Article

Social anxiety and the experience of positive emotion and anger in everyday life: An ecological momentary assessment approach

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Abstract

A few recent studies have found evidence showing that social anxiety is associated with diminished positive affect and elevated anger. However, prior work has relied on trait self-report measures of global positive mood or anger. In this preliminary study, we examined how trait social anxiety relates to moment-to-moment positive and angry emotional states as people navigate through their natural environment in a given day. Of additional interest was whether any associations were limited to social situations or were evident more broadly in non-social situations as well. For 14 days, 38 non-clinical community adults carried electronic diaries to assess their experience of positive emotions, anger, and their current social context and activity. Participants were randomly prompted up to four times per day, leading to 1702 observations. Results showed that social anxiety was associated with less time spent feeling happy and relaxed and more time spent feeling angry throughout the day. In general, people felt happier when they were with other people compared to being alone. Interestingly, people with relatively higher levels of social anxiety reported fewer and less intense positive emotions and greater anger episodes across social and non-social situations.

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... Despite recent advances in our knowledge of positivity deficits in SA (e.g., Cohen & Huppert, 2018;Kashdan & Collins, 2010), there are still significant gaps in our understanding of both the phenomenology of PA deficits and its underlying mechanisms. One prominent theoretical framework focuses on PA deficits as emerging from biological causes. ...
... Daily diary and experience-sampling measures in studies using ecological momentary analysis have advanced our field by enabling researchers to examine PA over time as it changes in response to evolving contexts within participants' every-day lives (e.g., Farmer & Kashdan, 2012;Goodman et al., 2021;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Oren-Yagoda & Aderka, 2021). However, these approaches are not without their own limitations. ...
Article
Prior research has shown that Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is associated with significantly diminished positive affect (PA). Few studies have examined PA reactivity to pleasant experimental stimuli in individuals with SAD and whether emotional responses might be moderated by social context. Here, we investigated repeated measures of PA reactivity among individuals with SAD (n = 46) and healthy controls (HC; n = 39) in response to standardized neutral images, pleasant music, and social versus nonsocial guided imagery. Primary analyses revealed that SAD and HC participants did not differ in their PA reactivity when PA was conceptualized as a unitary construct. Exploratory analyses examining discrete subfacets of PA revealed potential deficits for SAD participants in relaxed and content PA, but not activated PA. Although participants with SAD reported relatively lower levels of relaxed and content PA overall compared with controls, they exhibited normal increases in all PA subfacets in response to pleasant music as well as pleasant social and nonsocial stimuli. These findings support a more nuanced conclusion about PA deficits in SAD than is described in the extant literature, suggesting that detecting PA deficits in SAD may depend upon how PA is conceptualized, evoked, and measured. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Social anxiety is somewhat unique among the anxiety conditions in that it is characterized by both high negative affect (NA) and low positive affect (PA; T. A. Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). It has therefore been proposed that persons with SAD may be vulnerable to using substances to not only decrease high NA but to increase low PA as well (Buckner, Heimberg, et al., 2013). ...
... There is indirect evidence to support the theory that these individuals may use cannabis to increase PA. To illustrate, in a non-clinical convenience sample, those with elevated trait social anxiety experienced fewer and less intense positive emotions both when alone and in social situations (Kashdan & Collins, 2010). Given that most cannabis use occurs in social settings while others are using (e.g. ...
Article
Background and Objectives: Individuals with elevated social anxiety are thought to be at high risk for developing cannabis-related problems because they use cannabis to cope with anxiety-provoking social situations. Social anxiety is unique among the anxiety conditions in that it is characterized by both elevated negative affect (NA) and lower positive affect (PA). Yet it is unclear whether persons with elevated social anxiety use cannabis to decrease their NA or to increase their PA. Methods: This study examined the role of PA and NA (including cannabis use to increase PA and to decrease NA in social situations) on cannabis use frequency and related problems among current (past three-month) cannabis users (N = 278). Results: Social anxiety was significantly correlated with NA, PA, cannabis use to decrease NA, and use to increase PA. Serial mediation analyses tested the paths between social anxiety, affect, use to manage affect, typical cannabis use frequency, and cannabis use-related problems. Contrary to prediction, social anxiety was not indirectly related to use frequency or related problems via NA or PA generally. Rather, social anxiety was indirectly related to cannabis problems via the serial effect of use to cope with NA and typical use frequency and via the serial effect of use to increase PA and typical use frequency. Conclusions/Importance: Social anxiety may be associated with using cannabis to decrease NA and increase PA specifically in social situations, which increases cannabis use frequency and thus, problem risk.
... Research using diary techniques and other retrospective methods shows that individuals with elevated social anxiety tend to experience blunted positive affect and, in some cases, report fewer and less intense positive events (Blanco & Joormann, 2017;T. A. Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Farmer & Kashdan, 2012;Geyer et al., 2018;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2007Kashdan & Breen, 2008;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). For example, Farmer and Kashdan (2012) used 2 weeks of diary data to demonstrate that individuals with higher levels of social anxiety report significantly less intense positive affect in their daily lives. ...
... Hypothesis 2: Consistent with prior work by our group and others (e.g., T. A. Brown et al., 1998;Geyer et al., 2018;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Kashdan et al., 2011), we anticipated that elevated social anxiety will be associated with lower average levels of happiness, social belonging, and social approach motivation, and higher average levels of anxiety and social avoidance motivation. We also expected that individuals with elevated trait social anxiety would perceive positive events during the past hour as less intense. ...
Article
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Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety. At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of trait social anxiety on momentary changes in emotions, sense of belonging, and social approach versus avoidance motivation following positive events in daily life. Over the course of a week, people with elevated social anxiety experienced greater momentary anxiety and social avoidance motivation and lower momentary happiness and sense of belonging on average. Despite these impairments, individuals with elevated social anxiety experienced greater psychological benefits-in the form of reduced anxiety and motivation to avoid social situations, and an increased sense of belonging-following positive events during the past hour that were rated as particularly intense. This pattern of findings was not specific to social anxiety, with evidence of similar effects for other forms of internalizing psychopathology (general anxiety and depression). These observations detail circumstances in which individuals with social anxiety, and other emotional disturbances, can thrive-creating potentially important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Diminished PE differentiates SAD from other anxiety disorders (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009;Watson & Naragon-Gainey, 2010). Decreased self-reported PEs in SAD are also evident in everyday life (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006;Kashdan & Steger, 2006), during social situations (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2013) and when alone (e.g., Brown, Silvia, Myin-Germeys, & Kwapil, 2007;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). In response to positive social feedback (e.g., encouraging comments, warm tone), people with SAD report decreased PE, including self-reported feelings of warmth, interest, and likeability (Alden & Wallace, 1995). ...
... Diminished PE differentiates SAD from other anxiety disorders (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan & Steger, 2006;Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009;Watson & Naragon-Gainey, 2010). Decreased self-reported PEs in SAD are also evident in everyday life (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, Julian, Merritt, & Uswatte, 2006;Kashdan & Steger, 2006), during social situations (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2013) and when alone (e.g., Brown, Silvia, Myin-Germeys, & Kwapil, 2007;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). In response to positive social feedback (e.g., encouraging comments, warm tone), people with SAD report decreased PE, including self-reported feelings of warmth, interest, and likeability (Alden & Wallace, 1995). ...
Article
The prevailing view on positive emotions is that they correlate with and confer psychological health benefits for the individual, including improved social, physical and cognitive functioning. Yet an emerging wave of scientific work suggests that positive emotions are also related to a range of suboptimal psychological health outcomes, especially when the intensity, duration, or context do not optimize the individual's goals or meet current environmental demands. This paper provides an overview of the “other side” of positive emotion, by describing and reviewing evidence supporting the emerging field of positive emotion disturbance (PED). We review relevant emotion processes and key themes of PED and apply this framework to example emotional disorders, and discuss implications for psychological change and future research agendas.
... [7]). While research on nonclinical samples has documented that community adults felt happier when they were with other people than when they were alone [26], how this plays out in meaningful social interactions and in clinical samples also remains to be seen. ...
... Second, individuals with SP possibly engage more in constant monitoring of threat and anxiety during social interactions, which can disrupt recognition and acknowledgment of rewards during this time [64]. Constant monitoring might arise due to a tendency to engage more in negative self-referent and self-evaluative thoughts [65][66][67], perceiving the interaction partner as more dominant [59], interpreting ambiguous social events in a negative way and mildly negative events in a catastrophic fashion [68], ruminating about possible social failures and possible devaluation by others after social interactions [69,70], which maintain distress and negative self-appraisals [26], or seeing social outcomes as information about expectations that others might have, rather than information about one's own competence [71]. Additionally, the reported social interactions might or might not include performance situations, since we enquired about meaningful social interactions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans need meaningful social interactions, but little is known about the consequences of not having them. We examined meaningful social interactions and the lack thereof in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) or social phobia (SP) and compared them to a control group (CG). Using event-sampling methodology, we sampled participants’ everyday social behavior 6 times per day for 1 week in participants’ natural environment. We investigated the quality and the proportion of meaningful social interactions (when they had meaningful social interactions) and degree of wishing for and avoidance of meaningful social interactions (when they did not have meaningful social interactions). Groups differed on the quality and avoidance of meaningful social interactions: Participants with MDD and SP reported perceiving their meaningful social interactions as lower quality (in terms of subjective meaningfulness) than the CG, with SP patients reporting even lower quality than the MDD patients. Further, both MDD and SP patients reported avoiding meaningful social interactions significantly more often than the CG. Although the proportion of meaningful social interactions was similar in all groups, the subjective quality of meaningful social interactions was perceived to be lower in MDD and SP patients. Future research might further identify what variables influenced the reinforcement of the MDD and SP patients so that they engaged in the same number of meaningful social interactions even though the quality of their meaningful social interactions was lower. Increasing awareness of what happens when patients do or do not have meaningful social interactions will help elucidate a potentially exacerbating or maintaining factor of the disorders.
... A growing body of research has documented a variety of "positivity deficits" for people with higher levels of SA across a range of situations and experiences (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). To this end, individuals with high SA or SAD have been shown to underestimate their social competence even in positive interactions (Kashdan, Morina, & Priebe, 2009), report fewer and less intense positive emotions in response to social experiences (Kashdan & Collins, 2010), endorse fewer everyday positive experiences relative to controls (Kashdan & Steger, 2006), and demonstrate reduced capacity to savour positive experiences of any nature (Eisner, Johnson, & Carver, 2009). Thus, it may be reasonable to predict that higher levels of SA would be associated with deficits in the recollection of positive social memories. ...
... It may be useful to conceptualise these results within the context of research on positivity deficits in SA (Kashdan, 2007). Studies have shown that high SA individuals experience diminished positive affect and curiosity in response to social experiences (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2009). Kashdan and colleagues have argued that positivity deficits might arise because social contexts prime socially anxious individuals' use of self-regulatory strategies geared toward self-protection and avoidance, which deplete the resources required for attending to and processing positive social cues (see Goodman, Doorley, & Kashdan, 2018). ...
Article
Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder suggest that memory biases for negative social information contribute to symptoms of social anxiety (SA). However, it remains unclear whether memory biases in SA are related to social information, specifically, and if so, whether the valence of such information would moderate memory performance. In the present study, 197 community participants were randomised to imagine themselves as the central character in either 10 social or 10 non-social scenarios. In both conditions, half of the scenarios ended with objectively positive outcomes and half ended with objectively negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that higher trait SA was related to memory performance for social scenarios only, and in particular to poorer memory for social scenarios that ended positively. Thus, the impact of SA on memory performance depended on how social information was framed, with higher SA related to poorer memory for positive social experiences. These context-specific effects contribute to the growing literature on positivity deficits in SA.
... Individuals with SAD experience a high level of discomfort in social situations where other people can scrutinize them, and also report significant levels of distress in everyday life due to chronically increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions (Farmer and Kashdan 2012;Goldin et al. 2009;Kashdan and Collins 2010;Wenzel and Jager-Hyman 2014). Given that various negative emotions such as tension, anger, depression, loneliness, and boredom are related to alcohol craving or the amount of drinking afterward, the negative emotions of individuals with SAD could be considered as risk factors that predict alcohol craving or drinking behavior (Falk et al. 2008;Hodgins et al. 1995;Swendsen et al. 2000;Terlecki et al. 2014;Willinger et al. 2002). ...
... For ease of comparing results, a correlation effect size (r) (t-to-r transformations, e.g. Kashdan & Collins, 2010;O'Toole et al. 2014) was calculated for all results. A value of .1, ...
Article
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Emerging evidence suggests that increased negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol related problems, but little is known about how specific negative emotions and maladaptive ER strategies interact with one another in predicting drinking in daily life. This study aimed to investigate (1) the impact of within-person level negative emotions and maladaptive ER strategies on drinking among individuals with SAD, and (2) the moderating effect of specific maladaptive ER strategies (avoidance, rumination, suppression) on the relationship between negative emotions and alcohol craving in daily life via an ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results revealed that the SAD group (n = 66) showed a higher increase rate in alcohol craving when they were socially anxious, tense and lonely than the non-SAD group (n = 53). In moderation analyses, maladaptive ER strategies interacted with negative emotions in predicting alcohol craving and different patterns were observed between groups: rumination was a significant moderator for the SAD group, while avoidance was for the non-SAD group in both concurrent and lagged effect analyses. Implications for the future research and interventions on daily negative emotions and maladaptive ER strategies are discussed.
... They further report lower levels of curiosity, exploration and life satisfaction (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), which impact day-to-day aspects of functioning. For example, state-like changes in positive subjective experiences are strongly related to the severity of daily self-reported social anxiety symptoms (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006). Kashdan and Collins (2010) further reported data from ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods, which revealed moment-to-moment differences in the natural lives of affected adults, who reported less time feeling happy and relaxed, and more time feeling angry on any given day, as well as less intense positive emotions and more frequent anger episodes. ...
... For example, state-like changes in positive subjective experiences are strongly related to the severity of daily self-reported social anxiety symptoms (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan & Steger, 2006). Kashdan and Collins (2010) further reported data from ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods, which revealed moment-to-moment differences in the natural lives of affected adults, who reported less time feeling happy and relaxed, and more time feeling angry on any given day, as well as less intense positive emotions and more frequent anger episodes. ...
Article
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and impairing condition that emerges in early adolescence, confers significant interpersonal disability and often persists into adulthood. Prevailing interventions for socially anxious youth are largely based on cognitive-behavioral models originally developed in adult samples, but produce only modest rates of remission in adolescents. The purposes of this review are to examine plausible explanations for these modest rates of treatment response and to critically evaluate the relevance of developmental mechanisms related to reward circuitry function. In doing so, we propose Sensitivity Shift Theory (SST), an integrated theoretical model addressing the development of social anhedonia in a meaningful subset of adolescents and adults with SAD. The central prediction of SST involves a shift, or developmental transition from social sensitivity during the late childhood/early adolescent period into later-emerging social anhedonia that includes reductions in positive affect, infrequent social approach behaviors and social skills deficits. We further provide a complementary mechanistic account by which these newly identified processes may be addressed using available evidence-based treatments that influence positive affect, including mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Collectively, SST provides a mechanisms-focused framework for explaining relatively modest rates of response to current front-line treatments in socially anxious youth, as well as discrepant observations in SAD samples of both high- and low- levels of social motivation depending on developmental factors and learning history.
... To date, this question has been examined in a small number of undiagnosed college student convenience samples. Across three studies, people with higher social anxiety symptoms reported similar levels of PA and NA in social situations as when they were alone (Brown, Silvia, Myin-Germeys, & Kwapil, 2007;Geyer et al., 2018;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). Thus, despite concerns and anxiety about socializing, socially anxious individuals did not report elevated PA or NA when socializing. ...
... First, we conducted traditional between-person analyses and found in both studies that participants with SAD experienced higher NA and lower PA across social and nonsocial situations than healthy controls. These findings replicate prior work on the affective profile of people with SAD (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, 2007). Second, we conducted within-person analyses and found that in both studies, participants with SAD experienced higher PA and similar NA when with others than alone-an affect pattern largely similar to that of controls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quality contact with other people serves as a reliable mood enhancement strategy. We wondered if the emotional benefits of socializing are present even for those with a psychological disorder defined by social distress and avoidance: social anxiety disorder (SAD). We conducted two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies and analyzed 7,243 total surveys. In both studies, community adults diagnosed with SAD and healthy controls received five surveys each day for two weeks. Consistent with research on positivity deficits in SAD, between-person analyses in both studies suggest that, on average, participants with SAD reported lower positive and higher negative affect in social and non-social situations than healthy controls. Within-person analyses, however, revealed that in both studies participants with SAD and healthy controls reported higher positive affect when with others than when alone; no differences were found for negative affect. The difference in positive affect between social and nonsocial situations was smaller for participants with SAD in Study 1, suggesting that people with SAD may experience diminished reward responding when socializing. Our results suggest that even those with a mental illness defined by interpersonal distress can and do derive positive emotions from social interactions.
... Socially anxious individuals are prone to heightened fear, anxiety, and avoidance of social interactions and situations associated with potential scrutiny ( Alden and Taylor, 2004;Heimberg et al., 2014). In addition to heightened negative affect (NA), socially anxious individuals tend to report lower levels of positive affect (PA) (Anderson and Hope, 2008;Kashdan and Collins, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2011;Geyer et al., 2018). Social anxiety symptoms lie on a continuum and, when extreme, can become debilitating (Lipsitz and Schneier, 2000;Katzelnick et al., 2001;Kessler, 2003;Rapee and Spence, 2004;Craske et al., 2017;Stein et al., 2017;Krueger et al., 2018;Conway et al., 2019;Ruscio, 2019). ...
Preprint
Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of debilitating psychiatric disorders. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of social anxiety in daily life, close to clinically significant end-points. Here, we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Leveraging data from over 11,000 assessments, results highlight the vital role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. Socially anxious individuals report smaller confidant networks and spend significantly less time with their close companions. As a consequence, they are less frequent beneficiaries of close companions’ mood-enhancing effects. Although higher levels of social anxiety are associated with a general reduction in the quality of momentary emotional experience, socially anxious individuals derived significantly larger benefits—lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression—from the company of close companions. Collectively, these findings provide a novel framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... We found evidence that the satisfaction derived from mind-body exercise participation can be a valuable psychological factor maintaining positive emotions and eliminating negative emotions. Based on prior studies [53][54][55], less frequent and intense positive emotional experiences result in a higher level of social anxiety, which in turn, leads to less chance to develop proper problem-solving skills, social interactions and relationships. Therefore, the benefits of possessing positive emotions affects not only personal life but also society. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze the theoretical model of mind–body exercise and to examine its effect on psychological wellbeing focusing on Pilates. A total of 219 surveys from Pilates participants were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The result of this study indicated service quality has a significant direct effect on participation satisfaction (+). Service quality does not have a significant direct effect on sustainable participation intention. Participation satisfaction has a significant direct effect on positive emotion (+). Participation satisfaction has a significant direct effect on negative emotion (−). Participation satisfaction has a significant direct effect on sustainable participation intention (+). Service quality has a significant indirect effect on sustainable participation intention mediated by participation satisfaction (+). The findings of this study will be valuable data for healthcare experts to establish more effective mental health strategies concerning mind–body exercise.
... Irrespective of how anxious a person tends to be across situations (trait social anxiety), participants in this study reported the most intense positive emotions on days when they felt minimal social anxiety and comfortable expressing their emotions openly. Interestingly, people with higher levels of social anxiety experience low doses of positivity regardless of whether they are socializing with other people or spending time alone (Kashdan & Collins, 2010). ...
Chapter
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For decades, researchers and practitioners have theorized psychological disorder and health as opposite ends of a single continuum. We offer a more nuanced, data driven examination into the various ways that people with psychological disorders experience well-being. We review research on the positive emotions, meaning and purpose in life, and social relationships of people diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and trauma-related disorders. We also discuss when and how friends, family members, and caregivers of these people are adversely impacted in terms of their well-being. Throughout, we highlight important, often overlooked findings that not all people with mental illness are devoid of well-being. This review is meant to be illustrative as opposed to comprehensive, synthesizing existing knowledge and inspiring explorations of unclear or undiscovered territory.
... Alongside research on these fear-related symptoms, a growing number of studies have documented a variety of "positivity deficits" for people with higher levels of social anxiety across a range of situations and experiences (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). High levels of social anxiety have been related to lower positive affect from social experiences (Kashdan & Collins, 2010), fewer positive experiences (Kashdan & Steger, 2006) and reduced capacity to savour such experiences (Eisner, Johnson, & Carver, 2009). Unlike healthy individuals, individuals with SAD tend to underestimate their social competence even in positive interactions, and lack the tendency to interpret ambiguous social situations in a positive manner (see Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998;Huppert, Pasupuleti, Foa, & Mathews, 2007;Moscovitch, Orr, Rowa, Reimer, & Antony, 2009;Stopa & Clark, 2000). ...
Article
People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) lack non-socially anxious individuals' tendency to interpret ambiguous social information in a positively biased manner. To gain a better understanding of the specific in-vivo social consequences of positive interpretation bias, we recruited 38 individuals with SAD and 31 healthy controls (HC) to participate in an in-vivo social task. We tested whether a positive interpretation bias, measured using a sentence completion task, might confer benefits for the adaptive emotion regulation strategy of cognitive reappraisal, and whether such benefits depended on participants’ emotional states. We also examined whether positive interpretation bias might confer additional benefits such as improved self-perceived and observer-rated social performance. In support of prior research, HC participants exhibited a positive interpretation bias on the sentence completion task, whereas participants with SAD did not. Regression analyses revealed that positive interpretation bias predicted greater cognitive reappraisal during social stress, particularly when state positive affect was low. Moreover, positive interpretation bias predicted more positive self-perception of social performance and reduced underestimations of performance relative to observer ratings. These results suggest that positive interpretations of ambiguous social information may be related to improvements in cognitive reappraisal and more positive self-perceptions of social performance.
... Socially anxious individuals are prone to heightened fear, anxiety, and avoidance of social interactions and situations associated with potential scrutiny ( Alden and Taylor, 2004;Heimberg et al., 2014). In addition to heightened negative affect (NA), socially anxious individuals tend to report lower levels of positive affect (PA) (Anderson and Hope, 2008;Kashdan and Collins, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2011;Geyer et al., 2018). Social anxiety symptoms lie on a continuum and, when extreme, can become debilitating (Lipsitz and Schneier, 2000;Katzelnick et al., 2001;Kessler, 2003;Rapee and Spence, 2004;Craske et al., 2017;Stein et al., 2017;Krueger et al., 2018;Conway et al., 2019;Ruscio, 2019). ...
Article
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Background Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world. Methods Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Results Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... Given this significant effect of IA on interpersonal behavior, it is considered a negatively valenced personality variable regarding relationship outcomes. Interpersonal anxiety is found to be negatively associated with Positive Affect (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Kashdan, 2007;Naragon-Gainey, Watson, Gamez, & Simms, 2005;Watson, 2016;Watson, & Markon, 2009) and with high Negative Affect levels and while it has a moderately negative relation with curiosity and exploration Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). ...
... Indeed, there is a growing body of research investigating suspiciousness/paranoia in social anxiety samples (e.g., Gilbert et al. 2005;Pisano et al. 2015). Beyond common cognitive and behavioral features, the strong association between these two constructs might point to an additional, noteworthy domain of SADone that is characterized by suspiciousness and the closely related constructs of anger and hostility (e.g., Hofmann et al. 2004;Kachin et al. 2001;Kashdan and Collins 2010). ...
Article
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The Social Suspiciousness Scale (SSS) is a 24-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess suspiciousness, along with the associated constructs of anger and hostility, within a social context. The present research evaluated the psychometric properties of this newly developed scale. The sample consisted of outpatients with social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 145), unselected undergraduate university students (n = 162), and healthy community controls (n = 46). A principal components analysis suggested a one-factor solution. Internal consistency of the scale was high, and interitem correlations indicated that items were nonredundant. Test-retest reliability was strong. SSS scores were moderately correlated with measures of social anxiety, paranoia, anger and hostility. Moreover, in the outpatient SAD sample, SSS scores decreased significantly following a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group treatment program for SAD. The SSS may be a useful tool for measuring suspiciousness, anger and hostility across a variety of social contexts, particularly in individuals with SAD. This research contributes more generally to a broader understanding of SAD, and supports the importance of considering the role of mistrust and suspiciousness in this disorder.
... Another strength of this study is its support of programmatic effects influencing momentary emotional experiences. Extended, highly intense, or contextually inappropriate experiences of negative momentary emotions are associated with higher instances of psychological disorders related to depression (Doane et al., 2013), anxiety and other phobias (Kashdan & Collins, 2010) and eating disorders (Macht & Simmons, 2011). Additionally, a review of the literature by Lyumbomirsky, King, & Diener (2005) found greater experiences of positive emotions in an individual's day-today life was associated with better life outcomes (i.e., financial success, relationships, mental and physical health) in addition to supporting resilience (Tugade, Fredrickson, & Feldman Barrett, 2004). ...
Article
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In response to the growing prevalence of mental health issues among college students, campuses across the nation are implementing animal-assisted stress reduction programs, despite a clear lack of evidence supporting their efficacy. Researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of a universal, campus-based, animal-assisted stress prevention program on college students' moment to moment emotion the week preceding final exams. Participants were randomized into three conditions; the experimental group engaged in a 10-minute long interaction with dogs and cats from the local humane society, the control group watched a 10-minute slide show featuring photos of the same animals, while the wait-listed group was assessed in response to waiting for 10 minutes for their turn to participate in the program. Immediately before and after the assigned intervention, participants completed a 25-item checklist assessing how content, irritable, anxious, and depressed they felt in that moment. At post-test, participants who engaged in a 10-minute interaction with live animals reported statistically significant higher levels of contentment, F(2, 181) = 9.30, p < .001, and lower levels of anxiety, F(2, 181) = 5.74, p < .01, and irritability, F(2, 181) = 5.44, p < .01, compared to students in the control and wait-listed groups. This study provides much-needed evidence in support of animal-assisted campus visitation programs, demonstrating that 10 minutes of human-animal interaction increases levels of positive emotion and decreases levels of negative emotion in college students approaching final examinations.
... Socially anxious adults also use ineffective strategies when they are angry (Weber et al., 2004). For example, in one study using a cross-sectional sample of college students, young adults with social anxiety reported experiencing greater anger, increased difficulties expressing anger (Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001;Kasdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008) and less positive affect (Kashdan & Collins, 2010). Adults with social anxiety also wanted to express their anger when they felt criticized and experienced increased anger without provocation (in social and non-social settings), but tended to suppress this anger (Erwin et al., 2003). ...
Article
Social anxiety is linked to more covert forms of aggressive behavior, particularly reactive and relational aggression in early adolescent and young adult samples. Adolescents with social anxiety and those who engage in reactive relational aggression are also more likely to have difficulties regulating emotions (e.g., anger) and show maladaptive cognitive coping styles (e.g., rumination). The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression in adolescents (14-17 years), combining the form and function of aggression, and to examine trait anger and anger rumination as underlying factors that may explain the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression. The current study hypothesized that adolescents with social anxiety would engage in reactive relational aggression through the use of anger rumination, and this relationship would only be present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. High school adolescents in grades 9 to 12 (N=105; Mage = 15.43; 61% female) were recruited through their local school and community to complete a 30-minute, battery of questionnaires examining social anxiety, trait anger, anger rumination, and reactive relational aggression. Adolescents completed questionnaires anonymously via an online survey platform, Qualtrics, and were subsequently compensated for their time. Results supported study hypotheses. Simple regression analyses found that social anxiety was positively related to trait anger, anger rumination and reactive relational aggression. Trait anger and anger rumination were also positively correlated with reactive relational aggression. A conditional process analysis was conducted to test the major study hypothesis. Adolescents with social anxiety were more likely to engage in reactive relational aggression if they ruminated about experiences that created anger, and this relationship was present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. Gender differences were also explored. Higher rates of social anxiety and anger rumination were found in females. No other gender differences were found. Overall, socially anxious adolescents showed a greater tendency to engage in reactive relational aggression adding to the current literature. Difficulties regulating negative emotions, like anger, and ineffective cognitive coping strategies, such as anger rumination, were precipitating factors that likely maintained socially anxious and aggressive behaviors.
... Deschênes and colleagues also found that the measures of anger and hostility were significant predictors of the overall severity of the anxiety symptoms. Regarding social anxiety specifically, individuals with social anxiety have been found to spend greater portions of their day feeling angry compared to those without social anxiety (Kashdan & Collins, 2010). In addition to having higher levels of state and trait anger, individuals with social anxiety also display an increased tendency to react with anger to negative events (e.g., being criticized) as well as without direct provocation (Erwin, Heimberg, Schneier, & Liebowitz, 2003). ...
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Research shows that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is prevalent in the United States, and may interfere with many aspects of a person’s life. Although numerous psychological instruments have been developed to measure presence and intensity levels of social anxiety, these instruments fail to capture the range of responses individuals utilize to mitigate the negative affect associated with the anxiety, namely alcohol use and anger distress. Recently, the Multidimensional Social Anxiety Response Inventory – 21 (MSARI-21) was developed to address this limitation and increase our understanding of the complexity of social anxiety. We expand on this work by evaluating the psychometric properties of the instrument, using a combination of exploratory structural equation and bi-factor modeling, and item response techniques. Across two studies, data indicated the presence of a strong, 3-factor structure (i.e., Anger Distress, Alcohol Reliance, and Social Avoidance), strong internal consistency, and evidence of both convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, results showed that the MSARI-21 multidimensional structure was invariant across gender. We conclude that the MSARI-21 is a valid and valuable tool for assessing individuals’ responses to social anxiety, and that future research should evaluate the instrument within other samples to ensure its utility across clinical and subclinical populations.
... Accordingly, interpersonal threats and fear of rejection are a common source of human defensive behavior (Gilbert, 1993). The presence and role of anger in SAD patients' lives were shown in several studies (Erwin et al., 2003;Gilbert and Miles, 2000;Kashdan and Collins, 2010), and Gilbert and Miles (2000) stressed these patients' hostile expectations. ...
Article
This research examined the efficacy of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and compared the therapeutic outcomes of ISTDP when feeling focus or defense work is emphasized. A three-group randomized design with 6-month follow-up was used. Forty-one subjects were selected among volunteer college students diagnosed with SAD. They were assigned randomly into three groups; 14 cases to feeling-focused ISTDP (FF-ISTDP) group, 14 cases to defense-focused ISTDP (DF-ISTDP) group, and 13 cases to a control group. All subjects were evaluated at pretest, posttest, and six-month follow-up through clinical interviewing using DSM-5 criteria for SAD along with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Each experimental group had a course of 8 to 10 sessions of ISTDP treatment. Analysis of variance showed that ISTDP is an effective treatment for SAD compared with a control group. No outcome differences were found between FF-ISTDP and DF-ISTDP in treating SAD.
... Thus, they are likely to underestimate how successful they were at achieving a goal, regardless of their objective achievement. This cycle maintains social anxiety and leads to perceptions of poor social performance, which induces exhaustive avoidance efforts that limit reward-seeking behavior and reduce positive experiences (Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2011). Subjective appraisals do not always relate to other, objective measures of skilled performance (Hopko, McNeil, Zvolensky, & Eifert, 2001). ...
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People with anxiety disorders tend to make decisions on the basis of avoiding threat rather than obtaining rewards. Despite a robust literature examining approach-avoidance motivation, less is known about goal pursuit. The present study examined the content, motives, consequences, and daily correlates of strivings among adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Participants generated six strivings along with the motives and consequences of their pursuit. Compared with controls, people with social anxiety disorder were less strongly driven by autonomous motives and reported greater difficulty pursuing strivings. Coders analyzed strivings for the presence of 10 themes: achievement, affiliation, avoidance, emotion regulation, generativity, interpersonal, intimacy, power, self-presentation, and self-sufficiency. People with social anxiety disorder constructed more emotion regulation strivings than did controls, but they did not differ across other themes. This research illustrates how studying personality at different levels of analysis (traits, strivings) can yield novel information for understanding anxiety disorders.
... These attitudes i.e. aggression (37.49%), traumatic brain injury (46.65%) and lack of concentration (45.65%) were reported in high frequency among the students of North Waziristan. Russell and his colleagues has reported that the aggressive attitude is directly related to physical, social, emotional and cognitive problemsamong students and these students usually 17 found angry and violent-minded. More tendencies towards crimes, violence, negative emotions were commonly observed 18 among those students. ...
... The correlation results also indicate that trait anger is positively correlated to trait anxiety, overconfidence and herding factor while negatively related to self-monitoring with 0.802, 0.774, 0.598 and À0.626 respectively. It is consistent with Kashdan and Collins (2010) who mentioned that anger will be elevated by anxiety when the positive effect of anxiety is diminished. However, it is a difference between the results of Ifcher and Zarghamee (2014) who found that sadness, fear and anger do not have a significant impact on overconfidence. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the behavioural factors that affect individual investment decisions among Generation Y in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach Five human behaviours such as trait anger, trait anxiety, overconfidence, herding factor and self-monitoring have been examined using a sample of 502 respondents. Findings The results reveal that trait anxiety and overconfidence are negatively related to investment decisions while self-monitoring is positively associated. Trait anger and herding behaviour do not significantly affect investment decision. The results also show that investment decision-making is significantly distinct when examined by gender, employment status and income allocation. Among these three variables, the result shows that only self-employed individuals and those in the 5–10 per cent income allocation group are marginally positive vis-à-vis investment decision-making. Originality/value The outcomes of this study will expand investors' knowledge about the financial decision-making process.
... J. Russell et al., 2011). Concernant les émotions positives, les personnes avec anxiété sociale ressentent moins fréquemment des émotions positives au cours de la journée en comparaison avec les personnes sans le trouble (Kashdan & Collins, 2010). Par ailleurs, les personnes avec anxiété sociale différencient moins les émotions ressenties que les personnes sans le trouble (Kashdan, Goodman, Machell, & Kleiman, 2014). ...
Thesis
Le vécu d’événements potentiellement traumatiques (EPT), surtout ceux avec violence interpersonnelle, est susceptible de générer des conséquences psychologiques graves à long terme telles que des difficultés de régulation émotionnelle. Plusieurs études suggèrent que la présence d’altérations dans la réactivité émotionnelle est un facteur de vulnérabilité important pour le développement du trouble stress post-traumatique (TSPT). Cependant, peu d’études ont abordé le sujet à travers des protocoles écologiques, c’est-à-dire en observant la réactivité émotionnelle en réponse à des événements réels quotidiens.L’objectif du présent projet est d’examiner les altérations dans la réactivité émotionnelle en vie quotidienne associées à l’exposition à un EPT, ainsi qu’au TSPT.Pour ce faire, le présent projet emploie un protocole ecological momentary assessment. Le projet est ancillaire à l’enquête World Mental Health- International College Survey, une initiative internationale de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé visant à évaluer les facteurs de risque et de protection impliqués dans la survenue de problèmes de santé mentale chez le jeune adulte.Les résultats révèlent des altérations dans la réactivité émotionnelle en vie quotidienne associées au diagnostic de TSPT, ainsi qu’à l’exposition à un EPT avec violence interpersonnelle.Ces résultats suggèrent que la dysrégulation émotionnelle est une caractéristique importante du TSPT, et que l’exposition à de la violence interpersonnelle a des conséquences émotionnelles à long terme indépendantes de l’émergence d’un trouble mental. Ces résultats dessinent de nouvelles perspectives de recherche sur les altérations émotionnelles produites par l’exposition à un événement traumatique.
... and negatively with positive mood (r = .27). These findings are consistent with literature indicating that individuals higher in social anxiety and/or depression tend to report higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect (e.g., [42,39]). Finally, no reliable relationship was found between positive and negative mood as measured by the PANAS (r = −0.04), ...
... Relations with rumination were more complex, as momentary defusion was associated with lower rumination in the full sample and high-distress subsample, while momentary restructuring was associated with greater rumination in the low-distress subsample. Of note, while suppression, rumination, and distraction are often described as maladaptive, and global self-report research supports this claim Wolgast & Lundh, 2017), the effects of any coping strategy may be context-dependent (e.g., Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012;Brockman et al., 2016;Kashdan & Collins, 2010), such that no strategy is inherently adaptive or maladaptive. Further examining how context (e.g., variability in use based on situational or individual factors) influences the utility of these strategies would be highly beneficial. ...
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Background Understanding how cognitive processes are naturally used by untrained individuals in the moment to cope with difficult thoughts may help inform effective and efficient interventions.Methods This study investigated self-reported naturalistic use of two evidence-based processes, cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion, in an untrained, predominantly White female college student sample (n = 194) through ecological momentary assessments over seven days.ResultsCognitive restructuring and defusion had a large positive relationship. Both processes were also positively associated with increased momentary use of suppression and distraction. Only momentary defusion was associated with decreased rumination and negative affect at the same timepoint, while both defusion and restructuring were associated with positive affect and increased values progress at the same timepoint. Momentary defusion predicted later values progress, but only among those with low distress.Conclusions Overall, results suggest that both cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion are used in a nonclinical, untrained population, that both processes are overall beneficial when used in the moment, and that defusion may be particularly relevant to certain aims such as lower rumination or values progress across time points. Replication among clinical and more diverse populations is needed.
... Additionally, SAD individuals showcased increased anger compared to non-anxious controls (Erwin et al., 2003) while non-clinical individuals with higher SAD symptoms experienced anger more often in daily social and non-social situations than those with low SAD symptoms (Kashdan and Collins, 2010) suggesting a link between SAD and anger. There is also evidence that anger increases the risk of SI (Dillon et al., 2020;Hawkins and Cougle, 2013;Jang et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: This study aims to identify covariates of suicidal ideation (SI) in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 305 individuals (38.4±14.1 years, 59% female) with SAD were assessed by the Social Phobia Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Adverse Childhood Experience Questionnaire, State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation and the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire. Results: SAD individuals with SI (n = 142, 46.6%) reported higher SAD and depression symptoms, more adverse childhood experiences (ACE), higher state anger (SA), perceived burdensomeness (PB) and higher thwarted belongingness (TB) compared to SAD individuals without SI (n = 163, 53.4%). In binary logistic regression, PB (odds ratio (OR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.15), TB (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), SA (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.01-1.13) and ACE (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.03-1.35) emerged as significant covariates of acute SI (Nagelkerke's R² = .39). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showcased the following areas under the curve (AUC): PB (AUC=.78), TB (AUC=.76), SA (AUC=.62) and ACE (AUC=.62). Multinomial logistic regression (no SI = ref.) showcased similar results for passive and active SI (n = 42), with SA reaching significance only for active SI. The Youden index identified appropriate cut-off values for PB, TB, SA and ACEQ by maximizing sensitivity and specificity. Limitations: Cross-sectional design and self-reporting measures limit generalization. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the validity of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide concerning SI in SAD. PB and TB with SA and ACE may support the valid assessment of SI in therapeutic settings.
... Deficiencies in PA associated specifically with social anxiety are manifested in a variety of ways. For example, on a daily basis, individuals with symptoms of social anxiety report fewer positive emotions and positive events, report less time feeling happy and relaxed, and report less intense positive emotional experiences (Kashdan and Collins, 2010;Kashdan and Steger, 2006). As attenuated PA in social anxiety cannot be explained by depressive symptoms (Kashdan, 2007) and is not characteristic of other anxiety disorders (Brown et al., 1998), blunted PA stands as a distinguishing feature of SAD. ...
Article
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Prior work has established a robust association between childhood maltreatment and systemic inflammatory activation later in life; however, the mechanisms involved in this process remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this investigation was to examine potential mechanistic roles for social anxiety (SA) symptoms and low positive affect (PA) in the path from childhood maltreatment to elevations in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, a common biomarker of inflammatory activation. In addition, building on prior work establishing linkages between mindful awareness and reductions in systemic inflammation, we examined the potential role of trait mindfulness as a moderator of the relationships among childhood maltreatment, SA, low PA, and IL-6. A serial mediation model utilizing a large epidemiologic dataset (final N = 527) supported our central hypothesis that the direct effect of childhood maltreatment on IL-6 was fully serially statistically mediated by SA symptoms and low PA (but not high negative affect). Additionally, results indicated that individuals falling in the upper versus lower quartiles of SA symptoms demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of IL-6, a finding that has not been previously reported. Trait mindfulness moderated the association between low PA and IL-6, to the exclusion of any paths related to negative affect. Additionally, results indicated that the effect of child maltreatment on IL-6 bypasses SA to indirectly impact IL-6 via negative affect. Overall, we conclude that childhood maltreatment and SA symptoms have a significant influence on IL-6, albeit indirectly via low PA, and the influence of PA on IL-6 may be uniquely susceptible to influence by individual differences in mindfulness.
... However, they also found that when people with depression were alone, they had lower heart rate variability and more negative affect but when they engaged in social interactions with family members, friends, and partners, those differences did not emerge. Kashdan and Collins (2010) found that when people were around others, they felt happier relative to when those same people were alone, but also that people who were higher in social anxiety reported fewer and less positive emotions. Other work has utilized EMA to examine social interactions impact on health outcomes as well (Bernstein et al., 2018;Gallo & Matthews, 2006;Hawkley et al., 2007;Joseph et al., 2014). ...
Article
Whether exclusion hurts or inclusion feels good is debated within social psychology, and research designs often compare people who are excluded from those who are included. Here, we examined how participants differ when they are excluded or included relative to when they are not engaging in social interactions. Participants completed an ecological momentary assessment study (7 days, six measures a day). Participants indicated if they were having a social interaction, whether the interaction was inclusionary or exclusionary, and their mood and basic needs. We found that when people were excluded, relative to no interaction, they had lower basic needs and worsened mood; the reverse was true during inclusion episodes. We also found that the within-person effect of exclusion was larger than the within-person effect of inclusion and that exclusion experiences were relatively uncommon (≈10% of all reported social interactions). Future research and the importance of examining within-person effects are discussed.
... Nonetheless, only a few research studies have used these experience sampling methods in SSD to capture patients' emotional status and social role performance, and leveraged this information to guide targeted delivery of psychological evidence-based treatments (Heron and Smyth, 2010;So et al., 2013). Clinicians monitoring clinical and social functioning with EMAs during the intervention have, in fact, the opportunity to tailor the content of psychological therapies, thereby promoting the generalization of trained skills in real-world settings, which could, in turn, augment the efficacy of such treatments (Kashdan and Collins, 2010;Stone et al., 2019;Forbes et al., 2012). In short, EMAs have the potential to radically change how providers and patients relate to their healthcare by delineating exactly when and how to intervene. ...
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Background Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) demonstrate poor social functioning. While group-based approaches show long-term improvements, access to treatments is limited. Digital platforms hold promise to overcome barriers to treatment delivery and improve outcomes. Objective In a parallel arm, double-blind RCT, we tested CLIMB, a clinician-assisted, adjunct to treatment that includes computerized social cognition training (SCT), ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), group tele-therapy, and moderated messaging. CLIMB was compared to an active control that includes computerized general cognitive training (GCT), unstructured support groups, and unmoderated messaging. Methods The primary outcome was social functioning. Secondary outcomes were negative symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Given the sample size, Propensity Score Models were used to ensure balanced baseline covariates. Mixed-effects models examined change over time. Results 24 participants completed the study (12 per arm). No significant between-group differences emerged in engagement. CLIMB participants engaged in a median of 8 sessions (IQR = 2), 2.8 h of SCT (IQR = 7.5), and 2710 EMAs; control participants engaged in a median of 9 sessions (IQR = 3) and 2.2 h of GCT (IQR = 7.9). As a group, participants showed significant improvements in social functioning (p = .046), with no between-group differences. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated greater improvements in QoL (p = .025) for the active control. Conclusions Delivering group-based mobile interventions to individuals with SSD is feasible. EMAs allow clinicians to maintain inter-session engagement, build participant self-awareness, and tailor treatment delivery. In this treatment model, whether SCT or GCT is more effective remains unclear. Further research will evaluate group-based mobile interventions to improve outcomes in SSD.
... For the AAT training, participants viewed 60 emotionrelated words (e.g., anxious, happy) and, following Amir et al. (2013), 60 neutral words related to household objects (e.g., chair, dishwasher). A range of emotion words was included, because individuals with SAD may avoid both putatively positive and negative emotions (e.g., Farmer & Kashdan, 2012;Kashdan & Collins, 2010). Words were selected from the Affective Norms for English Words database (Bradley & Lang, 1999). ...
Article
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Widely-used, empirically-supported treatments focus on reducing experiential avoidance (EA) as a mechanism of social anxiety disorder (SAD) symptom change. However, little is known about how EA and SAD symptoms bidirectionally interrelate from session to session, or throughout the course of an intervention—a gap that raises significant theoretical and clinical questions about the mechanistic role of EA. Participants ( N = 78) with elevated EA and SAD symptoms completed a 3-session pilot intervention (Approach-Avoidance Task training plus psychoeducation) designed to target EA. Bivariate latent change score modeling was then used to map the bidirectional, temporal interrelationships between EA and SAD symptoms from session to session. Analyses accounted for the overall trajectory of change in both variables (i.e., EA and SAD) and both variables’ preceding measurement. Findings suggested that changes in SAD symptoms preceded and predicted changes in EA from session to session. Contrary to hypotheses, this effect was not bidirectional, as changes in EA did not precede and predict changes in SAD symptoms from session to session. The use of a relatively small analogue sample limit the external validity of the present findings. Nevertheless, these novel findings advance our understanding of the dynamic interrelationships between EA and SAD symptoms throughout treatment. Moreover, given that many leading treatments target EA, this study highlights a need for future work to continue evaluating whether EA is indeed a mechanism of SAD symptom change.
... Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has been used to investigate socially anxious individuals' reactions to positive experiences and their ability to differentiate emotions. It found important differences in the social-emotional daily lives of anxious individuals and demonstrated the feasibility of this methodology to investigate social interaction and emotional regulation in the context of psychopathology [7,8]. These studies relied on repeated sampling at discrete time intervals on a palmtop PC. ...
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Mental health problems are highly prevalent and appear to be increasing in frequency and severity among the college student population. The upsurge in mobile and wearable wireless technologies capable of intense, longitudinal tracking of individuals, provide valuable opportunities to examine temporal patterns and dynamic interactions of key variables in mental health research. In this paper, we present a feasibility study leveraging non-invasive mobile sensing technology to passively assess college students' social anxiety, one of the most common disorders in the college student population. We have first developed a smartphone application to continuously track GPS locations of college students, then we built an analytic infrastructure to collect the GPS trajectories and finally we analyzed student behaviors (e.g. studying or staying at home) using Point-Of-Interest (POI). The whole framework supports intense, longitudinal, dynamic tracking of college students to evaluate how their anxiety and behaviors change in the college campus environment. The collected data provides critical information about how students' social anxiety levels and their mobility patterns are correlated. Our primary analysis based on 18 college students demonstrated that social anxiety level is significantly correlated with places students' visited and location transitions.
... Specifically, social anxiety (SA) appears to be the only type of anxiety to show strong, negative relationships with self-reported trait (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Chorpita, Plummer, & Moffitt, 2000;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2007Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988) and moment-tomoment PA (Kashdan & Collins, 2010) that comorbid depressive symptoms do not account for. ...
Article
People differ in their self-reported propensities to experience positive affect (PA). Even those prone to internalizing symptoms show varied proclivities to PA; social anxiety (SA), for instance, unlike other types of anxiety, shows a strong negative association with PA that cannot be explained by diminished reward sensitivity. Heightened reliance on suppression of emotional displays (expressive suppression; ES) may be an alternate contributor to attenuated PA among people with elevated SA, relative to people with other types of anxiety. A first step toward testing this hypothesis is clarifying the ES-PA association and examining whether it varies as a function of anxiety type (social anxiety vs. other types of anxiety). This meta-analysis (k = 41; n = 11,010) revealed a significant, negative association between ES and PA (r = −0.158); however, this relationship was not significant for individuals with social or other anxiety disorders. Moreover, two moderators (sample culture—Western: r = −0.16; Eastern: r = 0.003; type of emotion suppressed—Negative: r = 0.18; Positive: r = −0.12) accounted for significant heterogeneity in effect sizes. This review synthesizes the literature on ES and PA in healthy and anxious samples; findings suggest moderating variables merit closer attention in future studies.
... Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was another important component in our data collection effort to provide contextualized information. Previous studies have utilized EMA methods to examine issues such as people's physical activities, their situated physical and social contexts [48,49], emotional experiences such as moods, stress, and anxiety [50], environmental stressors [51], and health-related behaviors and symptoms as they occur in real-time [52,53]. Specifically, EMA helps provide real-time measurements of individuals' behavioral and psychological states in their natural environments [53]. ...
Article
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The effects of environmental exposure on human health have been widely explored by scholars in health geography for decades. However, recent advances in geospatial technologies, especially the development of mobile approaches to collecting real-time and high-resolution individual data, have enabled sophisticated methods for assessing people’s environmental exposure. This study proposes an individual environmental exposure assessment system (IEEAS) that integrates objective real-time monitoring devices and subjective sensing tools to provide a composite way for individual-based environmental exposure data collection. With field test data collected in Chicago and Beijing, we illustrate and discuss the advantages of the proposed IEEAS and the composite analysis that could be applied. Data collected with the proposed IEEAS yield relatively accurate measurements of individual exposure in a composite way, and offer new opportunities for developing more sophisticated ways to measure individual environmental exposure. With the capability to consider both the variations in environmental risks and human mobility in high spatial and temporal resolutions, the IEEAS also helps mitigate some uncertainties in environmental exposure assessment and thus enables a better understanding of the relationship between individual environmental exposure and health outcomes.
... 2019;English, Lee, John, & Gross, 2017;Hur et al., 2019;Kashdan & Collins, 2010; Vogel, Ram, Conroy, Pincus, & Gerstorf, 2017). Time-related variables were included to gain insight into constructs that may be helpful for developing just-in-time adaptive interventions(Nahum-Shani et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives: Poor emotion regulation (ER) has been implicated in many mental illnesses, including social anxiety disorder. To work towards a scalable, low-cost intervention for improving ER, we developed a novel contextual recommender algorithm for ER strategies. Design: N = 114 socially anxious participants were prompted via a mobile app up to six times daily for five weeks to report their emotional state, use of 19 different ER strategies (or no strategy), physical location, and social context. Information from passive sensors was also collected. Methods: Given the large number of ER strategies, we used two different approaches for variable reduction: (1) grouping ER strategies into categories based on a prior meta-analysis, and (2) considering only the ten most frequently used strategies. For each approach, an algorithm that recommends strategies based on one's current context was compared with an algorithm that recommends ER strategies randomly, an algorithm that always recommends cognitive reappraisal, and the person's observed ER strategy use. Contextual bandits were used to predict the effectiveness of the strategies recommended by each policy. Results: When strategies were grouped into categories, the contextual algorithm was not the best performing policy. However, when the top ten strategies were considered individually, the contextual algorithm outperformed all other policies. Conclusions: Grouping strategies into categories may obscure differences in their contextual effectiveness. Further, using strategies tailored to context is more effective than using cognitive reappraisal indiscriminately across all contexts. Future directions include deploying the contextual recommender algorithm as part of a just-in-time intervention to assess real-world efficacy. Practitioner points: Emotion regulation strategies vary in their effectiveness across different contexts. An algorithm that recommends emotion regulation strategies based on a person's current context may one day be used as an adjunct to treatment to help dysregulated individuals optimize their in-the-moment emotion regulation. Recommending flexible use of emotion regulation strategies across different contexts may be more effective than recommending cognitive reappraisal indiscriminately across all contexts.
... Variables about social contexts and preference were included based on prior research demonstrating their relevance to state affect, particularly for socially anxious individuals, and their relevance to ER strategy selection (Ameko et al., 2018;Daros et al., 2019;English, Lee, John, & Gross, 2017;Hur et al., 2019;Kashdan & Collins, 2010;Vogel, Ram, Conroy, Pincus, & Gerstorf, 2017). Time-related variables were included to gain insight into constructs that may be helpful for developing just-in-time adaptive interventions (Nahum-Shani et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
Objectives: Poor emotion regulation (ER) has been implicated in many mental illnesses, including social anxiety disorder. To work towards a scalable, low-cost intervention for improving ER, we developed a novel contextual recommender algorithm for ER strategies. Design: N=114 socially anxious participants were prompted via a mobile app up to six times daily for five weeks to report their emotional state, use of 19 different ER strategies (or no strategy), physical location, and social context. Information from passive sensors was also collected.Methods: Given the large number of ER strategies, we used two different approaches for variable reduction: (1) grouping ER strategies into categories based on a prior meta-analysis, and (2) considering only the ten most frequently used strategies. For each approach, an algorithm that recommends strategies based on one’s current context was compared to an algorithm that recommends ER strategies randomly, an algorithm that always recommends cognitive reappraisal, and the person’s observed ER strategy use. Contextual bandits were used to predict the effectiveness of the strategies recommended by each policy. Results: When strategies were grouped into categories, the contextual algorithm was not the best performing policy. However, when the top ten strategies were considered individually, the contextual algorithm outperformed all other policies. Conclusions: Grouping strategies into categories may obscure differences in their contextual effectiveness. Further, using strategies tailored to context is more effective than using cognitive reappraisal indiscriminately across all contexts. Future directions include deploying the contextual recommender algorithm as part of a just-in-time intervention to assess real-world efficacy.
... Among treatment-seeking individuals with SAD, higher levels of trait anger and anger suppression have been associated with greater social anxiety (Erwin et al., 2003). Similarly, in non-clinical samples, more time spent experiencing anger throughout the day (Kashdan and Collins, 2010) and higher levels of anger in response to imagined rejection (Breen and Kashdan, 2011) were associated with greater social anxiety. ...
Article
Background : Cognitive-behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) are two prominent evidence-based treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not clear, however, whether outcomes of these two treatments are moderated by similar factors. For example, whereas anger suppression and anger expression each predict outcomes in cognitive- behavioral group therapy (CBGT), it is unknown whether they differentially influence outcomes in CBGT versus MBSR. Methods : One hundred eight participants with SAD were randomized to CBGT, MBSR or Waitlist (WL). WL participants were later randomized to CBGT or MBSR, and their data were combined with data from those originally randomized to CBGT or MBSR. Anger suppression and anger expression were assessed at pre-treatment, and social anxiety was assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and every 3 months throughout a 12-month follow-up period. Results : From pre- to post-treatment, higher anger suppression was associated with significantly greater reduction in social anxiety in CBGT compared with MBSR. From post-treatment through follow-up, higher anger expression was associated lesser reduction in social anxiety in MBSR but not in CBGT. Limitations : Data are limited by sole reliance on self-report and it is unclear whether these findings generalize beyond group-based interventions. Conclusions : Individuals with SAD who are higher in anger suppression and/or expression might be better suited to CBGT than MBSR.
... For example, approximately 40% of individuals in the large STAR*D treatment study for depression indicated having irritable mood most of the time (Perlis et al. 2005). Similarly, elevated symptoms of social anxiety are associated with increased experiences of anger in both social and non-social situations (Kashdan and Collins 2010). This raises the question as to how much the hostile interpretation bias in social anxiety and depression can be attributed to state irritable mood, rather than aspects specific to either depression or social anxiety. ...
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Cognitive models of social anxiety and depression posit that hostile interpretation bias may be a symptom of, and act as a maintenance factor for, these disorders. Social anxiety and depression are also associated with increased experience of angry and irritable mood. To investigate whether hostile interpretation bias is related to symptoms of the disorder or to irritability, the current study investigated the degree to which state irritable mood may influence these relationships. In two samples, MTurk workers (Sample 1, n = 145) and college students (Sample 2, n = 387), we assessed depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, irritable mood, and hostile interpretation bias. In sample 1, depression and social anxiety symptoms were positively associated with hostile interpretation bias. When statistically controlling for irritable mood, depression symptoms no longer significantly predicted hostile interpretation bias. However, social anxiety remained a significant predictor of hostile interpretation bias even when controlling for irritable mood. The pattern of results was identical in sample 2. Results indicate that the association between depression symptoms and hostile interpretation bias may be accounted for by irritable mood, but social anxiety symptoms have a unique association with hostile interpretation bias even when including irritable mood. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
... One aspect of social anxiety that makes it unique among the anxiety conditions is that it is characterized by both high NA and low PA [53,54]. Thus, it may be that some socially anxious persons use substances to increase PA. ...
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Purpose of Review To review data published in the past 5 years to evaluate the utility of our biopsychosocial model of social anxiety’s relation to substance misuse to evaluate the model’s utility and update it. Recent Findings Data support the utility of our revised model—e.g., socially anxious persons report using substances to manage subjective anxiety, despite evidence that some substances may not have a direct effect on physiological responding. Other factors with promise include social influence, cognitive processes (e.g., post-event processing), and avoidance. Data highlight the importance of context as socially anxious persons use some substances more in some high-risk situations, despite lack of relation between social anxiety and use generally. Sociocultural factors remain understudied. Summary This updated model is a theory- and data-driven model of the relations between social anxiety and substance misuse that can inform future work to improve substance-related outcomes among this especially vulnerable group.
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Objectives Recent initiatives have highlighted the importance of investigating clinically relevant variations in social processes that contribute to mental illness. Surprisingly little research has examined the associations between socially and clinically relevant transdiagnostic factors, such as social anxity (SA) and rejection sensitvity (RS), on theory of mind (ToM) decoding ability. Methods The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and self-report measures of SA and RS were completed by 199 adult participants. Results Linear regression analyses suggest a specific difficulty decoding positive emotion associated with SA and global decrements in ToM associated with RS that may reflect a negative interpretation bias. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for understanding how those with SA and RS perceive and navigate social interactions, which may contribute to the maintenance of symptoms and decreased psychosocial functioning.
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Socially anxious and depressed individuals tend to evaluate their social interactions negatively, but little is known about the specific real-time contributors to these negative perceptions. The current study examined how affect ratings during social interactions predict later perceptions of those interactions, and whether this differs by social anxiety and depression severity. Undergraduate participants (N = 60) responded to a smartphone application that prompted participants to answer short questions about their current affect and social context up to 6 times a day for 2 weeks. At the end of each day, participants answered questions about their perceptions of their social interactions from that day. Results indicated that the link between negative affective experiences reported during social interactions and the end-of-day report of enjoyment (but not effectiveness) of those experiences was more negative when social anxiety was more severe. The link between negative affective experiences rated during social interactions and the end-of-day report of effectiveness (but not enjoyment) during those social encounters was more negative when depression was more severe. These findings demonstrate the importance of examining self-perceptions of social interactions based both on the extent to which individuals think that they met the objective demands of an interaction (i.e., effectiveness, mastery) and the extent to which they liked or disliked that interaction (i.e., enjoyment, pleasure). These findings also highlight how real-time assessments of daily social interactions may reveal the key experiences that contribute to negative self-evaluations across disorders, potentially identifying critical targets for therapy.
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Moving abroad as international students would changes the social environment due to language, food, people and cultural diversity in a foreign country. This condition may cause the feeling of social anxiety in their new daily life. At worst, social anxiety might increase problems in cognitive, affective, and behavioral areas. This study aims to describe more about social anxiety among international students of Sultan Idris Education University according to the mother tongue, and gender as additional analysis. Research was designed by quantitative approach using descriptive, t-test and anova analyses. There were 117 International Students who completed the survey using Social Interactions Anxiety Scale (SIAS) for university students. The Anova test result reported, there is a significant difference in social anxiety among international students according to their mother tongue, p= 0.03 (p<0.05) and F = 2.326. International students who have mother tongue, English, seem had the lowest score of social anxiety (mean=2.12), followed by Indonesian (mean=2.54), followed by Korean (mean=2.57), and followed by Chinese (mean= 2.75). This study revealed international language, English, become as one factor that effected social anxiety problems among international students in the university.
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Background Loneliness is a public health concern with detrimental effects on physical and mental well-being. Given phenotypical overlaps between loneliness and social anxiety, cognitive behavioral interventions targeting social anxiety might be adopted to reduce loneliness. However, it is still elusive whether social anxiety and loneliness share the same underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. The current study aimed at investigating to what extent known behavioral and neural correlates of social avoidance in social anxiety are evident in loneliness. Methods We used a pre-stratified approach involving 42 participants with high and 40 control participants with low loneliness scores. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants completed a social gambling task to measure the subjective value of engaging in a social situation and responses to positive and negative social feedback. Results Uni- and multivariate analyses of behavioral and neural data replicated known task effects across groups. However, although lonely participants were characterized by increased social anxiety, loneliness was associated with a response pattern clearly distinct from social anxiety. Specifically, Bayesian analyses revealed moderate evidence for equal subjective values of engaging in social situations and comparable amygdala responses to social decision-making and striatal responses to positive social feedback in both groups. Conversely, lonely participants showed significantly altered behavioral responsiveness to negative feedback and reduced striatal activity, whereas striatal-hippocampal connectivity was increased compared to controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that loneliness is associated with altered emotional reactivity to social situations rather than behavioral tendencies to withdraw from social interactions. Thus, established interventions for social anxiety should be adjusted when targeting loneliness.
Article
Social anxiety occurs in everyday social interactions, yet the real-world factors that shape the moment-to-moment experience of social anxiety have not been fully explored. Using ecological momentary assessments (smartphone-based, five signals a day for 21 days), the present study examined the associations between state social anxiety (SSA) and characteristics of interaction partners in varied contexts, and how these momentary associations differed with trait social anxiety (TSA). Ninety-two participants (54% female, age from 18 to 34) completed 4185 momentary reports. Results from multilevel models showed that perceived judgmentalness and unfamiliarity of interaction partners were positively associated with SSA, and the associations were stronger for the high TSA group (n = 30) compared to a control group (n = 62). Exploratory analyses with various types of interaction partners and social settings revealed noticeable group differences in how the types were associated with SSA (e.g. acquaintance, close friend/romantic partner) and how they influenced the effect of judgmentalness and unfamiliarity on SSA (e.g. authority, work/school). Overall, the findings highlight the role of contextual associations in social anxiety, and the benefits and the need for more comprehensive approaches with EMA in studying social anxiety, particularly its contextual aspects.
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Background Mobile ecological momentary assessment (mEMA) permits real-time capture of self-reported participant behaviors and perceptual experiences. Reporting of mEMA protocols and compliance has been identified as problematic within systematic reviews of children, youth, and specific clinical populations of adults. Objective This study aimed to describe the use of mEMA for self-reported behaviors and psychological constructs, mEMA protocol and compliance reporting, and associations between key components of mEMA protocols and compliance in studies of nonclinical and clinical samples of adults. Methods In total, 9 electronic databases were searched (2006-2016) for observational studies reporting compliance to mEMA for health-related data from adults (>18 years) in nonclinical and clinical settings. Screening and data extraction were undertaken by independent reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Narrative synthesis described participants, mEMA target, protocol, and compliance. Random effects meta-analysis explored factors associated with cohort compliance (monitoring duration, daily prompt frequency or schedule, device type, training, incentives, and burden score). Random effects analysis of variance (P≤.05) assessed differences between nonclinical and clinical data sets. ResultsOf the 168 eligible studies, 97/105 (57.7%) reported compliance in unique data sets (nonclinical=64/105 [61%], clinical=41/105 [39%]). The most common self-reported mEMA target was affect (primary target: 31/105, 29.5% data sets; secondary target: 50/105, 47.6% data sets). The median duration of the mEMA protocol was 7 days (nonclinical=7, clinical=12). Most protocols used a single time-based (random or interval) prompt type (69/105, 65.7%); median prompt frequency was 5 per day. The median number of items per prompt was similar for nonclinical (8) and clinical data sets (10). More than half of the data sets reported mEMA training (84/105, 80%) and provision of participant incentives (66/105, 62.9%). Less than half of the data sets reported number of prompts delivered (22/105, 21%), answered (43/105, 41%), criterion for valid mEMA data (37/105, 35.2%), or response latency (38/105, 36.2%). Meta-analysis (nonclinical=41, clinical=27) estimated an overall compliance of 81.9% (95% CI 79.1-84.4), with no significant difference between nonclinical and clinical data sets or estimates before or after data exclusions. Compliance was associated with prompts per day and items per prompt for nonclinical data sets. Although widespread heterogeneity existed across analysis (I2>90%), no compelling relationship was identified between key features of mEMA protocols representing burden and mEMA compliance. Conclusions In this 10-year sample of studies using the mEMA of self-reported health-related behaviors and psychological constructs in adult nonclinical and clinical populations, mEMA was applied across contexts and health conditions and to collect a range of health-related data. There was inconsistent reporting of compliance and key features within protocols, which limited the ability to confidently identify components of mEMA schedules likely to have a specific impact on compliance.
Article
Background: Socially anxious individuals seem to be at a high risk for alcohol-related problems because they drink to cope. Yet social anxiety is unique among the anxiety conditions in that it is characterized by lower positive affect (PA). It is unclear whether drinking to cope is related to drinking to decrease negative affect (NA) or increase PA. Objectives: We tested whether social anxiety was related to more drinking problems via the sequential relations between affect (NA or PA), drinking to change affect (decrease NA or increase PA), and drinking quantity. We also tested whether the indirect effect of drinking to increase PA was significantly less than that of drinking to decrease NA. Methods: Past-month drinkers with clinically elevated social anxiety (n = 174) and those with more normative or lower social anxiety (n = 362) completed an online survey. Results: Social anxiety was indirectly related to drinking problems via the sequential effect of NA, drinking to decrease NA, and drinking quantity. Social anxiety was indirectly related to drinking problems via the sequential relations of PA and drinking quantity and of drinking to increase PA and drinking quantity. The indirect effect of drinking to increase PA did not significantly differ from drinking to decrease NA. Conclusions/Importance: Socially anxious drinkers may drink not only to decrease NA but also to increase PA in social situations. Both of these drinking motives appear to play important roles in socially anxious drinkers’ experience of drinking-related problems.
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Loneliness is a public health concern with detrimental effects on physical and mental well-being. Given phenotypical overlaps between loneliness and social anxiety (SA), cognitive-behavioral interventions targeting SA might be adopted to reduce loneliness. However, whether SA and loneliness share the same underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is still an elusive question. The current study aimed at investigating to what extent known behavioral and neural correlates of social avoidance in SA are evident in loneliness. We used a prestratified approach involving 42 (21 females) participants with high loneliness (HL) and 40 (20 females) participants with low loneliness (LL) scores. During fMRI, participants completed a social gambling task to measure the subjective value of engaging in social situations and responses to social feedback. Univariate and multivariate analyses of behavioral and neural data replicated known task effects. However, although HL participants showed increased SA, loneliness was associated with a response pattern clearly distinct from SA. Specifically, contrary to expectations based on SA differences, Bayesian analyses revealed moderate evidence for equal subjective values of engaging in social situations and comparable amygdala responses to social decision-making and striatal responses to positive social feedback in both groups. Moreover, while explorative analyses revealed reduced pleasantness ratings, increased striatal activity, and decreased striatal-hippocampal connectivity in response to negative computer feedback in HL participants, these effects were diminished for negative social feedback. Our findings suggest that, unlike SA, loneliness is not associated with withdrawal from social interactions. Thus, established interventions for SA should be adjusted when targeting loneliness.
Article
What drives positive affective and interpersonal experiences during social interaction? Undergraduates with high (n = 63) or low (n = 56) trait social anxiety (SA) were paired with unfamiliar low SA partners in a 45-minute conversation task. Throughout the task, participants and their conversation partners completed measures of affiliative goals, affect, curiosity, authenticity, and attentional focus. Both affective and interpersonal outcomes were assessed. Dyadic analyses revealed that participants’ affiliative goals during the social interaction predicted positive outcomes for both themselves and their partners, although the link between affiliative goals and positive affect was weaker for participants with high SA. Mediation analyses demonstrated that adopting affiliative goals may promote more positive outcomes by increasing participants’ curiosity and felt authenticity. Taken together, results illuminate the pathways through which people with varying levels of trait SA may derive interpersonally generated positive affect and positive social outcomes, with implications for clinical theory and practice.
Chapter
The mobile phone has become a popular tool for providing information and capturing responses from different groups of people because of its technological features and portability. EMA (Ecological Momentary Assessment) is commonly used by health researchers to contemporaneously capture information regarding human experience. The authors proposed the use of a mobile EMA system as a supportive intervention to collect real-time patient data and to give back real-time advice. In this study, a mobile EMA system has been utilized by patients with a variety of conditions, including mood disorders, behavior disorders, and physical disorders. The real-time data collection included one or more pieces of information at each moment to improve understanding the causal mechanisms of disease. The effectiveness of real-time advice has been examined by comparing a mobile EMA system with and without this function. Patient compliance was high on average, at approximately 89%, and was higher, at approximately 93%, when advice was given. In several cases, the supportive intervention was shown to help patients improve their health conditions. However, the results were dependent on the patients’ motivation, environment, and relationship with their doctor. The EMA data regarding advice given showed that symptoms tended to improve in most cases.
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Multilevel models are becoming increasingly used in applied educational social and economic research for the analysis of hierarchically nested data. In these random coefficient regression models the parameters are allowed to differ over the groups in which the observations are nested. For computational ease in deriving parameter estimates, predictors are often centered around the mean. In nested or grouped data, the option of centering around the grand mean is extended with an option to center within groups or contexts. Both are statistically sound ways to improve parameter estimation. In this article we study the effects of these two different ways of centering, in comparison to the use of raw scores, on the parameter estimates in random coefficient models. The conclusion is that centering around the group mean amounts to fitting a different model from that obtained by centering around the grand mean or by using raw scores. The choice between the two options for centering can only be made on a theoretical basis. Based on this study, we conclude that centering rules valid for simple models, such as the fixed coefficients regression model. are no longer applicable to more complicated models, such as the random coefficient model. We think researchers should be made aware of the consequences of the choice of particular centering options.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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D. Watson and A. Tellegen (1985) proposed a "consensual" structure of affect based on J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex. The authors' review of the literature indicates that this 2-factor model captures robust structural properties of self-rated mood. Nevertheless, the evidence also indicates that the circumplex does not fit the data closely and needs to be refined. Most notably, the model's dimensions are not entirely independent; moreover, with the exception of Pleasantness–Unpleasantness, they are not completely bipolar. More generally, the data suggest a model that falls somewhere between classic simple structure and a true circumplex. The authors then examine two of the dimensions imbedded in this structure, which they label Negative Activation (NA) and Positive Activation (PA). The authors argue that PA and NA represent the subjective components of broader biobehavioral systems of approach and withdrawal, respectively. The authors conclude by demonstrating how this framework helps to clarify various affect-related phenomena, including circadian rhythms, sleep, and the mood disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
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Multilevel modeling is a technique that has numerous potential applications for social and personality psychology. To help realize this potential, this article provides an introduction to multilevel modeling with an emphasis on some of its applications in social and personality psychology. This introduction includes a description of multilevel modeling, a rationale for this technique, and a discussion of applications of multilevel modeling in social and personality psychological research. Some of the subtleties of setting up multilevel analyses and interpreting results are presented, and software options are discussed.
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This study explored the relation of shame proneness and guilt proneness to constructive versus destructive responses to anger among 302 children (Grades 4-6), adolescents (Grades 7-11), 176 college students, and 194 adults. Across all ages, shame proneness was clearly related to maladaptive response to anger, including malevolent intentions; direct, indirect, and displaced aggression; self-directed hostility; and negative long-term consequences. In contrast, guilt proneness was associated with constructive means of handling anger, including constructive intentions, corrective action and non-hostile discussion with the target of the anger, cognitive reappraisals of the target's role, and positive long-term consequences. Escapist-diffusing responses showed some interesting developmental trends. Among children, these dimensions were positively correlated with guilt and largely unrelated to shame; among older participants, the results were mixed.
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Studies of smoking relapse and temptation episodes have relied on retrospective recall and confounded between- and within-subject variability. Real-time data on temptations and lapses to smoke were gathered using palm-top computers. We made within-subject comparisons of the initial lapse, a temptation episode, and base rate data obtained through randomly scheduled assessments. Negative affect discriminated all three situations, with lapses worse than temptations, and temptations worse than random situations. Participants attributed lapses to negative mood and smoking cues, whereas temptations were more often attributed to behavioral transitions. Participants were 12 times more likely to report coping in temptations than in lapses. However, only cognitive (vs. behavioral) coping strategies were effective. Lapses (vs. the other situations) were more likely to occur when smoking was permitted, when cigarettes were easily available, and in the presence of other smokers. The results have clinical implications, and the computerized monitoring methods may be applicable to an array of clinical research problems.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression). Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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Positive affect systematically influences performance on many cognitive tasks. A new neuropsychological theory is proposed that accounts for many of these effects by assuming that positive affect is associated with increased brain dopamine levels. The theory predicts or accounts for influences of positive affect on olfaction, the consolidation of long-term (i.e., episodic) memories, working memory, and creative problem solving. For example, the theory assumes that creative problem solving is improved, in part, because increased dopamine release in the anterior cingulate improves cognitive flexibility and facilitates the selection of cognitive perspective.
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The next 3 articles in this issue use multilevel statistical procedures to analyze data collected in daily process studies of (a) stress and coping, (b) binge eating, and (c) chronic pain experience. Important differences in the methods and procedures of these studies illustrate the many options available to investigators and data analysts. This article serves as a preface to help readers who are new to these studies' methodology appreciate their novel contributions to the literature in consulting and clinical psychology. Four frequently asked questions are addressed concerning the design of daily process studies, the distinctive meaning of a within-person finding, the possibility that self-monitoring studies are measurement reactive, and complexities in the use of multilevel statistical procedures for analyzing person-day data sets.
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Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responseswere specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion
Chapter
Anger is a frequently experienced emotion for most people (1). When mild to moderate in intensity and expressed in constructive, nonhostile ways, anger can lead to positive, adaptive behaviors such as expressing feelings; asserting one’s rights, thoughts, and feelings; problem solving; redressing concerns; setting appropriate limits on the behavior of others; and motivating effective behavior (1,2). Anger, however, is a double-edged sword, often leading to many negative outcomes. For example, chronic anger and hostility are associated with health problems such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, compromised immune functioning, dental problems, and overall mortality (3). Intense anger is often associated with marital discord, abusive parenting, intimate partner violence, and other relationship problems (4,5). Anger has also been implicated in school violence, bullying, and disrupted teen relations. Anger may also lead to major or minor property damage (4), and an overall propensity to aggression and violence (6). Anger is also associated with reduced work effectiveness and problems such as being placed on probation, demotion, and termination (7). For some angry individuals, their anger is totally externalized and entirely justified, leaving their sense of self untouched. For others, however, their anger impairs their sense of psychological well-being; they feel out of control and overwhelmed by their anger and feel anxious, embarrassed, guilty, ashamed, and depressed by their anger and anger-related reactions. While these are but a few examples, anger and its dysfunctional expression affects the physical, psychological, interpersonal, educational, and vocational lives of many people.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression); Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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This article outlines some basic ideas of an evolutionary approach to psychopathology. It focuses on human competition to be seen as attractive in order to elicit the investment of resources from others (e.g., approval, support, and care). It is argued that social anxiety may be a form of competitive anxiety, triggered in contexts where individuals see themselves as relatively low in the status hierarchy of desirable attributes and/or at risk of losing status (and control over social resources such as approval, help, and support) by being seen as having undesirable attributes. To improve (or defend) their position and garner the investments of others (e.g., win approval, support, friendships or status, or defend their status) requires a competitive venture; however, in attempting to compete, social phobics automatically recruit various evolved modules and mentalities for behaving in competitive arenas when one is low in the hierarchy (e.g., social comparison, placating dominant others and various submissive defenses such as concealment, high self-monitoring, and eye-gaze avoidance). These previously adaptive subordinate defenses interfere with status acquisition based on demonstrating attractive attributes to others.
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This book describes the clinical presentation of social anxiety disorder, presents theoretical perspectives on its etiology, and examines the latest empirical data with respect to both pharmacological and behavioral interventions. Social anxiety disorder occurs in children, adolescents, and adults, but its manifestation and treatment differ depending on developmental factors. Drawing from a broad literature base as well as their extensive clinical experience, the authors illustrate the impact of developmental stage on all aspects of the disorder. They also provide practical implementation guidelines, enhanced by case examples; tips on patient management; lists of assessment instruments; and sample forms to use with clients. Since publication of the first edition in 1998, knowledge about social anxiety disorder has advanced on several fronts. The new edition includes information from new studies differentiating patterns of distress characteristic of social anxiety disorder versus shyness. It draws on more substantive data bases to support firmer conclusions about the presentation of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents as well as across various ethnocultural groups. New assessment strategies reviewed in this book include neuroanatomical assessment using magnetic resonance imaging and well-validated self-report instruments and clinician rating scales. The authors review a greatly expanded literature addressing pharmacological treatment and psychosocial treatments. New case descriptions and clinical materials are also included. This highly informative and comprehensive volume will be illuminating reading for practitioners, researchers, and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The contributors to this volume summarize their perspectives on social anxiety and social phobia. Three main topics are discussed: the delineation of social phobia and social anxiety, theoretical perspectives, and treatment approaches. After diagnostic issues are presented, theoretical perspectives from social psychologists, developmental psychologists, behavioral geneticists, and others, are discussed. Finally, treatment approaches such as drug therapy and psychotherapy are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reflecting the full range of work being done across disciplines, this [handbook] reports on an ever-growing, important body of research [on emotions]. [It] is a basic resource for everything that is known about emotions. A broad interdisciplinary overview demonstrates the vast territory affected by scholarship in the field. Chapters address the models and research emanating from clinical and social psychology, development, biology, neurophysiology, behavior genetics, sociology, history, anthropology, and philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The broaden-and-build theory ( [7] and [8]) predicts that positive emotions broaden the scopes of attention and cognition, thereby facilitating the building of personal resources and initiating upward spirals toward increasing emotional well-being. This study attempts to replicate and extend previous empirical support for this model. Using a sample of 185 undergraduates, we assessed whether positive affect and broad-minded coping, interpersonal trust, and social support reciprocally and prospectively predict one another over a two-month period, and whether this upward spiral might be partially based in changes in dopaminergic functioning. As hypothesized, PA and positive coping did mutually build on one another, as did PA and interpersonal trust. Contrary to expectation, PA did not demonstrate an upward spiral relation with social support. Results suggest further study of the relationship between PA and changes in dopamine metabolite levels over time is warranted.
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A model of asymmetric contributions to the control of different subcomponents of approach- and withdrawal-related emotion and psychopathology is presented. Two major forms of positive affect are distinguished. An approach-related form arises prior to goal attainment, and another form follows goal attainment. The former is hypothesized to be associated with activation of the left prefrontal cortex. Individual differences in patterns of prefrontal activation are stable over time. Hypoactivation in this region is proposed to result in approach-related deficits and increase an individual's vulnerability to depression. Data in support of these proposals are presented. The issue of plasticity is then considered from several perspectives. Contextual factors are superimposed upon tonic individual differences and modulate the magnitude of asymmetry. Pharmacological challenges also alter patterns of frontal asymmetry. A diverse array of evidence was then reviewed that lends support to the notion that these patterns of asymmetry may be importantly influenced by early environmental factors that result in enduring changes in brain function and structure.
Article
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, anger, and aggression in high school students. Anger and three types of aggressive expression (verbal, physical toward people, and physical toward objects) were evaluated cross-sectionally and prospectively, via structural equation modeling for relationships to alcohol use in Mexican American and white non-Latino 9–10th (Time 1) and 11–12th grade (Time 2) students. At both times cross-sectionally, anger and aggressive anger expression tended to correlate positively with alcohol use in each ethnicity/gender group. However, prospectively, aggressive forms of anger expression tended not to be related to alcohol use two years later. Only verbally aggressive anger expression was related to alcohol use two years later and then, only for Mexican American and white non-Latino females. There was, therefore, little basis for causal links between aggressive anger expression and alcohol use in a general population of high school students. Aggress. Behav. 30:356–372, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The ability of the self to alter its own responses, including thoughts, emotions, impulsive behaviors, and performances, is powerfully adaptive, and failures of selfcontrol contribute to most personal and social problems. A program of laboratory studies suggests that self-control depends on a limited resource, akin to energy or strength. Acts of self-control and, more generally, of choice and volition deplete this resource, thereby impairing the self's ability to function. These effects appear after seemingly minor exertions because the self tries to conserve its remaining resources after any depletion. Rest and positive affect help restore the self's resources.
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Recent research suggests that some of the wording of the original Self-Consciousness Scale is too abstract for easy understanding by research participants who are not college students. This article presents a revised version of that scale, along with information regarding its psychometric properties. In general, the psychometric properties of the revised scale compare quite favorably to those of the original scale. It is suggested that the revised Self-Consciousness Scale be used whenever data are collected from populations other than college students.
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We examined the hypothesis that under specific conditions, socially anxious individuals may be risk-prone as opposed to risk-averse in domains such as heavy drinking, illicit drug use, unsafe sexual practices, and aggression. A college-aged sample, predominantly women, completed a series of questionnaires on social anxiety and risk-taking behavioral intentions. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive outcome expectancies moderated relationships between social anxiety and sexual risk-taking and aggression. Socially anxious individuals expecting desirable outcomes reported the greatest risk-taking behavioral intentions. Socially anxious individuals expecting less desirable outcomes reported the least risk-taking intentions. Social anxiety interaction effects were not accounted for by other anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data suggested that social anxiety was also positively related to illicit drug use. Although preliminary, these significant findings suggest that a subset of socially anxious individuals may engage in risky activities that likely serve the purpose of regulating emotions.
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Although anger attacks have been described in depressed outpatients, they have not been well studied in other disorders. In Study 1, we examined the prevalence of anger attacks in 50 outpatients with panic disorder. In Study 2, we replicated the initial findings at an independent site and examined the specificity of anger attacks by comparing their occurrence in patients with panic disorder, patients with other non-panic anxiety disorders and patients with a depressive disorder. At both sites, we also explored the relationship between anger attacks and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as gender, presence and severity of depression, and social anxiety measures. In both sites, the prevalence of anger attacks in patients with panic disorder was approximately one-third. However, anger attacks were not unique to panic disorder, with similar rates emerging for patients with other anxiety disorders. Furthermore, patients with depressive diagnoses had twice the prevalence of anger attacks than did anxiety patients. At both sites, those with anger attacks were significantly more depressed and were likely to have either current or past history of major depression. Anger attacks were not associated with social anxiety measures, but were related to cluster B, cluster C and self-defeating personality disorder traits. Our findings support the notion that anger attacks are best conceptualized as an associated feature of depression.
Article
The present study examined social anxiety, anger, and depression among 234 persons with social anxiety disorder and 36 nonanxious controls. In addition to greater social anxiety, persons with social anxiety disorder exhibited more severe depression, greater anger, and poorer anger expression skills than did nonanxious control participants. Analyses investigating attrition and response to cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) among a subset of 68 persons treated for social anxiety disorder indicated that patients who experienced anger frequently, perceived unfair treatment, and were quick-tempered were less likely to complete a 12-session course of CBGT. Among treatment completers, significant reductions in the frequent experience of anger to perceived negative evaluation and in anger suppression were noted. However, those who suppressed anger responded less favorably to CBGT. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.