primarily showed
trends of improvement. As expected from previous
studies, there were complex interactions between
the health variables, type of exercise and time of
semester.
Measurements
Self-efficacy
Research across a wide variety of activities shows
that, controlling for ability, self-efficacy regarding
a specific task remains a significant contributor to
performance accomplishment (Bandura, 1997). Our
findings regarding Pilates support those of McAuley
et al. (1991), as we found an increase in self-
regulatory self-efficacy with exercise programs of
varying duration. Interestingly, the taiji group did
not show the same level of increase in self-
regulatory efficacy, although there was an increase
in self-efficacy specific to taiji movements. Li et al.
(2001) also found increases in self-efficacy specific
to taiji movement in participants of a 6-month taiji
program for elderly participants
Sleep
Rates of poor quality of sleep in college students
have varied from study to study depending on
sample and measures of sleep quality used. For
example, 44% of first-year college students in a
study in Taiwan reported sleep problems (Yang
et al., 2003). Rates of poor sleep quality in medical
college students have ranged from 38% to 19% (Feng
et al., 2005;Medeiros et al., 2001). Some studies
have found that sleep quality improves over the
course of semester (Hawkins and Shaw, 1992;
Pilcher and Ott, 1998) while other studies found
the opposite (Brown et al., 2006). The results of
this investigation are in agreement with those
showing nearly half of college students exhibit
some problems with sleep quality. This investiga-
tion also supports the concept of exercise some-
what improving sleep quality overall in young
adults, although the results of this investigation
were not as dramatic as in studies with older
individuals (King et al., 1997;Li et al., 2004).
Mood
Many systems of the body interact in a holistic
manner together with positive and negative moods.
Thayer’s (1989) biopsychological mood theory
anticipates that activities such as exercise or
techniques involving control of thoughts would be
integrally related to mood improvement. Indeed,
the subjects in four studies reported by Thayer
et al. (1994) identified exercise as the most
effective mood-regulating behavior. The greatest
improvement in positive mood was seen in the
Pilates group. However, the participants in this
study had no change in negative or tired mood from
the beginning to the end of the study. The Pilates
and taiji quan groups did show improvement in
negative mood at the mid-term timepoint while the
control group showed a worsening of negative mood
the same time.
Strength and balance
Strength and balance measures were unaffected by
Pilates and taiji training in this age group. There
are likely several reasons for these findings.
College-age individuals are at a peak regarding
strength and balance and highly focused training on
these variables is necessary to elicit any measur-
able change. In older individuals, where the largest
gains are often seen, the exerciser is already at a
physical deficit and the exercise can result in
significant improvements. Although both Pilates
and taiji have strength and balance as components,
the training is not as likely to elicit a measurable
change in this age group.
Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that students who
participated in Pilates classes experienced the
largest improvements in self-regulatory self-effi-
cacy, positive mood, and sleep quality over the
course of a semester. The lack of improvement in
strength and balance measures may be due to the
methods used for measuring these characteristics.
Our results must be interpreted with caution
because of the lack of random assignment to groups
and the uneven gender representation in the
groups.
Acknowledgments
Special thanks to Rebecca Quin for participating as
a Pilates instructor and Karen Callahan for assis-
tance in the statistical analyses.
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Effect of Pilates and taiji quan on performance of college students 161
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ARTICLE IN PRESS
Effect of Pilates and taiji quan on performance of college students 163
... However, there is no compliance in research dealing with the effects of Pilates exercises on balance performance. While some research suggested that Pilates exercises caused an increase in balance performance (Anderson and Spector, 2005;Hall et al., 1999;Johnson et al., 2007) some of them explained these exercises did not affect balance performance (Kloubec, 2010;Caldwell et al., 2009). Johnson et al. (2007) examined the effects of a 5week Pilates exercise program applied in 10 sessions on dynamic balance performance in healthy adult subjects. ...
... However, they concluded in their research that balance did not improve. In the other research, Caldwell et al. (2009) noted that balance was not affected by Pilates exercises. They applied Pilates exercises on college students from Physical Education and Recreation Department. ...
... Since the subjects' fitness levels were high, any development could not be seen in balance. As being different from, Caldwell et al. (2009) in this research applied Pilates exercises for sedentary women aged 35.87 on average. Dissimilar findings of that study may be resulted from differences in fitness levels for these subjects. ...
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The aim of this research is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on balance in females. Methods: Sixty sedentary women volunteers (mean age = 34.67 ± 10.41 years; height = 158.75 ± 4.68 cm; weight = 76.22 ± 11.94 kg) participated in this research. Each subject was randomly allocated to the Experimental Group (EG=30) or the Control Group (CG=30). The EG performed the Pilates exercise program. In eyes open condition, there was no significantly difference in the control group (p>0.05) while Overall Stability Index (OSI) scores significantly decreased in the experimental group after the exercises (p<0.05). Under the eyes closed condition, a significant difference was seen in OSI scores before and after the exercises (p<0.05). Results: In conclusion, this study shows that an 8-weeks Pilates exercise program contributes to an increase in the ability to control the body's position or balance for sedentary adult females through improvements in physical activity and positions.
... At present, TC courses are offered in most universities in China, and it has been popularized all over the world in recent years. Existing studies have shown that TC has a very significant effect in terms of exercise intervention, which can not only improve physical fitness, including fall prevention (Lin et al., 2006), hypertension reduction (Guan et al., 2020), and cardiac rehabilitation (Cheng et al., 2020), but also has certain benefits to mental health, including improvement of quality of life and self-efficacy, emotional processing and other problems (Caldwell et al., 2009), and even has some beneficial effects on the improvement of patients with depression (Laird et al., 2018). Meanwhile, TC can also significantly improve people's sleep quality and mental state . ...
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To study whether Tai Chi (TC) practice can improve the brain connectivity of the prefrontal lobe of college students, the positive psychological capital questionnaires and resting EEG signals were acquired from 50 college students including 25 TC practitioners and 25 demographically matched TC healthy controls. The results showed that the score of the positive psychological capital questionnaire of the TC group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the node degree of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of both groups was positively correlated with the score of the positive psychological capital questionnaire. In addition, the response time of the TC group under auditory stimulation was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and there was a significant positive correlation between response time and its characteristic path length, and a significant negative correlation with global efficiency. Meanwhile, during the selected range of sparsity, the difference in global network parameters between two groups is significant in the alpha band. Under all single sparsity, the clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency of the TC group have a higher trend, while the characteristic path length tended to be shorter. In the analysis of the local characteristics of the resting brain functional network, it was found that the node degree of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of the TC group was higher, and the difference was significant in some nodes. These results all point to the fact that TC practice has a certain impact on specific brain areas of the brain.
... Previous reviews have reported the effectiveness of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on psycho-physical health among both clinical and non-clinical populations (Cheng, 2015;Webster et al., 2016;Zou et al., 2018;Chang et al., 2019). Additionally, findings of studies supported the beneficial effect of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on improving physical health (e.g., immune function, cardiovascular health, hypertension) (Qin, 2012;Yu and Chen, 2012;Zhang et al., 2014;Liang, 2018), psychological problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, stress) (Tsai et al., 2003;Lee et al., 2004;Caldwell et al., 2009;Nedeljkovic et al., 2012;Chan et al., 2013;Chang and Wei, 2013), and cognitive function (e.g., executive function) (Tang et al., 2011;Ladawan et al., 2017;Liang, 2018). ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on adolescents' symptoms of depression and anxiety, and psychological status based on clinical evidences, and to calculate the pooled results using meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search using seven English and three Chinese databases was initiated to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized comparison studies (NRS) assessing the effect of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on psychological status among adolescents. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the pooled effect of the intervention. Study quality was evaluated using a Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Non-pharmacological Trial (CLEAR-NPT) designed for non-pharmacological trials. Results: Four RCTs and six NRS were identified, including 1,244 adolescents. The results suggested a potential beneficial effect of Tai chi and Qigong exercise on reducing anxiety (SMD = 0.386, 95 CI% [0.233, 0.538]) and depression (SMD = 1.937 [95 CI%, 1.392–2.546]) symptoms, and reducing cortisol level (SMD = 0.621 [95 CI%, 0.18–1.062]) in adolescents. Conversely, non-significant effects were found for stress, mood, and self-esteem. Conclusions: The findings of this review suggest Qigong appears to be an effective therapeutic modality to improve psychological well-being in adolescents. Hope future studies will have rigorously designed, well-controlled randomized trials with large sample sizes in order to confirm these findings.
... However, unless adolescents see the link between Taekwondo and more formal Volume 8 | Issue 1 ScholArena | www.scholarena.com educational activities, they're going to unlikely let Taekwondo have a positive effect on their school work [18]. the last word reason why Taekwondo are often beneficial for teens with ADHD is their overt goal of turning the practitioner into a far better person. ...
... The training is vital to coping up with environmental changes like the COVID-19 outbreak. It enables the employees to solve their work-related problems (Athar and Shah, 2015) and adds to their confidence to do work (Caldwell et al., 2009;Aziz, 2015). The training inculcates time management and work management skills among employees (Aziz, 2015) and reduces their stress levels to achieve the performance targets. ...
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Technostress, a stressor, has implications for employee’s psychological states; however, flexibility like work from home can have positive outcomes, especially for instructors who have to teach and ensure social distance during COVID-19. The present study examined the relationship of technostress and employee performance while taking training and creative self-efficacy as boundary conditions. A sample of 222 university instructors, who worked from home or hybrid (home and workplace) during COVID-19 lockdown, was selected from Pakistan. The responses were recorded using a closed-ended questionnaire. Stepwise linear regression and PROCESS Macro by Hayes (2013) was used to analyze the data. It was revealed that technostress, instead of having adverse effects, had a positive effect on employee’s performance and both training and one’s creative self-efficacy significantly moderated the relationship. As the main finding, it was revealed that the employees continued to perform well despite the prevalence of technostress. The training and one’s creative self-efficacy were useful to control the technostress and maintain the performance of instructors during COVID-19. The university administrators and employees must take technology as a positive tool for performance. The training, along with creative self-efficacy, adds to the working capacity of employees and enhances their performance.
... Vocks et al. [35] noted that physical exercise has positive effects on immediate body image and mood. Caldwell et al. [36] showed that long-term participation in sports and mastering sports skills can improve the exercise self-efficacy of sports participants. Ede et al. [37] found that long-term participation in sports can increase athletes' self-confidence and self-esteem. ...
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Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
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Background and aims: During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital staff experienced severe anxiety due to insomnia, burnout, and work stress, which reduced their mental health. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the role of resilience and self-efficacy in promoting the mental health of medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This review was done by searching in the titles and abstracts of articles published in reputable international scientific databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus from February 2020 to July 2021. Finally, 26 articles were selected for comprehensive review and data extraction. The PRISMA checklist was used to review and control the quality of articles. Results: Nurses and physicians with high resilience and self-efficacy were in good mental health. Factors such as age, gender, marital status, work history, and working in the COVID-19 wards affected the resilience and self-efficacy of the medical staff during the outbreak of COVID-19. Additionally, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, insomnia, and burnout were also the most common disorders caused by COVID-19 in nurses and physicians in the pandemic. Conclusion: Since we also see the occurrence of widespread psychological disorders such as PTSD and burnout in the medical staff of hospitals in the post-corona era, it is necessary to organize workshops and conferences to increase the resilience and selfefficacy of medical staff.
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Background: Sleep quality and fatigue have been documented as a challenge for college students, with reports indicating impacts on daytime functioning and academic achievement. The present study evaluates the effect of Pilates exercise on sleep and fatigue among female student residents in the dormitory. Methods: This quasi-experimental study involving 67 participants consisted of one experimental group (assigned Pilates exercise) and one control group. Participants in the experimental group received three one-hour sessions of Pilates exercise weekly for eight-week. Sleep quality and fatigue levels were measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. These variables were assessed at baseline, weeks four and eight of the study. Results: After four and eight weeks, findings showed an improvement in the sleep quality score (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). After four weeks of intervention, the mean score of the subjective sleep quality and daytime dysfunction in the Pilates group was significantly less than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks of intervention had an additional effect on sleep duration and habitual sleep efficiency (p < 0.04 and p < 0.034, respectively). Also, Pilates exercise significantly reduced the total score of fatigue and its dimensions in weeks four and eight, compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Eight weeks of the Pilate's exercises had a significant improvement in most components of sleep quality; however, the effect of Pilates exercise on fatigue was evident from week four of the intervention. Trial registration: The study was registered on 6/2/2015 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with IRCT201412282324N15.
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Background: Poor sleep quality is associated with old age among the general population, but only a few studies have focused on postpartum women. Poor quality sleep for a long time can reduce a woman's ability to carry out maternal and family duties after childbirth. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Pilates on sleep quality in postpartum women. Method: Systematic review using the database: Google Scholar. The search results that meet the criteria are then analyzed for articles. Results: Pilates exercise was shown to significantly improve sleep quality in postpartum mothers. Conclusion: Therefore, Pilates exercises can be used as an exercise routine for postpartum mothers to improve physical and mental health during the postpartum period.
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The influence of exercise mode and practice qualities on the stress reduction benefits of exercise was examined. College students in swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing, exercise, and lecture-control classes completed the Profile of Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory before and after class on three occasions. Swimmers had unusually positive initial moods and reported less tension and confusion after swimming only on the first day of testing. Participants in yoga, an anaerobic activity that satisfied three of the four mode requirements, were significantly less anxious, tense, depressed, angry, fatigued, and confused after class than before on all three occasions. Supporting the importance of the four mode characteristics, participants in the exercise control activity of fencing reported improvements only in vigor. A possible influence of practice conditions was observed when members of the body conditioning class reported significant increases in fatigue, but no other mood changes. Results of this study supported the possibility that exercise mode and practice requirements in the proposed taxonomy moderate the stress reduction benefits.
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Survey and laboratory studies suggest that several factors, such as social and academic demands, part-time jobs and irregular school schedules, affect the sleep-wake cycle of college students. In this study, we examined the sleep-wake pattern and the role played by academic schedules and individual characteristics on the sleep-wake cycle and academic performance. The subjects were 36 medical students (male = 21 and female = 15), mean age = 20.7 years, SD = 2.2. All students attended the same school schedule, from Monday to Friday. The volunteers answered a morningness-eveningness questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and kept a sleep-wake diary for two weeks. The relationships between sleep-wake cycle, PSQI, chronotypes and academic performance were analyzed by a multiple regression technique. The results showed that 38.9% of the students had a poor sleep quality according to the PSQI. When the medical students were evening type or moderate evening type the PSQI showed a tendency of poor sleep. The multiple regression analysis showed a correlation between sleep onset, sleep irregularity and sleep length with academic performance. These results suggest that chronotypes influence the quality of the sleep-wake cycle and that irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle, as well as sleep deprivation (average length was 6:52), influence the learning of college students.
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The Exercise-Induced Feeling Scale (EFI; L. Gauvin and W. J. Rejeski, 1993) and the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES; E. McAuley and K. S. Courneya, 1994) were employed to compare post-exercise affect after sessions of aerobic dance, weight-training, martial arts, tai-chi and yoga, and a music appreciation (control). A sample of 195 male and female volunteers was tested before and after exercise or music appraisal. After controlling for pre-exercise levels in affect and self-reported exercising intensity, the combined tai-chi and yoga group reported higher levels of tranquillity than all other exercise groups. These individuals also reported lower psychological distress, fatigue, and exhaustion than participants in the martial arts group. The weight-training group scored higher on revitalization in contrast to the martial arts group. People in the aerobic dance and music appraisal groups were not different from the other groups. None of the exercise groups reported more positive affect than the music appreciation control group. Therefore, the exercise-specific nature of the EFI and SEES was not substantiated in the present study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Perceived self-efficacy is an indicator of maintenance, effort, and performance of various behaviors, including recreation therapy activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one of the sources of efficacy information, vicarious experience via modeling, and to enhance efficacy beliefs of at-risk youth who are participating in a therapeutic adventure activity. Additionally, this study investigated the influence of activity specific efficacy perceptions on both self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE) and perceived performance in the specific activity. Results indicated that groups who observed a model demonstrate rock climbing during ground school had significantly higher rock climbing self-efficacy and SRSE after their rock climbing experience than the group that did not. In light of this research, it is apparent that providing a model is an effective tool that can be used to assist recreational therapists in offering effective programs.
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Pilates has gained momentum and attention in the past 5 years as a modality for improving flexibility, strength and mind-body awareness. What is not revealed, however, is the scientific basis for this practice. The two-fold purpose of this review was to (1) critically appraise published research on Pilates in healthy adults and (2) propose future research options for this method in healthy adults. An extensive literature search was conducted, using Pilates as the search word. A total of 277 articles were found. Thirty-nine articles and abstracts were published in refereed, professional journals, of which there were only three clinical trials in healthy adults. The strengths of these three clinical trials were the (1) use of established measurements for stated outcomes and (2) documented need for research in this area. The weaknesses were (1) lack of true experimental designs, (2) small sample sizes, and (3) lack of a defined method of Pilates. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity, primarily due to a lack of sound research methodology surrounding each study. Utilizing a true experimental design and stating the Pilates method utilized can strengthen and improve future Pilates research in healthy adults.
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In this study, the potential value of Tai Chi in improving dynamic balance and falls self-efficacy in a healthy elderly sample was investigated. Performance of the 33 Tai Chi practitioners on the 8-foot-up-and-go balance test and the scores on the Falls Self-Efficacy Scale was compared with a nonpredictor control group. A multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated that there was not a significant difference between the practitioners and the nonpractitioners on pre-test dependent variables (g > .57). The practitioners did significantly improve their time on the balance test after the intervention (g > .05). However, the experimental group did not improve their self-reported measures on the self-efficacy scale (r > .98).
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Professionals in theater, athletics, and rehabilitation settings have integrated Pilates-based exercise into their practice. The Pilates method of exercise claims to have several benefits including improving posture and improving balance; however, there are few studies to support these statements. We studied the effects of Pilates-based exercise on dynamic balance in healthy adults. A certified Pilates instructor conducted all exercise sessions. After completing 10 Pilates-based exercise sessions a significant change (P=.01) in dynamic balance was found in the functional reach test (FRT) mean scores in the exercise group (n=17). The control group (n=17) demonstrated no significant change (P=.54). The results suggest that Pilates-based exercise improved dynamic balance as measured by the FRT in healthy adults.