Does preoperative atrial fibrillation increase the risk for mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting?

Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 4.17). 05/2009; 137(4):901-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.09.050
Source: PubMed


Preoperative atrial fibrillation has been associated with less favorable outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, it was never investigated in a large cohort of patients using a national database. This study aims to (1) identify the effect of atrial fibrillation on operative mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and (2) identify the potential effect of atrial fibrillation on patients with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<or=40%).
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used for patients with coronary artery disease undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 281,567). The association between atrial fibrillation and outcomes was estimated within 3 categories of low (ejection fraction, <40%), moderate (ejection fraction, 40%-55%), or normal (ejection fraction, >55%) systolic function.
Patients with atrial fibrillation were found to be older and have a higher incidence of comorbidities. A higher incidence of all major complications and mortality after surgical intervention was documented. An interaction between atrial fibrillation and an ejection fraction of greater than 40% for mortality, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and prolonged length of stay was identified.
Our findings suggest that preoperative atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk for perioperative mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The negative effect of atrial fibrillation might be more significant in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with an ejection fraction of greater than 40%. Both the EuroSCORE and, until recently, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk calculator do not include atrial fibrillation as a potential risk modifier; however, based on this study, it should be identified as a variable to be investigated and incorporated into future risk calculators.

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    • "As previously shown in multivariable analyses and propensity-matched studies, preexisting AF significantly reduces survival after cardiac surgery. Atrial fibrillation has also been found to be an independent risk factor after cardiac surgery891011. Good results have been reported after AF surgery/ablation. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report our experience with a modified mini-maze procedure and pulmonary vein isolation using radiofrequency energy for treating persistent atrial fibrillation during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Ninety-five patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease underwent open heart surgery combined with intraoperative irrigated radiofrequency ablation. Patients were randomized into the following three groups: CABG and irrigated radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation (CABG+PVI, n = 31); CABG and an irrigated radiofrequency modified mini-maze procedure (CABG+MM, n = 30); and isolated CABG (CABG alone, n = 34). All patients received implantable loop recorders. No reoperation and no hospital mortality were recorded. Mean follow-up was 14.4 ± 9.7 months. The implantable loop recorder-determined freedom from atrial fibrillation was 80% in the CABG+PVI group, 86.2% in the CABG+MM group and 44.1% in the CABG alone group. Patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease may benefit from intraoperative ablation to prevent relapse of arrhythmia.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    • "AF not only increases the risk of developing cerebrovascular events, but can also increase mortality in the long-term as a result of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy[2]. Its incidence increases with age, and due to an older population requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the incidence of preoperative AF (PAF) has risen to a reported 5–22%[3]. Several studies have confirmed that PAF negatively affects postoperative outcome as well as the long-term survival rate in patients undergoing CABG456. "
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    ABSTRACT: Around 5-15% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) suffer from preoperative/pre-existing atrial fibrillation (PAF). This is a benign arrhythmia but can affect the outcome of the surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PAF on the immediate postoperative course of patients undergoing on-pump (ONCAB) vs. off-pump (OPCAB) CABG. Over a 10-year period, data were prospectively entered into the database of our institution. A total of 10,461 patients underwent CABG, of whom 477 (4.6%) were in PAF. We analyzed these patients in two separate groups: group A (n=310) who underwent ONCAB and group B (n=167) who underwent OPCAB. After 4:1 propensity matching and adjusting for the preoperative and operative characteristics of these two groups with patients in SR (sinus rhythm), early, mid- and long-term outcomes of PAF patients were analyzed. After adjusting for preoperative characteristics, postoperative complications were significantly higher in patients who had ONCAB when there was PAF compared to those in SR (P<0.001). In the OPCAB patients, on the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative complications between the patients with preoperative SR or PAF. In-hospital and short-term mortality were no different in the PAF group undergoing OPCAB compared to those in SR; however, the mid- and long-term survival rates in PAF patients who underwent OPCAB/ONCAB were worse compared than was seen in SR. PAF is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications. Our results have demonstrated that patients in PAF undergoing ONCAB are more susceptible to the postoperative complications compared to those in SR. However, there were no differences in mid- and long-term outcomes.
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