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The Silent Epidemic Perspectives of High School Dropouts

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... Research has demonstrated that ESLg disadvantages young people and exposes them to various forms of social exclusion (e.g., Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006;GHK, 2005;NESSE, 2009). According to Walker and Walker (1997, p. 8) social exclusion is '…the dynamic process of being shut out, fully or partially, from any of the social, economic, political or cultural systems which determine the social integration of a person in society'. ...
... The early school leavers (ESLs) are more likely to suffer from marginalisation and social exclusion later in life (Bridgeland, DiIulio & Morison, 2006;Tukundane, Zeelen, Minnaert & Kanyandago, 2013;Ulicna, Nevala & Hawley, 2012;Zeelen, Van der Linden, Nampota & Ngabirano, 2010). This marginalisation is often due to the inadequacy or lack of the necessary skills for life and work, as the time spent in school and the quality of learning is insufficient to equip the students with the required skills. ...
... Such interventions should help in the 'acquisition of social capital and of access to career opportunities and life chances' (The National Economic and Social Forum, 2002, p. 8). However, it is important to note that the causes of ESLg are varied and complex(ACER, 2000;Bhanpuri & Reynolds, 2003;Bridgeland et al., 2006;GHK, 2005; Zeelen et al., 2010b), as they range from individual issues to family, school and community problems. Thus, ESLs are a very heterogeneous group in which individuals and sub-groups are faced with different circumstances and challenges. ...
... It is the excusable or inexcusable absence from grade seven and eight of rural lower secondary schools in Cambodia. A large and growing body of literature has investigated the influence absenteeism on dropping out of school for decades (e.g., Balfanz & Byrnes, 2012;Barrington & Hendricks, 1989;Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006;Brooks, Milne, Paterson, Johansson, & Hart, 1997;Kearney, 2008;Lamb et al., 2004;Markussen et al., 2011;Ouma et al., 2017;Prakash et al., 2017;Rumberger, 1995;Tramontina et al., 2001;UNICEF, 2016;US Census Bureau, 2005;USAID, 2011). Absenteeism from school has become a critical issue on mental and physical health concern for children and adults, and it is also a key risk factor associated with school dropout (Kearney, 2008). ...
... This continuous argument has been studied over the past decades for not to find who is right or wrong but to point out what should school and family should involve making children become successful in their education. Many studies on student achievement, for example, suggest several ways how involvement of parents affect achievement at schools (see, for example, Castro et al., 2015;Chowa, Masa, & Tucker, 2013;Eng, 2013;Jeynes, 2007;Khajehpour & Ghazvini, 2011;Ma & Klinger, 2000;Nguon, 2012), but only a few studies have investigated the impact of parental involvement on behavior of dropping out of school (e.g., Bridgeland et al., 2006;Rumberger, Ghatak, Poulos, Ritter, & Dornbusch, 1990). For instance, studying on influences of family on dropout behavior in a California High School, Rumberger et al. (1990) used school records on dropout which were obtained from California Basic Education Data System (CBEDS) of California State Department of Education as the data for analysis. ...
... Findings of this study are also consistent with Bridgeland et al.'s survey study on perspectives of high school dropout. Bridgeland et al. (2006) found that students who dropped out of high school had parents whose involvement in children' academic was very low. It was 59% of students' parents or guardians involving in their children's schooling, while only 21% of them highly involved. ...
Thesis
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Dropout is a classic issue commonly discussed among researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and related educational stakeholders. It has been deemed as a critical barrier for many development prospects. For the past years, dropout has been studied by numerous researchers, and a large body of dropout literature has proved the reasons for dropping out of schools differently. According to that literature, it has been found that most of the previous studies haven’t inclusively focused on all predictor variables related to the individual student, family, and school. In a developing country like Cambodia, there have been a few studies on dropout. Most studies have been commonly found at primary level in some rural parts of Cambodia (e.g., Keng, 2004; No & Hirakawa, 2012; No, Taniguchi, & Hirakawa, 2016). In a longitudinal study, No (2012) also suggests that further studies should consider studying on a larger number of students and schools, and multilevel analysis is suggested as the most appropriate method for dropout study due to the nested structure of the data. In this regard, the current study aimed to address these gaps emerging from the literature by examining what factors related to the individual student, family, and school were the main contributors to dropout incidence of students at lower secondary schools in rural Cambodia. In this study, data were based on a survey of 1055 of grade-seven and grade-eight students selected from 20 lower secondary schools of four rural districts in Battambang province. A pure quantitative approach using a correlational research design was employed. The two-level Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) was adopted as the main analytical method. HLM was employed due to the nested and hierarchical structure of the data. Level-1 consisted of predictor variables related to individual student and family, and Level-2 nested predictor variables related to school. Unlike the findings of previous studies, some family and all of school-related factors were not the significant predictors for dropout at the lower secondary level in rural Cambodia. The results of the two-level HLM revealed that repetition, absenteeism, academic expectation, private-tutoring attendance, and parental involvement in school work had significant influences on dropout at the lower secondary level. The variations among schools were not so different by grade. The findings indicated that absenteeism had a direct and indirect impact on dropout. This study also added some new findings to dropout literature and especially for policy implications in the context of Cambodia. In addition to the findings of most of the previous studies in Cambodia, the current study addressed that absenteeism, private-tutoring attendance, and parental involvement in school work were the emerging reasons of dropping of schools which needed further in-depth investigation. This study concluded by highlighting critical policy implications of what should be considered as effective strategies for the future implementation of dropout prevention. Practical implications for dropout-reduction policy are discussed with the call for solid evidence-based strategies to decrease dropout rate at the lower secondary level.
... Globally, there is a fair amount of consensus among many academic scholars who believe that school truancy is global academic problem in secondary school students (Langford et al., 2015). School truancy results in many psycho-social risk outcomes including social problems, academic achievement, mental health problems and later school dropout in middle, secondary and high schools globally (Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Maynard et al., 2015). School truancy not only leads to school dropout or refusal, it may also produce lingering outcomes into youth, such as enhanced risk for marital, occupational and eventual economic issues (Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). ...
... These aforementioned results confirm previous findings. Numerous earlier studies found that school refusal behavior and school truancy were associated with several psycho-social risk factors such as parental supervision, self-esteem, academic achievement, aggression, bullying behavior and later school dropout in school-going adolescents (Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Fornander and Kearney, 2020;Maynard et al., 2015;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). ...
... Further, the findings also illustrated that academic self was positively associated with higher level of school refusal behavior in truant school-going adolescents who had high level of physical aggression. The current study results confirmed our study's second objective that these findings are consistent with the findings of prior similar research studies (Kearney, 2008a(Kearney, , 2008bKearney and Albano, 2015;Mallett, 2016;Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Maynard et al., 2015;Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). It also supported both MTSS model (Kearney, 2019;Kearney and Graczyk, 2020) and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Perron, 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and association among school refusal behavior, self-esteem, parental school involvement and aggression in punctual and truant school-going adolescents. Design/methodology/approach A purposive sampling technique and cross-sectional design were used in the current study. Participants comprised three heterogeneous sub-groups: school truant students, park truant students and punctual students. Findings This study’s findings indicated that father and mother’s school involvement was related to more elevated level of self-esteem for school truant students. Results also indicated that male truant students had more significant probability to school refusal behavior and physical aggression as compared to female truant students. Moreover, results revealed that physical aggression fully mediated among mother’s school involvement, academic self and school refusal behavior in punctual students and school truant students. Originality/value There is more need to develop indigenous school-based preventions and interventions aimed at decreasing school truancy in Pakistani context by tackling the predisposing vulnerable factors and supporting and encouraging the protective family and internal factors.
... Derslerde yaşanan can sıkıntısının, öğrencilerin devamsızlık yapma nedenleri arasında olduğuna ilişkin araştırma sonuçları da bulunmaktadır (Altınkurt, 2008). Ayrıca öğrencilerin fiziksel ve siber zorbalık (Çelebi ve Aliyev, 2017; Yaman ve Peker, 2012) okul terki (Robinson, 1975;Maroldo, 1986;Bridgeland, DiIulio ve Morison, 2006) ve sigaraya başlama (Vatan, Ocakoğlu ve İrgil, 2009) gibi bazı olumsuz alışkanlık ve davranışlarının da can sıkıntısı ile ilişkili olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Akademik can sıkıntısı çok boyutlu bir yapıya işaret etmekte ve öğrencilerin algıladıkları zorluk durumlarına göre de değişiklik göstermektedir (Acee, vd., 2010). ...
... Ayrıca akademik can sıkıntısının okul terki ile ilişkili olduğunu ortaya koyan çalışma sonuçları da bulunmaktadır (Robinson, 1975;Maroldo, 1986). Başka bir çalışmaya göre de öğrencilerin okuldan ayrılma nedenleri arasında can sıkıntısı üst sıralarda yer almaktadır (Bridgeland, DiIulio ve Morison, 2006). ...
Article
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In this research, the students' boredom experiences in the lessons were investigated according to the frequency of these experiences, type of lesson, reasons, resulting behaviors and coping strategies. Survey model was used in the study. The sample of the study consisted of 376 university students, 217 male and 159 female. As the data collection tool of the research, a questionnaire developed by researchers and consisting of questions aimed at determining the boredom experiences of university students in the lessons was used. In the study, from descriptive statistical techniques; the percentage, the frequency processes and the Crosstabs analysis method covering them were used to reveal the numerical results of the variables included in the questionnaires. As a result of the analysis, it was observed that university students experienced boredom in lessons in general; the students in all the units were experiencing the most boredom in elective lessons and less boredom in applied lessons. University students tend to see the causes of their boredom as themselves and to the instructor who is responsible for the lesson. In order to get rid of the boredom, It is concluded that they often act in different ways such as thinking other things besides the lesson, being occupied with their mobiles, chatting with friends, sleeping and dreaming. As a strategy to cope with the boredom, university students have chosen to be prepared for the lesson, go to activities that reduce stress, not attend lessons, and do other activities that they think will be more useful.
... The model incorporates a combination of present-bias and psychic payoffs to success and failure, but its main driving forces are a modest time- 4 If this conclusion is correct then one implication is that many early-leavers of education should be expected to later regret that decision. Bridgeland, Dilulio & Morison (2006) corroborate that implication, by establishing that 74% of U.S. high school drop-outs later regret dropping out. consistent discount rate, and a derived self-productivity in cognitive ability. ...
... The latter is for full participation, since ex-post the benefits of education are enjoyed at the expense of only sunk costs. This discrepancy could explain why high school drop- outs commonly regret dropping out (see, for example: Bridgeland, Dilulio & Morison 2006). It is also possible to objectively adjudicate between these conflicting preferences 555 using our numerical illustration. ...
Article
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Individuals who under-invest in education experience negative outcomes along most measurable dimensions. Although such under-investment is common, it is not adequately explained by existing economic theory. We disaggregate the canonical educational investment decision into a series of incremental educational opportunities , and thereby endogenously separate economic agents into high-and low-10 participation equilibria. We derive self-productivity in cognitive ability development , and we identify the effects of specific noncognitive skills. Our results suggest that early intervention should focus on children's noncognitive skills, whilst later intervention should not target disadvantaged individuals directly-it should focus instead on specified aspects of their educational provision.
... The US National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) asserts that over the course of their undergraduate studies, students become increasingly disengaged from, and disillusioned with, the higher education experience (Barone, 2005). The research on student dropout shows that students identified "uninteresting and boring classes" as the primary reason for their dropout decision (Bridgeland et al., 2006). Although disengagement has implications for all students, those from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to suffer. ...
... Academic leaders can pivot educational models on this framework in order to make classes more engaging. This is particularly relevant in the context of disengagement, which is perceived by students as the result of boring and uninterested classes leading to high dropouts (Barone, 2005;Bridgeland et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Purpose Previous studies have mainly discussed the impact of student engagement on different facets of academic performance. Research on the approaches to promote student engagement in a classroom setting (i.e., micro-level practices) is relatively sparse. This paper provides a framework for enhancing student engagement in a university undergraduate classroom setting. Design/methodology/approach This study builds on action research. At the core of this approach is making interventions through a set of pedagogical approaches, derived from the literature. The impact of these interventions was measured, followed by reflections on the outcomes and developing a future improvement strategy. Findings Student engagement can be enhanced by using heterogeneous pedagogical approaches that positively influence student performance. Further, the use of mixed pedagogical approaches helps students and teachers acquire meta-cognitive knowledge (i.e., knowledge of their learning preferences) and sets the direction for learning. Research limitations/implications The key contribution of this study is providing a student engagement framework applicable in a sophomore-level classroom setting. The framework discusses a set of techniques, their theoretical underpinnings, the course of their execution and the challenges faced in this process. The framework can be used to guide enhancing student engagement. Originality/value Contrary to the macro-level measures, research on micro-level measures for promoting student engagement approaches is scarce. This study discusses not only different strategies but also details the dynamic course of their deployment. The study, therefore, is unique in its contribution.
... Derslerde yaşanan can sıkıntısının, öğrencilerin devamsızlık yapma nedenleri arasında olduğuna ilişkin araştırma sonuçları da bulunmaktadır (Altınkurt, 2008). Ayrıca öğrencilerin fiziksel ve siber zorbalık (Çelebi ve Aliyev, 2017; Yaman ve Peker, 2012) okul terki (Robinson, 1975;Maroldo, 1986;Bridgeland, DiIulio ve Morison, 2006) ve sigaraya başlama (Vatan, Ocakoğlu ve İrgil, 2009) gibi bazı olumsuz alışkanlık ve davranışlarının da can sıkıntısı ile ilişkili olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Akademik can sıkıntısı çok boyutlu bir yapıya işaret etmekte ve öğrencilerin algıladıkları zorluk durumlarına göre de değişiklik göstermektedir (Acee, vd., 2010). ...
... Ayrıca akademik can sıkıntısının okul terki ile ilişkili olduğunu ortaya koyan çalışma sonuçları da bulunmaktadır (Robinson, 1975;Maroldo, 1986). Başka bir çalışmaya göre de öğrencilerin okuldan ayrılma nedenleri arasında can sıkıntısı üst sıralarda yer almaktadır (Bridgeland, DiIulio ve Morison, 2006). ...
... Eng 2013; Nguon 2012), but little has been identified regarding its effects on dropout (e.g. Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison 2006). Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison (2006) found that parents' academic involvement was a strong predictor for graduating or dropping out of high school. ...
... Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison 2006). Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison (2006) found that parents' academic involvement was a strong predictor for graduating or dropping out of high school. Other common predictive variables of school dropout are family structures (e.g. ...
Article
In recent years, the Royal Government of Cambodia has strongly emphasised the issue of school dropout. To date, many Cambodian workers have still not completed at least nine years of basic education due to the high dropout rate. Additionally, a great number of students at the secondary level continue to leave school early. To deal with the high dropout rate, addressing factors influencing dropout is crucial for Cambodia’s educational policy. This correlational study examined what factors might influence dropout from lower secondary schools in rural Cambodia. Twenty lower secondary schools from four rural districts were randomly selected, and 517 seventh graders were followed for an academic year. Due to the nested and hierarchical structure of the data, the current study employed a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) for the analyses. Student-, family-, and school-related factors were estimated using the two-level HLM models. The results indicate that grade retention, absenteeism, academic expectations, and private tutoring significantly influenced dropout, whereas family- and school-related factors had no effect on dropout. Practical implications are discussed with the call for solid evidence-based strategies to decrease the dropout rate.
... Okulu terk edenlerin neredeyse yarısı, okulu bırakmalarının başlıca nedeninin derslerin ilgi çekici olmaması olduğunu ve %70'i çok çalışmak için motive olmadıklarını ileri sürmektedir. Dijital oyunların katılım faktörünün benzersiz değeri, özellikle daha zorlu öğrenme durumlarında, motivasyonu sürdürmede zorluk çekilen durumlarda normal sınıf etkinliklerinden daha ilgi çekici olabilir ve çocukların derslere tam katılımını sağlamaları için kullanılabilir (Bridgeland, DiIulio Jr, & Morison, 2006;Rupp, Gushta, Mislevy, & Shaffer, 2010). ...
Chapter
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Oyunlar, çocuk ve ergenlere (adölesanlara) eğitim, fiziksel aktivite, sağlığın korunması ve gelişimi, yaşama hazırlık, boş zamanları değerlendirme ve eğlence gibi çeşitli olanaklar sunmaktadır. Bilişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelerle birlikte geleneksel oyunlar da yeni bir boyut kazanarak “dijital oyunlar” kavramını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Dijital oyunlar, erken çocukluk döneminden itibaren her yaş grubu tarafından tercih edilirken günlük yaşamlarının vazgeçilmez bir unsuru haline gelmiştir. Dijital oyunlar birçok yönden faydalı olmakla birlikte bilinçsiz, aşırı ve yanlış kullanım ve maruz kalınan problemli içeriklerden dolayı bireyler üzerinde olumsuz etkiler de oluşturabilmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu bölümün amacı, çocuk ve adölesanlarda dijital oyunların yararları, zararları ve riskleri konusunda farkındalık oluşturmaktır. Bu kapsamda, bu bölümde dijital oyunların çocuklar ve ergenlerin gelişimi ve sağlığı üzerindeki etkileri ortaya konulmaya çalışılacak ve ortaya çıkacak zarar ve risklerin önlenmesi için yapılması gerekenler ve alınması gereken önlemler öneriler olarak sunulacaktır.
... Too often dropouts report that they had combative or no adult relationship on campus (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006). A growing body of research has also identified the importance of student perceptions of teacher relationships (Assor, 2012;Kafele, 2013). ...
Research
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Although school dropout rate remains a significant social and economic concern to our nation and has generated considerable research, little attention by scholars has examined the phenomena of re-engagement in effective school context and its developmental influences on at-risk students expectancy for success and task-value towards graduation. Given the multifaceted interactions of school context and the complex developmental needs of at-risk students, there were dual purposes for this three-phase, two-method qualitative study that addressed the literature concerns. The first purpose was to explore and identify policies, programs, and practices perceived as being most effective in re-engaging at-risk students behaviorally, emotionally, and cognitively, at ten Model Continuation High Schools in California. Phases one and two collected data on the Model Continuation High Schools (MCHS) to address this purpose. In phase one, an inductive document review of the ten MCHS applications including four statement letters was conducted and results identified eleven policies, ten programs, and eleven practices that were effective in re-engaging at-risk students behaviorally, emotionally, and cognitively. In phase two, the phenomenological ten-step analysis of semi-structured administrator interviews revealed eight re-engaging implementation strategies perceived to be effective with at-risk students. The second purpose was to build upon Eccles' Expectancy-Value Theoretical Framework by gaining insight on effective school context that supported at-risk students' developmentally appropriate expectancy for success and task-value beliefs towards graduation. Phase three conducted a deductive content analysis of eight theoretical based components on the combine data collected in phases one and two to address this second purpose. Results revealed that principles of Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Model were evident in all identified policies, programs, and practices of the ten MCHS. Model Continuation High Schools are exemplary sites with effective school context that have much to share with other continuation high schools looking for successful re-engaging approaches for at-risk students. The research provided results suggesting that MCHS had significant policies, programs, practices and implementation strategies that transform disengaged at-risk students into graduates by developing students' expectancy for success belief and task-value belief towards graduation. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
... Education institutions are faced with the challenge of low student retention rates and high number of dropouts [41,31]. For examples, in United States, each year almost onethird of public high school students fail to graduate from high school [36,7] and over 41% undergraduate students at four-year institutions failed to graduate within six years in Fall 2009 [34]. Hence, research work has focused on predicting the dropout problem and developing dropout prevention strategies [36,37,8,51,12,29,9,45]. Zhang and Rangwala develop an at-risk student identification approach based on iterative logistic regression that utilizes all the information from historical data from previous cohorts [54]. ...
Preprint
With the rapid emergence of K-12 online learning platforms, a new era of education has been opened up. By offering more affordable and personalized courses compared to in-person classrooms, K-12 online tutoring is pushing the boundaries of education to the general public. It is crucial to have a dropout warning framework to preemptively identify K-12 students who are at risk of dropping out of the online courses. Prior researchers have focused on predicting dropout in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which often deliver higher education, i.e., graduate level courses at top institutions. However, few studies have focused on developing a machine learning approach for students in K-12 online courses. The dropout prediction scenarios are significantly different between MOOC based learning and K-12 online tutoring in many aspects such as environmental modalities, learning goals, online behaviors, etc. In this paper, we develop a machine learning framework to conduct accurate at-risk student identification specialized in K-12 multimodal online environments. Our approach considers both online and offline factors around K-12 students and aims at solving the challenging problems of (1) multiple modalities, i.e., K-12 online environments involve interactions from different modalities such as video, voice, etc; (2) length variability, i.e., students with different lengths of learning history; (3) time sensitivity, i.e., the dropout likelihood is changing with time; and (4) data imbalance, i.e., only less than 20\% of K-12 students will choose to drop out the class. We conduct a wide range of offline and online experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. In our offline experiments, we show that our method improves the dropout prediction performance when compared to state-of-the-art baselines on a real-world educational data set.
... Adolescent pregnancy and parenting responsibilities directly increases a parenting student's risk of dropping out of high school. For example, in an U.S. high school dropout study conducted by Bridgeland et al. (2006), 33% of female and nearly 20% of male dropouts identified that a key factor in their decision to drop out of high school was becoming an adolescent parent. Parenting responsibilities have also been found to directly impact pregnant and parenting students' educational attainment and quality of life; 51% of girls who became an adolescent parent received a high school degree by the age of 22, 48% of all mothers aged 15 to 19 lived below the poverty line, and 34% of adolescent parents who still resided with their parents lived below the poverty line (Perper et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Occupational scientists have long examined the challenges of discrimination within societies, and this paper utilizes qualitative research to examine a) occupational justice and how it relates to the social inequality of pregnant and parenting students; b) the connection of United States Title IX federal law and occupational justice; c) how a pregnant and parenting school-based program in a Midwest Urban School District utilized Title IX federal law and concepts of occupational justice to address academic and social inequality; and d) how the Parent Infant Interaction Program (PIIP) administrators implemented socially and culturally responsive occupation-based interventions to empower pregnant and parenting students. As a qualitative case study, this inquiry used content analysis of documents and open coding of semi-structured interviews with administrative stakeholders, to draw upon historical, demographic, and narrative data. This article will exemplify how an educational program and its administrators, as identified through the Participatory Occupational Justice Framework, Culturally Relevant, and Culturally Responsive Framework, aimed to forge parenting students’ occupational agency and create a framework to allow them to achieve their academic and personal goals.
... This makes boredom relevant to explore in addition to emotional engagement, in relation to dropout intentions. Previous interview-studies with retrospective designs suggest that boredom may be an important factor in school dropout (Bearden, Spencer, & Moracco, 1989;Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006;Farrell, Peguero, Lindsey, & White, 1988;Tidwell, 1988). Quantitative studies covering larger samples, and from the Scandinavian context, seem to be particularly lacking. ...
Article
Teachers are crucial agents in adolescents’ school life, and teachers’ roles involve both academic and socio-emotional functions. This study examined how first-year students in upper secondary school in Norway (n = 1379) perceive aspects of teacher support (emotional support, feedback quality, and autonomy granting), and the associations with intentions to quit school. Based on priori considerations, direct associations of teacher support with intentions to quit and indirect associations via emotional engagement and boredom were tested through structural equation modeling. The model was adjusted for GPA, gender, immigrant background, and study track. Results indicated that perceived emotional support was the most central aspect of teacher support, as revealed by both indirect and direct associations with intentions to quit. Feedback quality and autonomy granting were weakly and indirectly associated with intentions to quit. Boredom was an important factor associated with intentions to quit.
... School attendance problems, including school absenteeism, are common to many students worldwide (UNESCO, 2012). School absenteeism has been linked to academic performance and achievement deficiencies, various mental health and social problems, and later school dropout (Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Attwood and Croll, 2015). School problem-solving skills. ...
Article
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School attendance problems, including school absenteeism, are common to many students worldwide, and frameworks to better understand these heterogeneous students include multiple classes or tiers of intertwined risk factors as well as interventions. Recent studies have thus examined risk factors at varying levels of absenteeism severity to demarcate distinctions among these tiers. Prior studies in this regard have focused more on demographic and academic variables and less on family environment risk factors that are endemic to this population. The present study utilized ensemble and classification and regression tree analysis to identify potential family environment risk factors among youth (i.e., children and adolescents) at different levels of school absenteeism severity (i.e., 1 + %, 3 + %, 5 + %, 10 + %). Higher levels of absenteeism were also examined on an exploratory basis. Participants included 341 youth aged 5–17 years (M = 12.2; SD = 3.3) and their families from an outpatient therapy clinic (68.3%) and community (31.7%) setting, the latter from a family court and truancy diversion program cohort. Family environment risk factors tended to be more circumscribed and informative at higher levels of absenteeism, with greater diversity at lower levels. Higher levels of absenteeism appear more closely related to lower achievement orientation, active-recreational orientation, cohesion, and expressiveness, though several nuanced results were found as well. Absenteeism severity levels of 10–15% may be associated more with qualitative changes in family functioning. These data may support a Tier 2-Tier 3 distinction in this regard and may indicate the need for specific family-based intervention goals at higher levels of absenteeism severity.
... As with young people who provide moderate amounts of assistance to their families, many youth caregivers gain a sense of purpose, familial closeness (Shifren, 2008), and capability (Bauman et al., 2006). However, youth's family care is also associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety (Cohen, Greene, Toyinbo, & Siskowski, 2012;Hunt et al., 2005), decreased academic performance, interferences with attendance and learning (Bauman et al., 2006;Diaz, Siskowski, & Connors, 2007;Kavanaugh, 2014), and increased risk of not finishing high school if they are earning wages for the family outside the home (Bridgeland et al., 2006). Negative outcomes may be more common or severe when youth's household tasks conflict with school activities (Siskowski, 2006), or when youth lack effective coping strategies or informational resources . ...
Article
Youth provide significant contributions to their families, ranging from completing household chores to taking care of members of the family. Researchers have examined correlates, predictors, and consequences of the variation in youth’s contributions to their families. One body of work has examined family assistance—youth’s help with household chores. Another has looked at youth caregivers who provide significant, ongoing care to family members with health needs. This research has been disaggregated across various theoretical models, methods, and terms, making it difficult to investigate and understand the full spectrum of youth’s contributions to the family. In this article, we summarize evidence about youth’s help and care for the family across a fuller spectrum of behaviors and intensity, and review the challenges and strengths of myriad methods and conceptual models. We propose a unifying approach for investigating youth’s contributions to the family that capitalizes on the strengths of each discipline and prioritizes interdisciplinary sharing of resources.
... Parental involvement in the education of children enhances their participation and success in school (Bridgeland et al., 2006). In this study, children whose parents teach them at home are more likely (1.63 odds) to continue their study than the children whose parents do not teach them at home. ...
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Regardless of the enhancement in government outlays on investment in the education sector for universalizing elementary education, the continual incidences of school dropout remain as a bolt in the face of commendable increase of school enrolment rate in India. Undoubtedly, rate of school dropout children has declined but still pervasive in many parts of the country which needs to have a close look. However, very little attention was paid on issues related to dropouts in the states of north-eastern India. The present study tries to address ground realities of dropout conditions in Manipur. The study will explore the influences of socio-economic, demographic, psychological, school related and community level factors responsible for dropping out and associated policy implications. The analysis is based on the empirical investigation in selected rural locations of the two districts (Imphal West and Churachandpur) in Manipur, which was conducted in 2013. The study clearly reveals that the dropout rate is notably higher in upper primary level than the primary level of education. The study indicates that the primary reasons for dropout of children from the school were school related and socioeconomic factors. Moreover, despite the poverty and illiteracy of parents, political instability in the study area is forcing the children to dropout from school. The regression results showed that both parent’s education, income of the households, number of family member, age of the child, type and distance from the school, participation in school activities, skipping classes, parent’s assistance in teaching at home, help in domestic works at home are the key determinants of dropout from school.
... Today more than ever, high school graduation has become a social expectation as well as a prerequisite for success in the current marketplace (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). School engagement has become a prominent predictor of academic achievements in the literature as nearly half of all high school dropouts report being bored and uninterested in classes and 69% report being unmotivated to work hard (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006). The literature has continued to point to the important role of parents in promoting their adolescents' grade point average (GPA) and school engagement (Hill & Wang, 2015). ...
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Parental involvement in their adolescents' education plays an important role in promoting their children's academic outcomes. Yet, more research is needed to examine the relationship between parenting practices and parental warmth as well as to consider the potential joint contribution of warmth from both fathers and mothers. Thus, the primary purpose of the current study is to examine the extent to which patterns of parental warmth across fathers and mothers moderate the association between parental involvement and adolescents' grade point average (GPA) and school engagement behaviors. Latent profile analysis was conducted to identify disparate profiles of fathers' and mothers' warmth within a nationally representative sample of 2,306 youths (51% male; mean age = 15.31 years, SD = 1.50; 77% non-Hispanic White) residing in opposite-sex, two-parent families from Wave I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Latent-class enumeration processes support a five-profile solution characterized by differences in levels of parental warmth and congruency across parents: (a) Congruent High Warmth, (b) Congruent Moderate Warmth, (c) Congruent Low Warmth, (d) Incongruent High Mother/Low Father Warmth, and (e) Incongruent Low Father/Lower Mother Warmth. Subsequent multiple linear regression analyses reveal a moderating effect for Congruent Low Warmth on the relationship between parental involvement and adolescents' GPA. Ultimately, the results show that variation in parental warmth exists across fathers and mothers with differing impact on adolescents' outcomes. Excluding one parent without considering the joint effects of both parents will not produce an accurate and precise understanding of parenting in research or practice.
... .g.Balfanz, Fox, Bridgeland, & McNaught, 2008;Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, to be very useful in framing research on graduation outcomes. Measures of engagement focused on emotions, attitudes, and cognitive beliefs -often related to experiences within families, communities, and schools -have been shown to be related to dropout outcomes, though school-related behaviors (which are highly correlated with attitudes by the ninth grade) are more strongly related to outcomes than are attitudes. ...
... It is clear that those students face significant academic challenges as EFL (English as a foreign language) students although they seem to have some sort of confidence that they can graduate. In theory, the reasons why students cannot progress smoothly in any academic program can include a perception that school is boring; feeling unmotivated; facing multiple academic challenges; and personal situations (Bridgeland et al., 2006). ...
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p> The current study examined the motivation of 48 newly-admitted students at the English department of Umm Al-Qura University for the study and learning of English as a foreign language. The surveyed informants responded to a two-part questionnaire that measured their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in an attempt to explore the problems that many students encounter during their college life that negatively affect their academic progress. Students’ responses revealed that they were highly motivated to learn the target language—which may indicate that there are other factors related to students’ underachievement. The study recommends that students’ motivation be reexamined at different stages during their enrollment in the BA program and that other aspects related to students’ achievement, such as language aptitude, cognitive style and memory, and other affective factors, such as attitudes and anxiety, be scrutinized. In addition, promoting students’ motivation is a key step towards improving classroom atmosphere and making learning more effective and persistent. Learners need to have positive relationships with teachers. Positive affirmations, constructive guidance, and encouraging words serve as a secure base to enhance their self-esteem, create a positive learning experience, and build constructive attitudes towards learning the target language. </p
... The sample included 3,669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 elementary, middle, and high schools (Marks, 2000). Another study found that eighty-one percent of those who dropped out of school thought that "opportunities for real-world learning" would have helped them stay in school (Bridgeland et al., 2006). More recently, in 2009, yet another study with ninth graders, found that the more relevant science was to students, the higher was their interest in science. ...
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Satellite remote sensing has been largely adopted in all kinds of environmental applications as it has proved to be an excellent tool for research and decision-making purposes. It has also been recognized as an important educational tool in the past years. However, it has been insufficiently incorporated in school practice, especially at the elementary level. This article describes the use of remotes sensing as a tool to present science topics in the elementary classroom. A phenomenon-based approach was adopted to introduce the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHI) to eighty-one second and third-grade students. The students’ experiences in their learning environment were collected with the use of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. The pedagogical approach encouraged the students’ critical thinking and individual observations to try to explain the phenomenon working with the other students and the adults in the class- room. The phenomenon-based approach, along with the powerful visualizations of the remotely sensed data kept the students motivated and active. Seventy-one percent of the students reported that this was an engaging activity, and seventy-eight percent said that they would like to participate in similar activities in the future. The rest of the responses were neutral. None of the students were previously familiar with remote sensing or the UHI. This experience showed that it is critical to have adequate and appropriate resources readily available, as well as efficient facilitation in order to tackle this pedagogical approach. The activity was organized for Earth Observation Day (EOD), 2016, in the framework of a West Virginia View funded project. EOD is a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) educational outreach event that occurs yearly and during which scientists, all of whom are experts in remote sensing and related geospatial technologies, are available to support teachers in their respective states.
... Lack of teachers' role in site decision-making results in greater teacher turnover and consequent lower instructional quality that particularly impact vulnerable student populations at risk of being pushed out of the educational system. Student outcomes such as rate of high school graduation and persistence are directly correlated to teacher preparation and instructional quality (Bridgeland et al., 2006;Aaronson et al., 2007;Kane et al., 2006;Hanushek et al., 2005;Darling-Hammond, 1998;Elmore, 2000;Most, 1996). Researchers have determined that teachers make major gains in efficacy in their first three years and experience more incremental growth over the following few years (Harris & Sass, 2011;McCaffrey et al., 2003;Hanushek et al., 2005). ...
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Power structures in U.S. public schools have grown increasingly more hierarchical in response to a perceived decline in K-12 instructional quality. The rising prominence of high-stakes accountability mechanisms has resulted in top-down limiting of teachers' role in site decision-making. Promoting a more prominent teacher role in school governance is a promising countermeasure to the teacher turnover and lower quality of instruction disproportionately found in schools serving vulnerable populations. When educators have a greater voice in site decision-making, they are more committed to the organizational vision and more likely to stay at a school. Student academic and civic outcomes also improve when school governance is democratically collaborative. Recognizing the need for additional research on the relationship between formal, prescribed decision-making authority and the dynamics of educator-run school governance in practice, one site was examined through a qualitative, case study approach using an integrated theoretical framework that incorporated structure, culture and agency and the areas of collective autonomy exploring (1) the role of teachers in site governance at an educator-run school and (2) the structural and cultural systems that support or hinder teachers' role in site decision-making. Qualitative data compiled through interviews, observations of decision-making meetings and gathering of site documents clarified how structural and cultural systems shape and are shaped by teachers’ participation in site decision-making. Analysis of the themes and categories that surfaced from the data shed light on the research questions. Findings from the study indicated that systems that hinder teachers’ participation in school governance are legal, district and budget constraints, lack of preparation and mistrust. Governing documents that support significant teachers’ role in school-level decisions are the pilot school agreement and Elect-to-Work Agreement with its annual teacher-driven revisiting and refinement. Representative leadership, rotating leadership and protocols help to democratize decision-making at the research site by providing transparent structures to guide selection of leaders and horizontal collaboration. Cultural systems that support significant teachers’ role in school-level decisions are a common vision, collaboration, sense of ownership, peer accountability, mentoring and organizing skills.
... This survey which was administered to more than 42,000 high school students and covered 103 schools in 27 states, found that 66% of U.S. students were bored, citing uninteresting and irrelevant materials in the classroom. Bridgeland, Dilulio and Morrison [9] identified that the major cause (46%) of school drop-out was the uninteresting nature of the classroom. Student engagement is therefore an important element of academic success, persistence and retention. ...
... formal mentorship and role models within friend and family networks exacerbate the educational challenges facing these students [11][12][13] . As a result, these students are underrepresented in higher education, most notably in STEM [14][15][16][17][18][19] . ...
... One clear characteristic of SEL is that it is specifically designed to align with academic goals. Many studies have investigated what constitutes quality SEL programs (Aspen Institute 2018), how they affect students' retention and attrition (Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Morison 2006), the benefits SEL brings to students' academic performance (Zins et al. 2007;Payton et al. 2008), teachers' impressions of its impact (Bridgeland, Bruce, and Hariharan 2013), and the benefits of SEL in marginalized settings, in public governance, and in social functioning (USAID 2019). ...
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Since 2015, more than 560,000 South Sudanese primary school children have received psychosocial support (PSS) through the USAID-funded Integrated Essential Emergency Education Services program implemented by UNICEF. Several South Sudan-based nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF to train local teachers to implement the PSS activities in child-friendly spaces. To evaluate the impact this intervention had on students' wellbeing and academic performance, a multi-institutional consortium of multidisciplinary partners purposively sampled 2,982 students and 580 teachers in 64 schools from five states in the Republic of South Sudan. Critical to the evaluation's aims was the design of a contextually relevant, rigorously validated instrument to measure students' wellbeing in a region where research on PSS outcomes in education in emergencies is needed. In this article, we first present the process by which these survey instruments were designed through the collaborative efforts of experts on measuring psychosocial support outcomes in conflict settings and experts on the local context. We then describe how we tested for the construct validity of the resulting instrument and present the results of our confirmatory factor analysis of its three-factor model of social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, and resilience/coping. Finally, based on our process and the resulting instrument, we make recommendations for future research on PSS outcomes in emergency settings.
... With regard to Cummin's (1992) first factor (above), research supports his conclusion that students who cannot reconcile what they are learning in school to their lives outside of school can become disengaged from the school's curriculum and become disruptive and ripe for dropping out of school. For example, the most frequent reason students give for dropping out of school is boredom (Bridgeland et al., 2006;Reyhner, 1992). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this study was to frame promising practices for Indigenous students in United States American Indian and Canadian First Nation schools. Through a relational, narrative interview process, a cohesive focus emerged on holistic views of education and success, the importance of non-Indigenous teachers’ engagement with multiple Indigenous perspectives, particularly those of their own students and their families, and the importance of developing an interconnected relationship between administrators, teachers, students, and families. The findings are practical and directly applicable within Indigenous and tribal models of success.
... Moreover, although pulling factors such as employment and family issues are being indicated less and less often as reasons for IS in subsequent generations (Doll, Eslami, and Walters 2013), Polish youth still identify taking up work as the main reason for IS and a major one for not continuing education at a higher level after graduation (GUS 2013). Meanwhile, Polish students rarely indicated school-related problems such as poor academic performance, not liking school, or not getting along with teachers and/or peers, which were among the most frequent reasons for IS among American students (Boylan and Renzulli 2017;Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison 2006;Doll, Eslami, and Walters 2013). ...
Article
The aim of the study was to assess the scale of various interrupted schooling trajectories among Polish youth, and to identify the differences and similarities between students following these trajectories and their reasons for interrupting education. In a dataset of 5,414 young Polish adults, we identified 343 (6.3%) learners who left upper-secondary school at least once and followed one of four interrupted schooling trajectories: school non-completion, school switching non-completion, school switching completion and ISCED 3 graduates’ non-completion. They differed from non-interrupted learners in the type of first attended upper-secondary school, gender and socio-economic status, although the pattern of differences varied depending on the trajectory. We also observed differences between interrupted trajectories in the above-mentioned characteristics, as well as in reasons for leaving or switching school, which gives evidence of heterogeneity among interrupted learners. This heterogeneity appeared also in groups usually analysed together, such as early school leavers, which should be taken into account in future studies. Moreover, the analyses showed important similarities between the school non-completion trajectory, which is usually covered in studies, and the ISCED 3 graduates’ non-completion trajectory, which to date remained unrecognised. The results served as a basis for policy recommendations.
... When students lack perceptions of self-relevance, they may disengage from the experience and potentially withdraw from it as documented for high school dropouts (Bridgeland et al. 2006). In the WIL project, students may be less clear about why they are asked to create the app for the NGO and Australasian Conference on Information Systems Matook et al. 2021, Sydney WIL experiential learning for metacognition thus, they may question their participation in the development work (Carver 1996). ...
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Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) is an educational approach to improve workplace readiness. WIL achieves this by integrating theory with practice. The emphasis is on real experiences and practical problem-solving. Low-code platforms are a suitable teaching tool for the theory-practice integration. Yet, graduates also need metacognition to be workplace ready. Through metacognition, students learn how to learn by deeply reflecting on their thinking. However, WIL focuses on domain learning, lesser on metacognitive thinking. This study draws on experiential learning theory to examine WIL aspects on their influence on metacognitive thinking. In a survey, we test experiential learning factors (authenticity, active learning, self-relevance, and utility) and metacognition when students develop a software app. Results show that authenticity, active learning, and utility influence metacognition; however, self-relevance of the WIL does not. Consequently, IS educators should tailor the WIL to be authentic and useful, for active learners to support metacognition in low-code WIL teaching.
... Harmon (2002) found this as well. Further, Bridgeland, DiIulio, and Morison (2006) studied almost 500 racially and culturally diferent students who dropped out of school. What is both unique and alarming about this sample is that almost 90% of them had passing grades-they were average and high achievers! ...
... Unfortunately, this decline is consistent with prior research showing decreases in student engagement, motivation, and academic performance after the ninth-grade transition. 63,64 In the context of this normative downward trend, interventions such as E-EMR may reduce deterioration and protect against certain risks, which may preserve students' academic engagement and performance during critical developmental transitions. Future research that includes a control group can identify whether E-EMR in fact does buffer against even more severe declines. ...
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BACKGROUND Student‐teacher relationships are associated with the social and emotional climate of a school, a key domain of the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model. Few interventions target student‐teacher relationships during the critical transition to high school, or incorporate strategies for enhancing equitable relationships. We conducted a mixed‐methods feasibility study of a student‐teacher relationship intervention, called Equity‐Explicit Establish‐Maintain‐Restore (E‐EMR). METHODS We tested whether students (N = 133) whose teachers received E‐EMR training demonstrated improved relationship quality, school belonging, motivation, behavior, and academic outcomes from pre‐ to post‐test, and whether these differences were moderated by race. We also examined how teachers (N = 16) integrated a focus on equity into their implementation of the intervention. RESULTS Relative to white students, students of the color showed greater improvement on belongingness, behavior, motivation, and GPA. Teachers described how they incorporated a focus on race/ethnicity, culture, and bias into E‐EMR practices, and situated their relationships with students within the contexts of their own identity, the classroom/school context, and broader systems of power and privilege. CONCLUSIONS We provide preliminary evidence for E‐EMR to change teacher practice and reduce educational disparities for students of color. We discuss implications for other school‐based interventions to integrate an equity‐explicit focus into program content and evaluation.
... a survey of young people who did not complete high school found that 69% reported feeling unmotivated and uninspired at school (Bridgeland et al., 2006). Schools have an opportunity and responsibility to promote a culture that supports students in developing and maintaining their motivation, engagement, and self-improvement. ...
Article
A motivating and engaging school environment has been associated with several positive student outcomes. Consequently, schools have an opportunity and responsibility to promote a culture that supports students in developing and maintaining their motivation, engagement, and self-improvement. Efforts to promote such a culture can be embedded within a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework. In this paper, we begin by describing motivation and engagement, and discussing the relevance of these concepts in schools. Next, we introduce the traditional PBIS framework, highlighting research and core features. Third, we propose how PBIS can be enhanced by incorporating a focus on relationships, engagement, and motivation in the school setting. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for school teams seeking to implement this approach.
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Less than half of adolescent mothers graduate from high school and fewer obtain a post-secondary degree. The purpose of this study is to understand how Latina mothers who experienced childbirth during adolescence transition to parenthood and higher education. We conducted 13 in-depth interviews with Latina mothers enrolled in higher education. We found that Latina mothers’ persistence in higher education is influenced by psychosocial factors, initial commitments, academic and social experiences in college, and final commitments.
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In the United States, more than 5.4 million children and adolescents under age 18 provide care for family members who are aging or have chronic illness, disability, or other health conditions that require assistance. In this policy report, we describe youth’s care for the family, and highlight the increasing prevalence, global challenges, and uneven successes of measurement and categorization. We briefly summarize research on how caregiving affects youth’s academic, social, and emotional well‐being. Next, we present novel, emerging evidence from the public school‐based 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for the State of Florida, which suggests that as many as 24% of middle school students and 16% of high school students provide at least some care to the family on a regular basis. Drawing on this evidence, we discuss targeted social programs which have been shown to promote the well‐being of caregiving youth outside of the United States, as well as a 13‐year‐old school‐based intervention in The School District of Palm Beach County, Florida. We conclude with specific recommendations for a path toward recognizing and supporting caregiving youth via policy and practice in the United States. Our aim is to increase the awareness and feasibility of identifying and supporting caregiving youth and their families via government‐organized data collection and targeted social policies.
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Jongeren die zonder diploma middelbaar onderwijs de schoolbanken verlaten, ondervinden gemiddeld genomen meer moeilijkheden doorheen hun leven dan jongeren met een middelbaar diploma. Toch is deze eerste groep van vroegtijdig schoolverlaters (vsv’ers) nog steeds omvangrijk. In 2015 bedroeg het percentage jongeren tot 24 jaar die geen diploma secundair onderwijs hebben en niet langer aan onderwijs of training deelnemen in Vlaanderen 7,2%. In vergelijking met andere landen uit de EU-28 staat Vlaanderen daarmee op de achtste plaats, terwijl het beter doet dan de Franstalige Gemeenschap (13,1%) en het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest (15,8%).
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The current study advances past research by studying the impact of juvenile justice decision making with a geographically and ethnically diverse sample (N = 1,216) of adolescent boys (ages 13–17 years) for the 5 years following their first arrest. Importantly, all youth in the study were arrested for an eligible offense of moderate severity (e.g., assault, theft) to evaluate whether the initial decision to formally (i.e., sentenced before a judge) or informally (i.e., diverted to community service) process the youth led to differences in outcomes. The current study also advanced past research by using a statistical approach that controlled for a host of potential preexisting vulnerabilities that could influence both the processing decision and the youth's outcomes. Our findings indicated that youth who were formally processed during adolescence were more likely to be re-arrested, more likely to be incarcerated, engaged in more violence, reported a greater affiliation with delinquent peers, reported lower school enrollment, were less likely to graduate high school within 5 years, reported less ability to suppress aggression, and had lower perceptions of opportunities than informally processed youth. Importantly, these findings were not moderated by the age of the youth at his first arrest or his race and ethnicity. These results have important implications for juvenile justice policy by indicating that formally processing youth not only is costly, but it can reduce public safety and reduce the adolescent's later potential contributions to society.
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Eğitimin başlıca görevi bireyin yaşam standartlarını yükseltmek, toplumsal refahı arttırmak ve güçlü bir ekonomi için nitelikli bireyler yetiştirmektir. Eğitim bu doğrultularda sistemleştirilir (millileştirilir) ve çeşitli biçimlerde (örgün, yaygın ve uzaktan) bireylerin hizmetine sunulur. Bu eğitim biçimlerinden bireyin üzerinde yapıcı etkiye sahip en nitelikli olanı örgün eğitimdir. Bireylerin yeterli dereceye ulaşmadan örgün eğitimden kopması düşük yaşam standartlarında hayatlarını idame ettirmeleri ve nitelik gerektirmeyen meslek gruplarında çalışmalarıyla sonuçlanır. Bu çalışma, örgün eğitimi terk edip çırak olarak çalışan gençlerin okul terki nedenlerinin araştırılmasına odaklanmıştır. “Okul terki” ve “okuldan kopma süreci” kavramları araştırmanın temel kavramları olarak kullanılmıştır. Okul terki olarak adlandırılan durum, eğitim öğretime devam eden öğrencinin farklı olumsuz nedenlerden dolayı içinde bulunduğu eğitim basamağını tamamlayamamasıdır. Okuldan kopma süreci ise okul terkini hazırlayan bir zaman dilimidir. Her iki kavram da lise yıllarında örgün eğitimden ayrılma durumuna yoğunlaşır. Alanyazın incelendiğinde, çırak gençler hakkında derinlemesine çalışmaların yapılmadığına ve örgün eğitimi terk eden öğrencilerin okul terkinden sonra neler yaptıklarına odaklanılmadığı görülmüştür. Bu araştırmanın çalışmanın grubu, Kütahya Meslek Edindirme Merkezi’ne kayıtlı çırak gençlerden oluşmuştur. Katılımcılarla, yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılarak yüz yüze derinlemesine görüşmeler ve odak grup görüşmeleri yapılmıştır. Toplamda 35 çırak ile görüşülmüştür. Görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler betimsel analiz yöntemiyle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulgularına göre, çırak gençlerin, okul kuralları ve yöneticileri ile problem yaşadıkları, ailelerinin onların eğitimlerine özen göstermedikleri, çocukluk hayali meslekleri yapmak istedikleri için okulu terk ettikleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Çırak gençler daha çok meslek liselerini terk etmişlerdir ve onların okul terkindeki öncül neden ilgisizlikten kaynaklandığı tespit edilmiştir. Örgün eğitim hayatlarında adaptasyon sorunu yaşayan gençlerin Meslek Edindirme Merkezine gidip bir iş yerinde çalışmalarına rağmen herhangi bir adaptasyon sorunuyla karşılaşmamışlardır. Çırak gençlerin örgün eğitim hayatlarında problem yaşayarak okulu terk edip, çırak olmaları sürecini açıklamak için “çıraklaşma” kavramı oluşturulmuştur. Okul terkinin önlenmesi için okul terkinin en çok görüldüğü 8. Sınıf ve 9. Sınıfa geçiş dönemlerinde örgün eğitim içerisindeki risk grubunda olan öğrencilere rehberlik hizmeti verilmesinin gerekliliği ortaya çıkmıştır.
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In the Netherlands, the difference between senior general secondary and pre-university education is a major issue in political debates. Educationalists claim that most curriculum programmes, pedagogy and educational materials for secondary education use pre-university as a norm; senior general secondary education is understood as simply a lower level of pre-university education. In this study, differences in learning styles of students from both school levels were examined as well as the moderating role of learning styles in school motivation and performance. Subjects were a convenient sample of 204 students from a secondary school in medium-sized city in the western part the Netherlands. Students' learning style was measured by the Learning Style Inventory; school motivation and performance were both also measured by self-report items. Students of senior general secondary education differ from student of pre-university education in school motivation and performance, showing less motivation and lower performances for the former group of students. No differences in learning style were found. However, differences between students from senior general secondary education and pre-university education) in both school motivation and school performance were explained in different way by learning style. Interpretations of a different learning environment in both school levels are discussed. In the Netherlands, the difference between senior general secondary and pre-university education is a major issue in political debates. Educationalists claim that most curriculum programmes, pedagogy and educational materials for secondary education use pre-university as a norm. Senior general secondary education is understood as simply a lower level of pre-university education. However, students of both main streams of education may not only differ in ability, but also in school motivation and learning style. This would imply that senior general secondary education asks for a different curriculum, pedagogy and materials, instead of just pre-university education at a lower level. In this study, students from senior general secondary education and pre-university education were compared with respect to learning style, school motivation and performance and the way their learning styles explained differences in motivation and performance.
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p class="AbstractText">The objectives of this research are to find out (1) the motivation of the rural and urban students (2) the types of motivation influence the rural and urban students (3) the factors influence the motivation of the rural and urban students (4) the effective ways to foster the motivation of the rural and urban students. This research employed descriptive qualitative research design. The subject of this research is the ninth grade students of MTs Muhammadiyah Lempangang as urban students and the ninth grade students of MTs N 4 Bulukumba as rural students. The number of participants is 20 students. The result of research showed that (1) all of the informants of MTs N 4 Bulukumba as a rural area are motivated in Learning EFL. It is similar with the informants of MTs Muhammadiyah Lempangang as an urban area. They are also motivated. Both of areas are different in the level of motivation(2)the types of motivation dominantly influence in the rural students are both of integrative and instrumental motivation whereas in the urban students are instrumental motivation(3)the similarity between both of students area either internal or external factors are the expectancy, the teachers and the activities and materials whereas the difference from both of them are the relevance, the goal setting and the school environment(4)the effective ways to foster the motivation of the rural students in learning EFL is the teacher always trains the pronunciation of the vocabulary whereas the urban students is the teacher should have more practice activity in learning and teaching process.</p
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One of the major educational challenges in the United States is ensuring that all students graduate from high school. This article reviews research evidence on four facets of this issue: (1) the magnitude of the problem and trends over time; (2) the economic and social consequences of dropping out; (3) the causes of the problem, including individual factors and institutional factors associated with families, schools, and communities; and (4) solutions to the problem, ranging from smaller-scale programmatic solutions to larger-school systemic solutions.
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Introduction School absenteeism is increasingly recognized as a public health problem for healthcare professionals, policy makers, social workers, and educators. It is known to have short term as well as long term negative implications. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of school absenteeism and its associated factors among intermediate and secondary students in Saudi Arabia (SA). Methods A national cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents aged 10– 19 years (n = 12,121). Data on school-absenteeism, socio-demographics and risk behaviors were obtained and a multinomial logistic regression was conducted. Results The overall rate of school absenteeism was 76.1%, defind as being absent always/often, sometimes or rarely during this school year, with one-third of students being moderate or high absence. Students who reported poor relationships with their father, adolescents with polygamist fathers, smoking cigarettes, frequent napping, sleeping more than 10 h daily during weekends, being depressed or chronically ill, using the internet for >2 h daily, or rarely having breakfast during the last 30 days were strongly associated with high absenteeism. Conclusion High absenteeism among adolescents warrants specific attention be given to it in SA. Serious efforts and prevention interventions are needed to decrease school absence.
Article
This study examines how school-level and student-level factors influence primary school dropout in Burkina Faso. School-level factors were found to have a moderate effect in grade three and a small effect in grade five, while student performance on end-of-term class tests significantly affected students’ decisions to drop out in both grades. Other factors were found to have limited or no effects. A researcher-designed test showed that many children dropped out before acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills. These findings seemed to suggest that basic skill acquisition was not a matter of concern among students and their parents.
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This study constituted community-based, action research that sought to identify community needs and design indigenous community relevant STEAM projects in a local community of underserved students in Pakistan. This Community-Based Action Research is conducted in “The Tent School System”; a slum school in H-11 Islamabad, Pakistan. The five-phase cyclic action research process is implemented that involved: diagnosing and identifying community problems using Freirean process of generative themes, creating STEAM lesson plans for identified problems, designing useful products using lesson plans to solve problems, evaluation of this STEAM workshop and then specifying learning for next interaction of this STEAM action project. Drawing on needs assessment survey, post feedback survey and field notes, this mixed methods study explored the experiences of low-socioeconomic students participating in contextually authentic STEAM Projects. Based on the students’ feedback, it was revealed that the main sources of student engagement in this action research project were: the overall impact of these STEAM projects on their community and the skills they inculcated in them that made them capable of solving local community challenges on their own. The major strength of this study was its successful practical application of Freire’s theory of critical pedagogy for designing community relevant learning environment for the students. Key learnings of this study imply a useful example of how students can contribute their knowledge and skills to promote general community well-being. Furthermore, the fusion of critical pedagogy of place in STEAM model offers a unique pedagogical innovation to education practitioners all around the world.
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the process of building and developing ethnic studies courses, particularly the Mexican American and African American Studies Curriculum for Texas high schools. Dr. Lawrence Scott and the Honorable Marisa Perez-Diaz will discuss their contributions in the passage and implementation of Ethnic Studies courses, particularly as it relates to the African American Studies and Mexican American Studies Courses now offered for high schools around the State of Texas. This chapter explores the inception of both courses, the development, and the process of gaining consensus and concessions for both courses. Both courses were unanimously passed by the Texas State Board of Education (SBOE), but did see some challenges throughout the process. Dr. Lawrence Scott and Texas State Board of Education Member Marisa Perez-Diaz will also discuss how they employed varying leadership styles, in collaboration with stakeholders from around Texas to help establish, pass, and implement the Mexican American and African American Studies Courses in Texas.
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Gamification, the usage of elements relating to game design to non-game activities, has gained considerable attention from academia and industry. It is uncertain as to whether students require skills and challenges to engage them in the game for enhancing their learning. Thus, the objective of this article is to examine the mediating role of engagement in the relationship between skill and perceived learning as well as between challenge and perceived learning in game-based learning environments. Data was gathered using a survey of Player Unknown's Battlegrounds (PUBG) players. A total of 233 young Indian players participated in the study. The results showed that engagement fully mediates the relationship between skill and perceived learning as well as between challenge and perceived learning. This study contributes to the literature on game-based learning by providing evidence for the educational video games to be one of the effective means of learning. Results of the present study imply that the educational game designers can design challenging games to engage the students.
This article is the third of three on “Sources of Authority in Education.” All use the work of Amy Gutmann as a heuristic device to describe and explain the prevalence of market-based models of education reform in the US and the business-influenced Global Education Reform Movement. The other two are “Negating Amy Gutmann: Deliberative Democracy, Business Influence and Segmentation Strategies in Education” and “Neoliberalism and Four Spheres of Authority in American Education: Business, Class, Stratification and Intimations of Marketization.” All three are intended to be included together as chapters of my Democratic Education and Markets: Segmentation, Privatization and Sources of Authority in Education Reform.
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In response to the high school dropout crisis, which comes with great economic and social costs, early warning systems (EWSs) have been developed to systematically predict and improve student outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate different statistical and machine learning methods to predict high school student performance and improve EWSs. By improving education EWSs, this study aims to better identify those students in need of targeted support and inform on-the-ground practitioners who may intervene long before students may be dropping out. The current study explores the aforementioned methods in the context of a cohort of 40,008 Connecticut students. The study utilized more than 100 predictors and developed models to predict each student’s probability of being on-track to graduate within four years using data collected prior to a student’s entry into 9th grade. Random forests, classification and regression tree (CART, or decision tree), and regularized logistic regression—ridge, lasso, and elastic net—models were developed, and performance of the models was evaluated on a validation dataset by comparing classification accuracy measures. The study revealed that random forests models developed using a training set balanced by oversampling did the best job of identifying which students are at risk. These models captured complex interactions among covariates and performed best when thresholds were optimized using Youden’s index rather than defaulted at a 0.5 cut-off. The variable importance rankings showed that standardized test scores, attendance, and course performance were the top-ranking predictors of being on-track. Coefficients from elastic net models provided nuanced information to complement random forests results. In addition, incorporating detailed special education-related predictors served to improve classification accuracy, especially for students with disabilities. This study is filling a practical void in education to support the development of more sophisticated predictive models. This will be usable by researchers as an approach to ensure future EWSs work optimally. It is also an opportunity for practitioners to leverage new knowledge about students who are at-risk, and to test interventions at many levels in an attempt to improve graduation outcomes.
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Research has investigated a wide range of factors associated with dropout behavior, including family-related factors. However, most investigations of family-related factors have relied on structural measures, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and family income. Such measures reveal little about the processes by which families influence students' achievement. This study explores in greater detail a series of variables that reveal some of the mechanisms by which families influence students' decisions to drop out of school. The results suggest that families exert an important influence on dropout behavior, just as they do on other measures of students' academic achievement. Compared to other students, even other students who have similar demographic and grade profiles, dropouts are more likely to come from families in which they have to make decisions on their own and in which their parents are less involved in their education.
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Argues that we do not yet have a menu of program options for helping students at risk of dropping out and suggests a way to identify approaches that program developers can use while efforts to develop a stronger scientific basis for new programs continue.
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In tracking the educational progress of a sample of Baltimore school-children from entrance into first grade in fall 1982 through early spring 1996, the authors examined the children's personal qualities, first-grade experiences, and family circumstances as precursors to high school dropout. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dropout involving family context measures (stressful family changes, parents' attitudes, and parents' socialization practices), children's personal resources (attitudes and behaviors), and school experiences (test scores, marks, and track placements). These various measures were found to influence dropout independently of sociodemographic factors and account for much of the difference in the odds of dropout associated with family socioeconomic status, gender, family type, and other "risk factors." The authors take a life-course perspective on dropout, viewing it as the culmination of a long-term process of academic disengagement.
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This report is about the one-third of our nation who do not complete high school, about the fact that this situation has gotten worse in most states during the last decade, and about the factors in students' lives that are closely associated with dropping out of school. The report identifies several approaches to increasing student retention that evaluations have shown to have positive results. The author describes the steadily declining opportunities for dropouts after they leave school declining public investment in "second-chance" programs and declining earnings in the job market, and he describes the kinds of second chance efforts that have been shown to be effective. Higher expectations for student achievement, Barton argues, need to be matched by greater efforts and success in getting students through to graduation, thereby opening doors for more educational opportunities or decent paying jobs, and when students do drop out, there needs to be a larger system of second chance opportunities for them to drop into. Appended are: (1) Estimates of High School Completion Rates by State, 1990 and 2000; and (2) Regression Analysis Used to Predict High School Completion Rates.
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This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress, state legislators and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice professionals, and concerned citizens empirically based answers to frequently asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system's response. Citing the FBI and other data sources, the Report demonstrates that the rate of juvenile violent crime arrests has consistently decreased since 1994, falling to a level not seen since at least the 1970s. However, during this period of overall decline in juvenile violence, the female proportion of juvenile violent crime arrests has increased (especially for the crime of assault), marking an important change in the types of youth entering the juvenile justice system and in their programming needs. The report also describes when and where juvenile violent crime occurs, focusing attention on the critical afterschool hours. Statistics presented throughout the report find that racial disparity in the juvenile justice system is declining. The report also presents new findings from OJJDP's national Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement. In sum, this report offers a clear view of juvenile crime and the justice system's response at the beginning of the 21st century.
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The authors review findings of J. Goodlads research ("A Place Called School") which presents a gloomy picture of American education and the more hopeful conclusions of the National Commission on Excellence ("A Nation At Risk"). Recommendations targeted for gifted students center on the need for special classes and differentiated instruction. (CL)
Give Yourself the Gift of a Degree
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Citing data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey of the National Center for Health Statistics
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Baum and Payea, 18. Citing data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey of the National Center for Health Statistics. See also; Rumberger (2001), 3.
Education and Correctional Populations
17 Calculations based on Harlow, C. W. (revised 2003). Education and Correctional Populations. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Accessed at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ecp.pdf.
MTV and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Announce New Joint Effort to Empower Young People to Graduate From High School Ready for College
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longitudinal or retrospective studies of cohorts of students have analyzed the indicators of dropping out from as early as first grade From First Grade Notes Forward: Early Foundations of High School Dropout
26 Several, but surprisingly few, longitudinal or retrospective studies of cohorts of students have analyzed the indicators of dropping out from as early as first grade. See Rumberger (2001), 6-9; Alexander et al. (1997). From First Grade Notes Forward: Early Foundations of High School Dropout. Sociology of Education Vol. 70, Issue 2: 98; Garnier et al. (1997).
Preventing Dropout: Use and Impact of Organizational Reforms Designed to Ease the Transition to High School in Dropouts in America
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26-28, in which Rumberger identifies common features of effective programs, such as a non-threatening environment for learning, a caring
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40 Rumberger (2001), 26-28, in which Rumberger identifies common features of effective programs, such as a non-threatening environment for learning, a caring, committed staff who accepted personal responsibility for student Notes 27
After all, schools can hardly do their job if the child is not in their building Youth Out of School: Linking Absences to Delinquency Colorado: The Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, 2-3; and Street
After all, schools can hardly do their job if the child is not in their building. See Harmacek, Marilyn ed. (2002) Youth Out of School: Linking Absences to Delinquency. 2nd edition. Colorado: The Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, 2-3; and Street, John F (2001) Interview by Rocky Mountain Public Television, Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
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Turning Points: Preparing American Youth For the 21st Century
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The National Dropout Data Collection System: Assessing Consistency. Paper presented atDropouts in America: How Severe is the Problem? What Do We Know about Intervention and Prevention?
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Graduation Rate Accountability Under the No Child Left Behind Act and the Disparate Impact on Students of Color in Dropouts in America
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Losen, Daniel J. (2004). Graduation Rate Accountability Under the No Child Left Behind Act and the Disparate Impact on Students of Color in Dropouts in America. Edited by Gary Orfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 45-46. Notes 29
School Failure Now and Tomorrow
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Barrington & Hendricks, 309; citing Fitsimmons et al. (1969). School Failure Now and Tomorrow. Developmental Psychology I, 134-146.
No Child Left Behind Act: Education Could Do More to Help States Better Define Graduation Rates and Improve Knowledge About Intervention Strategies
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Shaul, Marnie S. (2005). No Child Left Behind Act: Education Could Do More to Help States Better Define Graduation Rates and Improve Knowledge About Intervention Strategies. Report to Senators Lamar Alexander, Jeff Bingaman, Edward Kennedy, Patty Murray, and Olympia J. Snowe, U.S. Senate.
Alliance for Excellent Education Commends NASSP Report, Breaking Ranks II, for its Hands on Approach
Alliance for Excellent Education (2004). Alliance for Excellent Education Commends NASSP Report, Breaking Ranks II, for its Hands on Approach. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Knowing the Right Thing to Do: School Improvement and Performance Based Accountability
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Locating the Dropout Crisis: Which High Schools Produce the Nation's
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Balfanz, Robert and Nettie Legters (2004). Locating the Dropout Crisis: Which High Schools Produce the Nation's
Retention of African-American Males in High School: A Study of African-American Male Dropouts, African-American Male Seniors, and White Male Seniors
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Dropping Out, Dropping Chances; Dropping Out Comes at High Personal Cost
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Early School Dropout: Configurations and Determinants
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DC: Employment Policy Foundation
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