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The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action

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Contents: Professional Knowledge and Reflection-in-Action: The crisis of confidence in professional knowledge From technical rationality to reflection-in-action. Professional Contexts for Reflection-in-Action: Design as a reflective conversation with the situation Psychotherapy: The patient as a universe of one The structure of reflection-in-action Reflective practice in the science-based professions Town planning: Limits to reflection-in-action The art of managing: Reflection-in-action within an organizational learning system Patterns and limits of reflection-in-action across the professions. Conclusion: Implications for the professions and their place in society.

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... Such argument is also in line with Schon's (1991) views on higher education -how to produce "reflective practitioners" -who are always critical and continue to learn in their real practice after graduating from university. Universities, according to Schon (1991), are no longer the only source of learning. ...
... Such argument is also in line with Schon's (1991) views on higher education -how to produce "reflective practitioners" -who are always critical and continue to learn in their real practice after graduating from university. Universities, according to Schon (1991), are no longer the only source of learning. Universities are also not always developing sciences and knowledge as fast as the rapid changes in the real world. ...
... Reflective practitioners, including planners, continue to learn and be able to respond to various dynamics and unpredictable changes and developments. Schon (1991) has reminded us that our society and its institutions are in continuous processes of transformation and uncertainty. Therefore, we must learn to understand, guide, influence, and manage these transformations and uncertainty. ...
... This iterative, process of critical reflection is central to the MA ILTUS programme as is outlined further in Chapter Four. So, for example, whilst students are required to produce a critically reflexive assignment (Schon, 1983;Jarvis,1987;Barnett, 1997;Jacobs, 2008) on the impact of MA study upon their activist/political values, they must also locate the ontological and epistemological influences upon the methodology of their dissertation research. ...
... The role of radical pedagogic practice is that which mediates the relationship across the frame and, as depicted, is that which may enable change cognitively and/or agentially. As such it is important to recognise the dominant influences of Freire (1970,1976,1990,1997), Gramsci (1971Gramsci ( ,1995, Schon (1978Schon ( , 1983Schon ( , 1987, hooks (1993,2004) and others. ...
... A further, final perspective upon EA is established through association with allied theory in the field of adult pedagogy. This includes Polanyi's approach to tacit knowledge (1967:4) and Schon's (1983Schon's ( , 1987 notion of 'thinking on our feet' as a form of critical reflection in and on action. ...
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The global restructuring of the capitalist political economy of work has catalysed an existential crisis of trade unionism. The search for ways in which to renew and revitalise organised labour is the most urgent task of the global trade union movement. In doing so however, this thesis asks firstly, when developing strategies for trade union renewal what role does learning and knowledge production play? Secondly it asks, how is that learning and knowledge gained through social action made material? The former question lays at the heart of this thesis investigation. The latter is a significant reflection of its findings. This thesis explores the experience of an international body of trade unionists who completed the MA in international labour and trade union studies (ILTUS) at Ruskin College, Oxford between 2006 and 2016. The MA aimed to address the need for the renewal of organised labour, and exemplified Ruskin’s historical role in assisting trade unions internationally in addressing the ‘conditions for change’. The thesis builds upon and expands in significant, original ways existing scholarship in the field of trade union education. It rests upon traditions of informal learning and knowledge production across social movement literature, which in turn is embedded in radical adult pedagogy including that of Freire and Gramsci. Methodologically, the thesis applied a critical educational research approach to explore the impact of the MA learning experience. In doing so it involved students in a modified form of the co-production of research design. The research sought to explore degrees of transformation and agential outcomes as a result of MA radical pedagogic and curricula processes. This was supplemented by learner’s own critical reflexive analysis of impact on their movement practice. As such, the thesis applied the theoretical framework of renewal actor to analyse findings. The findings of the thesis are based on empirical research comprising interviews with a purposive sample of current students and alumni. This methodological approach was allied to an online survey which was completed by the majority of those who enrolled on the MA. The thesis finds that learners account for their experience of the MA in ways which reflect their embodied sense of trade union activism: that identity, consciousness and knowledge accrue as a result of informal learning undertaken through trade union struggle. Thus, a wholly original grounded theory of embodied activism forms the basis upon which findings attune to the renewal actor proposition. Findings however, move far beyond this proposition in epistemological and ontological terms to generate original grounded theories of knowing and being. The thesis asserts that knowledge production processes and outcomes of MA learners mirror that of actors within allied social movements. As such findings argue for an education for renewal that draws on MA pedagogy to refresh trade union educational methodologies. This lays the basis for a more coherent set of relations with a wider of body of movements as part of an allied agenda for radical social change in the 21st century, and as means to achieve trade union renewal.
... A autora deste artigo, ao assumir simultaneamente o papel de investigadora e de docente − na medida em foi co-autora e docente das UC −, (re)afirma neste texto a necessidade profunda de valorização das práticas de investigação no campo da formação inicial de educadores e de professores, particularmente num contexto marcado pelo empobrecimento dos modos de pensar e de fazer essa formação. Reitera-se aqui o entendimento de professor-investigador (STENHOUSE apud SILVA, 2013), ou de professor reflexivo (SCHON, 1983), assumindo-se esta reflexão como o resultado da investigação realizada pela autora com/sobre a sua própria prática tendo como finalidade dessa mesma prática a formação de profissionais reflexivos. ...
... Através desta abordagem, pretende-se articular os três pólos da dinâmica investigação-ação--formação, que se encontra ancorada nos princípios da formação reflexiva e crítica de professores. Mais do que um futuro profissional consumidor de conhecimentos procura-se formar um docente construtor de conhecimento, em linha com a pedagogia crítica (FREIRE, 1987(FREIRE, , 1996, com a abordagem do professor reflexivo (SCHON, 1983;SÁ-CHAVES, 2002, ou a do professor-investigador (STENHOUSE apud ALARCÃO 2001). Nesta concepção, entende-se que a formação constitui o contexto de exercício crítico da atividade docente numa perspectiva de experiência investigativa (ALARCÃO, 2001;AMBRÓSIO, 2001). ...
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O artigo problematiza o papel da investigação na formação inicial de educadores e de professores em Portugal, analisando as suas principais perspectivas e tendências na actualidade. Reflectindo sobre a natureza do conhecimento profissional docente, destacamos algumas das dimensões que devem integrar um perfil desejável, defendendo a (re)valorização da investigação nos cursos de formação inicial. O trabalho empírico realizado centra-se na análise e balanço crítico de um dispositivo de formação-investigação desenvolvido no âmbito do ensino superior público português, que recorre à investigação-acção como estratégia privilegiada de pesquisa e de formação dos futuros profissionais de educação. A análise realizada permite identificar as potencialidades desta abordagem, bem como as tensões institucionais, pedagógicas e epistemológicas decorrentes. Como conclusão, reforça-se a necessidade de dar espaço e voz à investigação na formação de professores, o que exige a procura do equilíbrio, sempre dinâmico e instável, entre o desejável e o possível.
... Jara (2020) señala que en la formación de profesores se requiere fortalecer los procesos de prácticas pedagógicas que promuevan la reflexión constante e intencionada. El trabajo seminal de Schon (1991) fundamentado en Dewey sostenía que el aprendizaje depende de la integración de la experiencia con la reflexión y que los profesores pueden cambiar sus pensamientos como resultado de sus ideas y acciones, así como de examinar sus supuestos y teoría. Esto tiene relación con la noción de que los profesores al hacer esta reflexión puedan reformular las creencias de sus prácticas de enseñanza. ...
... Cox (2014) indica que los maestros pasan por procesos reflexivos sobre la forma en que se les enseñó y toman decisiones para incorporar dichos métodos en sus prácticas actuales. Schon (1991) sustentó que cuando los profesores tienen la oportunidad de reflexionar adquieren nuevo conocimiento pedagógico al interactuar con colegas y aprender de ellos, es entonces que pueden modificar su práctica en el aula. Así también hace casi tres décadas Zeichner (1993) propuso movilizar las condiciones que permitan el cambio en las instituciones educativas por medio de la creación de comunidades de aprendizaje de maestros en las que estos se apoyen y aprendan mutuamente. ...
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INTRODUCCIÓN. Este estudio se propuso comprender cómo contribuyó la trayectoria estudiantil de profesores universitarios en la formación de creencias acerca de la enseñanza y cómo estas favorecieron el aprender a enseñar. La relevancia de estudiar las creencias radica en que estas proporcionan seguridad en el conocimiento creído, por lo que contribuyen a planear y conducir la enseñanza. MÉTODO. Con enfoque cualitativo en la teoría fundamentada y en el muestreo teórico se entrevistó a profesores con diferentes formaciones profesionales, años de experiencia y áreas de enseñanza en universidades públicas y privadas mexicanas. Los datos se analizaron y codificaron para la creación de categorías. RESULTADOS. Se encontró una categoría central relativa a los alcances de la enseñanza universitaria en la construcción de creencias, la cual agrupa tres subcategorías: la clase expositiva, la autorregulación y la creación de un estilo personal de enseñanza. Estas describen que tener dominio del conocimiento, promover la participación de los alumnos y aplicación del conocimiento son habilidades pedagógicas, estas creencias aunadas al desarrollo de la autorregulación originaron en algunos un estilo de enseñanza diferente al que vivieron, mientras otros incorporaron en su enseñanza algunas características de sus maestros. DISCUSIÓN. Los hallazgos aportan conocimiento acerca de cómo los profesores aprendieron a enseñar, motivados por la reflexión y utilización de las creencias que les funcionaron para aprender, así como de sus expectativas docentes.También se confirma el papel de las creencias como guías en la enseñanza lo cual es consistente con resultados de la indagación en esta línea del pensamiento del profesor. Se concluye que los profesores crean estilos de enseñanza diferentes a los aprendidos por la experiencia directa, lo que constituye para ellos un referente de lo que significa saber enseñar, sus modos de aprender, y la creencia en los resultados de su propio aprendizaje.
... Related to teachers' practices, mentoring helps teachers to learn and develop their reflective practice (Dewey, 1993;Schon, 1983;Zeichner, 1994) since through the mentoring process, both mentor and mentee reflect more on their practice and find out the appropriate way to proceed. Thus, mentoring keeps teachers reflecting on their practices as well as learning from others' practices. ...
... Third, mentoring is a way of giving chances for mentors and mentees to reflect and attain positive values in their practices, share knowledge and learn together for the benefit of the mentee, the mentor and students. Dewey, (1993), Schon (1983), Zeichner (1994 relate mentoring with reflective practice, matching Tc3's response: 'mentoring is guiding, sharing, reflecting, giving feed-back, giving motivation and learning together'. In another view, Tr1 explains more: 'mentoring is a good way to enter deep reflection on professional practice as reflection plays the major roles to make meaning on the teacher's actions'. ...
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Mentoring helps teachers experience, learn and apply their knowledge as well as sharing their knowledge and experiences to their colleagues. Although mentoring for ELT in-service teachers has not been implemented formally in Indonesia, it has become popular in Europe, America, Australia and many other countries. In the United Kingdom for instance, mentoring has become one of the required ways for teachers to learn from each other and support other teachers. By using a qualitative exploratory study, an exploration towards mentoring as a term amongst EFL teachers in Indonesia was done. The data was collected by using questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to investigate 12 educational practitioners' views toward mentoring. The educational practitioners consist of three trainers of in-service teachers, five lecturers of EFL pre-service teachers and four EFL secondary in-service teachers in Indonesia. The findings showed different participants' understandings on the term mentoring. Furthermore, the result of this study may impact further research related to the implementation of mentoring scheme as the collaborative CPD in Indonesia.
... Reflective capacity was evaluated and scored using the Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT), which was developed and validated by Wald and colleagues. 5 This rubric was developed based on the theories of Schon and DeSanctis, 16 Boud and colleagues, 17 Moon,18 and Mezirow. 19 Original Research measure: 0.632). ...
... If reflective practice is not a habitual strategy used by an individual, then with increasing experience it becomes more likely that System 1 (fast, intuitive; according to Tversky and Kahneman 23 ) reasoning will be used, which depends on the usual practice/ unchallenged strategies that have become reinforced through years of experience. 16 Alternatively, such an effect may be a function of one's progress in training toward independent practice (eg, reluctance to dwell on poor performance) or of trainingprogram ethos (eg, errors considered markers of substandard individuals and to be hidden or denied). We suggest that if reflective practice were to be embedded in the medical (or anesthesiology) curricula, it is more likely that System 2 reflective reasoning would be used appropriately in more complex and challenging situations. ...
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Background: Reflective practice is associated with improved accuracy of medical diagnosis and superior performance in complex situations. Systematic observation of trainees’ reflective capacities constitutes a basis for an effective support of reflective practice within the training paradigm. We set out to examine the reflective capacity among anesthesiology trainees in a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: We invited 61 anesthesiology trainees in Cork University Hospitals, Ireland, to participate. Each trainee was invited to respond to 2 investigator- written vignettes prepared by the investigators and suitable for evaluation using the Reflection Evaluation for Learners’ Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT) and to produce and then respond to a written vignette based on their own experience. All responses were assessed by 2 independent assessors who had undergone training in the application of the REFLECT rubric, which gives quantifiable scores. Interrater reliability was assessed by weighted kappa coefficient. Association between years of training in medicine and level of reflective capacity was examined using correlation and multiple regression analyses, controlling for age. Results: Twenty-nine trainees agreed to participate, the overall REFLECT Level was 2.16 (SD 0.7), corresponding to “thoughtful action,” indicating low to moderate reflective ability. Cronbach’s alpha for the 5 items of the REFLECT scale was excellent (r = 0.92). Weighted kappa was very satisfactory (k = 0.81). A strong association was demonstrated between years in medicine and scores on REFLECT, controlling for age of participant (F = −2.57, Beta coefficient = −0.30). Respondents with less experience had greater mean REFLECT scores than respondents with more experience (F = 5.5, P = .02; post hoc mean difference = 0.7, P = .03 for ≤32 months vs ≥99 months). There was a significant effect for gender (t = −4.3, P = .001), with women’s responses receiving greater REFLECT scores than men’s responses (mean difference = 0.67, P = .001). Conclusions: Overall, participants demonstrated low to moderate reflective capacity, as assessed by the REFLECT rubric. Reflective capacity of the anesthesiology trainees appears to decrease as years of medical training progress. However, our respondents were not sampled over time to fully support this conclusion. Further research is needed on the psychometric properties of the REFLECT rubric and the generalizability of our findings.
... The term 'informal learning' and its experiential attributes have a wide berth-in research terms and by definition (Schon, 1984). In addressing the relationship between professionals and learning practice, informal learning is seen as a process of self-direction (Cheetham and Chivers, 2001), whilst others focus learning in an informal sense with 'learner-centered systems', shifting the selfdirectedness of learning to being one of collective inclusiveness (situational learning) (Koper, 2009). ...
... Customised training workshops facilitated on-site to organisations and course content developed by a review team member familiarise these views as experiential happenings (Schon, 1984). Delegates often bring their experiences to training sessions and these experiences are more often associated with ways in 'doing things' or 'getting the job done'. ...
... Çünkü öğretmen adaylarından tabi oldukları öğretimsel süreçler ile ilgili algısal kavramsallaştırmalar yapmaları istendiğinde onlardan veriye dayalı bir takım kişisel akıl yürütmeler yapmaları istenmektedir. Kendi süreçlerinin iki aktörü ya da öznesi olan (öğretmen adayı ve öğretmen eğitimcisi) tarafların kavramsal betimlemelerini yapmak demek; bunları deneyimler özelinde tanımlamaktır, Schon (1983;1987) ve Dewey'inde (1933) belirttiği üzere, yansıtılmış olan beni öne çıkarmak anlamına gelmektedir. Schon ve Dewey'in yukarıda bahsi geçen tezleri bu çalışma bağlamında şu şekilde kullanılmıştır: öğretmen adayları ülke çapında standart bir şekilde uygulanan öğretmen eğitimi programına dahil olmuşlardır ya da onu başat bir aktör olan öğretmen eğitimcilerinin sınıf içi pratikleri aracılığıyla tecrübe etmişlerdir. ...
... Bu çalışma bağlamında soyutlanan öğretmen adayı beyanları oldukça düşündürücüdür. Gerekçelendirmek gerekirse, artık çağdaş ya da reform-temelli perspektifi benimseyen yükseköğretim sistemleri öğreneni bir uygulayıcı (Light vd., 2009), pratisyen (Schon, 1983;1987), araştırmacı (Kavenuke vd., 2020) ve kendi bilgisinin diğerleri sayesinde yapılandırıcısı (Soysal ve Radmard, 2018) olarak görmektedir. Bu durum global çapta tüm yükseköğretim sistemleri tarafından kabul görmüştür (Atkins ve Brown, 2002). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the metaphorical images of the prospective teachers, who were employed in different teaching programs of education faculties, regarding themselves and their educators, and to evaluate the standard teacher education program in a critical manner. Even though prospective teachers’ metaphorical images pertaining learning, teaching, school and so forth were extensively examined in the previous studies, their personal theories for themselves and their educators have not been subjected to any research study. The current study was designed and conducted as a single survey study. The study was carried out with the participation of 1130 prospective teachers studying at the education faculty of a foundation-supported (private) university in Istanbul. Metaphorical images were taken from all participants towards themselves and their educators. As a result of the interpretive and inductive analysis, the prospective teachers generated metaphorical images for themselves such as: something that needs to be cultivated, leader of future, a fixed-static object, the candidate of the molder, something deceptive, something needs to be shaped, obedient, knowledge receiver, racer, etc. The prospective teachers also produced metaphorical images for their educators in the following manner: bridge function, organic growers, knowledge transmitter, a valuable object, competitors. In general, it was observed that pre-service teachers held a considerably pedagogically subjectcentred or teacher-centred or authority-centred “self ” and “educator” perception. Recommendations were offered regarding pre-service teacher education
... They suggest that the reconstruction of the patient to become the object of the medical gaze in labs and through microscopes affects the cognitive and experiential development of the self of the physician and the way they view patients. 67 George is working here at the level here of reflection-in-action (reflection taking place during an experience) which is a skill Schon's (1983) suggests professionals need to develop alongside reflectionon-action (which takes place after the experience). ...
... The liberation of the term knowledge from dominance by the propositional is a critical philosophical move...the reason deliteralisation of knowledge is significant is that it opens the door for multiple forms of knowing...(p5) This is particularly important in the education of future practitioners who enter the 'swampy lowland' of clinical practice with all its subjectivity and complexity. Schon (1983) laments the dominance of the techno-rational epistemological approach (how to manage known situations) in the education of professionals at the expense of neglecting 'professional artistry' ...
Thesis
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The real world of doctoring and meeting patients draws on more than student learnt knowledge, communication and clinical skills. Encountering patient suffering, working with uncertainty, complexity and subjectivity, facing our own vulnerability and mortality are challenges that face the future medical professional. I approach this research as one who has made my own transition from student to doctor and there found the limits of my medical toolkit. This thesis therefore represents two journeys heralded by my experiences of becoming and being a practitioner and the different knowledges required. The first journey began six years ago with me as clinician and educator inviting students to reflect on their patient encounters through the arts. The second journey is the thesis itself, a heuristic inquiry into medical student learning and development through engaging with the creative-reflective process. I research student creative-reflective working (content) through my own reflective and reflexive engagement with course feedback, student creative texts, through self-dialogue and engaging in creative expression and thinking (process). Process therefore mirrors content. I demonstrate how theory emerges from my engagement with the research data in production of this text (rather than being a write-up after the event). To this end I embrace different ways of communicating and therefore thinking on the following pages, for example, using different fonts, images, diagrams, narratives and dialogues. Key themes that emerge are framed in metaphorical language – voice, space and dialogue. These are explored, defined and offered in development of the medical undergraduate curriculum. Medical student learning is dominated by disease-based and depersonalised knowledge acquisition. Through this research I have sought to develop understanding of personal creative-reflective knowledge production and its place within medical education, to hone learning from patient encounters as well as lectures, thereby extending practitioner epistemology.
... Use of self is actually a subset of a larger set of skills that all types of professionals use. These have been referred to as Reflection-in-Action (Schon, 1983) and they have been used to describe the way successful professionals solve problems in concert with others. Reflection-in-action expands the 's (2005) Coaching with Colleagues, several concepts related to use of self are described, such as the coach tapping into "implicit" information and using "here and now" communication. ...
... Use of self requires that the coach tune in to his or her reactions to the client: what is said or unsaid, and overt behavior as well as facial expressions, non-verbal cues, and other subtle forms of behavior. That tuning in is more than just observing; it requires that the coach have the presence of mind to examine and articulate, at least to oneself, reactions to those observations, or as Schon (1983) put it, reflection-in-action. The coach must have a healthy egotism about his or her reactions and believe that they truly matter to both the relationship with the client and the client's development. ...
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Experienced executive coaches often find that their own perceptions of and intuitions about clients can significantly accelerate progress in coaching. Such use of self interventions, however, have never been clearly described. This article explores them through practice examples, a literature review, and an informal survey of experienced coaches of their use of self. These explorations yield a definition and a descriptive model that proposes two independent underlying variables that together differentiate four broad types of use of self. Specific recommendations for learning and applying use of self in coaching practice are also made. ©iCoachNewYork Coaching Monograph Series
... However, planning and design guidelines do not manifest during experience; they must be inferred through questioning preconceptions and critical reflection on the consequences of action [30]. For this reason, live projects and experiential learning for designers have been criticized for diminishing creativity when a reflective process is absent [41,42]. Live projects can also hinder problem-solving abilities if insufficient guidance is given to participants [43], while the project and outcomes are harder to control and predict, entailing greater risks for educators [30]. ...
... The dynamic live project learning environment was responsible for the memorable aspects, challenges and emotional experiences mentioned. Emotions often reveal an underlaying process of transformation [42]. ...
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Urban green infrastructure is not acknowledged in the Global South for the critical social and ecological functions it can provide. Contextual design solutions and innovative approaches are urgently needed to transform the status quo. University-local government collaboration could be a way to encourage new thinking, new roles and design skills to develop solutions to these complex problems. This paper presents a case study analysis of such a collaboration. Qualitative research was conducted to establish the degree to which the exposure to real-life projects stimulates postgraduate design students’ transformative learning. The researchers also inquired into the benefits of the collaboration for the municipality. The participants’ reflections were recorded by means of anonymous questionnaires. The findings show that the live project created a municipal setting for seeking alternative solutions in design processes and outcomes. For the students, the project created rich social dynamics and an interplay of familiarity and uncertainty, which aided transformative learning. The students’ deeper learning indicates greater social empathy, reconsidering the role of the profession, greater design process flexibility, and learning and valuing skills across disciplines. The findings hold promise for a more just and sustainable future built environment through collaborations that transform the design professionals involved, the outcomes they pursue, and the processes they follow.
... 1. a degree of autonomy/flexibility (Beck & Kosnik, 2002;Rawles, 2016) by which to rehearse judgements 2. critical reflection (Coles, 2002;Pollard, 2008;Schon, 1983;Ulvik & Smith, 2011) 3. expert mentoring (Harrison et al., 2005;Tripp, 1993) Reference to the second and third of these is ubiquitous in professional literature; however, the first point is more difficult to locate. Whilst several models exist describing the characteristics of novice-expert transitions in a variety of fields (Benner, 1984;Dreyfus, 2004), each placing importance on discretionary judgement, reference to how the skill set necessary for this transition develops is hard to find (Rawles, 2016), especially in relation to teacher education. ...
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Assertions that experiences of teaching abroad encourage professional growth for pre-service teachers (PSTs) are discussed, with reference to reflections from 20 PSTs from a British university after a volunteer teaching placement in South Africa (SA). PSTs compare their overseas and domestic placement experiences. Data reveals that capacity for decisional judgement, willingness to follow professional instincts and take risks are influenced by perceived levels of professional scrutiny. Teacher expertise is discussed through the conceptual lens of professional capital. We conclude that decisional judgement and the skills to think on one's feet, are more likely to flourish under non-judgmental conditions.
... Reflection can occur before, during, and/or after an experience (Rogers, 2001). Reflective practice helps (a) identify strengths, weaknesses, and negative attitudes; (b) determine actions required to improve clinical skills; (c) develop clinical reasoning skills to ensure safe client care; (d) manage complex clinical situations, and (e) integrate theory and clinical practice (Dube & Ducharme, 2015;Schon, 1983). Gibbs's Reflective Cycle (1988) is a structured reflective tool that has been widely used in health care fields. ...
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Various forms of reflective practice, including journal writing and self-experiences, have been explored in music therapy. However, there is limited literature on practical methodologies that articulate how to reflect on sessions. The author introduces a practical methodology that guides the process of reflective practice in music therapy clinical training. The methodology includes self-observation through video-recorded sessions, a set of questions designed for self-assessment, evaluation of clinical situations of trainee identified areas, and identification of strengths, weaknesses, and future action plans. This framework has implications in music therapy education and training in that it (a) supports students and practicum supervisors with practical guidelines about how to reflect on sessions; (b) may facilitate student growth and development through self-directed learning and acknowledgement of strengths and working points; and (c) provides a cognitive framework that may help develop metacognition skills which are crucial components of learning during and post clinical training.
... Still, they taste failure in their hope to lead big corporations because 'the pressures of managing do not encourage the development of reflective planners ' (p.22). This argument fits Schon's (1983) view that the ability to reflect is an essential prerequisite for making effective management decisions-especially in exclusive environments-and cannot provide a defined or prescriptive solution. Thus, until MBA candidates are able to learn how to develop these reflective practices and moral responsibility 'to stand back and understand what is happening and why' (Hay et al. 2004, p.170), they will be left with 'unrealistic assumptions and invalid prescriptions-yet, the theory and the dictum it leads to remain absolute' (Ghoshal 2005, p.81). ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores Master of Business Administration (MBA) candidates’ and Alumni perspectives of the value of an MBA degree, seeking a holistic understanding of the reasons why they chose to pursue their MBA, what they expected and gained from it. Business education has long been seen as a medium to facilitate strategic change within and across industries. Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs are often regarded as the most preferred programs for organisational leaders and managers. Although an MBA education offers the opportunity to study a functional area in depth, a cross-disciplinary literature review identified an over emphasis on teaching the Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Competencies (KSACs) and a lack of focus on the role of MBA candidates’ value systems that apparently influence their learning of the taught KSACs and likely impact their work behaviour and ethical decision-making ability. This study drew from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with fourteen individuals from one university’s MBA sharing their experiences in a series of semi-structured interviews. These were supported by participant observation of formal classes, providing further insights into the learning environment. This research design helped make sense of the ways MBA students interact with each other and their lecturers. Although following the idiographic ideal of IPA, the analysis also utilised imagined, integrated dialogues to analyse and present both their stories and researcher interpretations of those stories. These dialogues situate the research participants in a fictional setting to bring both individual and collective worlds to the surface. This seeks to connect readers to the worlds of these fourteen participants, the way they view them individually and researcher interpretations of their worlds, in line with IPA’s double hermeneutic. This helps explain why the participants chose to pursue an MBA, what they expected from it, what they experienced in this learning journey and how their ‘mindsets’ changed throughout their studies. Using this integrated dialogical method to present the research findings shows how qualitative research can be fictionalised and reflexively framed in a novel and illuminating manner. By situating different participants’ views together in a theme-based dialogue, this thesis discovers and discusses phenomena that the participants experienced and defined during their MBA journey. The application of additional interpretative techniques, such as the integrated dialogical method, contributes to a richer interpretation of phenomena in qualitative research, making a significant contribution to the methodology literature. The discussion of the findings suggests that the participants went through a significant change in their pre-MBA ‘mindset’ during their studies. The findings shed light on how and why some participants may seem to pursue an MBA at the wrong time in their career, how their study could make them feel too psychologically safe, potentially causing psychological unsafety at work, and how participants could identify their MBA as a means to an end or an end in itself. The findings also revealed how MBA courses are often taught in isolation, handicapping participants from the inter-course (or intra-program) application of theoretical concepts. This can serve as a block to participants making use of their learning in one course to understand the concepts taught in others. This further restricts participants from making connections between different facets of their work, falling short of making holistic use of their KSACs. Besides, the thesis suggests that networking, lectures’ teaching methodology and trust in practitioner-lecturers were the three most vital aspects contributing to the value of an MBA for the participants. The thesis concludes that the MBA - the notion that all MBAs are same and MBA programs that business schools offer, offers clear and consistent learning experiences and outcomes, is problematic and, to no small extent, incorrect. Arguably, every MBA candidate and their learning experience is unique. Thus, the thesis shifts the focus onto each participant’s value system and how it interacts with their work environment more than the KSACs they gain in their MBA. However, it cautions that if employers continue to share narrower, homogeneous, and stereotypical views of MBA programs and their occupational value, the disconnect in relative expectations of MBA outcomes is likely to continue.
... 18). I positioned this study as primarily self-reflective-the action research of a reflective practitioner (Schon, 1983)-but it was also my intent to influence change in the way faculty and students interact at Rocky Mountain Tech (RMT). In their guidelines for self-study, Bullough and Pinnegar (2001) suggested self-studies should "seek to improve the learning situation not only for the self but for the other" and "attend carefully to persons in context or setting" (p. ...
Research
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Faculty-student interaction in higher education, well-being, feminist pedagogy, care ethics
... The second is to overcome the specular appraisal of AI as an organisational or service singularity, based on the assumption that success (or failure), of a certain AI technology appropriation, is irredeemably related to the specific conditions framing that process, and those conditions are unique and will never be replicable in different locations. Overcoming this aspect means going beyond the narrative of a single, unique case (Schon, 1983), looking at "what works for whom and in what circumstances" (Tilley, 2000). This implies starting the analysis and evaluation of a case with the goal to describe and generalise the changes that occur in a public sector organisation -and in the broader context, it belongs to -as a result of AI appropriation. ...
Technical Report
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EUR 30868 EN This publication is a technical report by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission's science and knowledge service. It aims to provide evidence-based scientific support to the European policymaking process. The scientific output expressed does not imply a policy position of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use that might be made of this publication. For information on the methodology and quality underlying the data used in this publication for which the source is neither Eurostat nor other Commission services, users should contact the referenced source. The designations employed and the presentation of material on the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the European Union concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
... The team also consulted with local university experts on games, monsters, world cultures, and literacy. Each iteration concluded with a retrospective meeting, which provided an opportunity for the team's reflective improvement (Kerth, 2001;Schon, 1984). ...
Conference Paper
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We are inspired by the educational potential of the board game Tales of the Arabian Nights, a popular game based on the eponymous folk tale. Considering this game and others like it, we identify the characteristics that define a genre of culture-narration games, which we consider to have untapped potential for educational and transformative games. We describe a design experiment through which a multidisciplinary team followed an iterative and incremental process, in collaboration with a community partner, to investigate the potential of this genre. The result is a game that uses a theme of monsters from around the world to teach cultural empathy. This pilot project reveals both the promise and several complications with the genre, which lead to recommendations for future work.
...  There are similarities to the ideas of professional knowledge and professional practice initially outlined by Hoyle and John (1995); that is, a professional is capable of operating in non-routine and unpredictable environments by employing his or her judgment in a given situation to decide on the best course of action.  There are connections to the reflective ways in which teachers think and act (Pollard, 2002;Schon, 1983Schon, , 1991Tarrant, 2013;Tsangaridou and O'Sullivan, 2003); that is, through reflection a teacher can challenge his or her own taken-for-granted assumptions over time and bring new ideas to inform classroom actions and events.  There is a convergence with research documenting expert teachers' practices in education generally (Sabers, Cushing, and Berliner, 1991) can develop what they termed 'strategic alertness". ...
Article
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Since in Greek agogos means leader, a paidagogos was a slave who led boys to school and back, but also taught them manners and tutored them after school. In time, pedagogue came to mean simply teacher; today the word has an old-fashioned ring to it, so it often means a stuffy, boring teacher. The word pedagogy, though, is still widely used, and often means simply teaching. And pedagogic training is what everyone majoring in education receives. Pedagogy most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Pedagogy is the discipline of study related to the field of education and teaching methods. Pedagogy as academic discipline has a very broad meaning. Pedagogy is often thought of as the art or science of teaching. Some would say that this is somewhat limited viewpoint, since in its origins and derivation pedagogy is a much broader concept, relating to the development and all round development of the child. The major aim of the present article is to revisit the concept, meaning, definitions, perspectives and form of pedagogy. For this purpose, I have made in-depth study of the related literature during the course of the study. First of all this paper differentiate the term pedagogue from teachers. Secondly, an attempt has been made to define the term pedagogy. This paper further analyze the various aspects such as perspectives on pedagogy which comprises of the fixed perspective, fluid perspective, and transformative perspective. Accordingly, three forms of pedagogy such as traditional teacher centered pedagogy, progressive learner centered pedagogy and critical pedagogy have also presented in this study. These three form of pedagogy further described on the basis of teachers’ role, learners’ role and instructional practices. The present article explored the term pedagogue, pedagogy and perspectives of the pedagogy. On the other hand, three major pedagogical approaches: the traditional teacher-centered, the progressive student-centered and the critical pedagogy are also scrutinized in-depth. In a nutshell, this article explored the concept, definition, and form of the pedagogy.
... This reflective cycle (Kolb, 1984) not only offered multiple opportunities for each facilitator to reflect on their experiences of delivering the course but promoted a sense of wellbeing and confidence in taking their roles forward to the next session or course. In this way, a reflective practitioner model was encouraged and supported (Schon, 1983) contributing to the positive impacts reported by the facilitators on themselves and their perceptions of the impact on course attendees. Suggestions for improvements in the course from participants and facilitators related largely to logistics (attendee precourse information and settling in period and how facilitators organized the groups) rather than content. ...
... Scholars criticize the overly analytical emphasis on teaching, which stifles creativity and little integration between teaching and research, leading to a disconnection between theory and practice, between knowledge and action (Wankel & DeFillippi, 2006). The field of management has been marked by a conflict, in which the manager is seen as a technician whose practice consists of applying principles and methods derived from the science of management to the daily problems of his organization (Schon, 1983). Higher education in many parts of the world has ignored that practices can contribute to our knowledge base in an interactive way, different from classroom education. ...
Article
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Resumo A improvisação organizacional é pesquisada há mais de 30 anos, pois ressalta a importância de sofisticar a prática de gestores e líderes frente às imprevisibilidades cada vez mais marcadas na contemporaneidade. Carecemos de uma visão mais atualizada da produção em improvisação organizacional e de uma reflexão sobre de que modo integrá-la na formação do gestor. O objetivo desta pesquisa é sistematizar os avanços na produção acadêmica acerca de improvisação organizacional e discutir sua integração no ensino-aprendizagem da administração. A metodologia de pesquisa consiste num levantamento sistemático da produção acadêmica. Os resultados da pesquisa fornecem um conjunto atualizado de relevâncias e temáticas relacionadas à improvisação organizacional, uma discussão sobre a importância da improvisação organizacional para a pesquisa em ensino-aprendizagem em administração e um conjunto de abordagens educacionais, barreiras e perspectivas que ajudam pesquisas e práticas futuras a melhor integrar a improvisação no ensino-aprendizagem em administração. A principal contribuição deste estudo é inaugurar uma nova orientação de pesquisa: o ensino-aprendizagem da improvisação organizacional.
... The first of these is procedural, and theoretically traces causal chains of situations, objectives and the means to achieve them; the other is produced in specific organizational contexts and connects technical knowledge with the concrete issues that one is faced with (Bourdieu 1980;Schon 1983;Vino 2001). However, both these approaches are insufficient to understand the contribution of competence to professional development and to that of society in general, since they show the limits of the sociological perspectives to which they refer: the individual approach mainly pays attention to the individual construction of competence and neglects the effects of its exercise, whereas the rationalorganizational approach suffers the limits of rational choice theories, according to which decisionmaking takes place within a limited ability to elaborate possible alternatives, and is unable to adopt behavior that is fully rational. ...
Article
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Over the last few decades, professionalism has changed profoundly, and traditional approaches have now become insufficient to understand its developments as mono-dimensional. During the 20th century, many professions have been employed within organizational contexts, causing a bureaucratization and standardization of many professional activities. For some professions, such as that of social worker, the professionalization process has been traditionally considered strictly linked to organizational development. Organizations have become one of the main places in which professional practices take place, and professionalism can no longer be considered a «third logic», contrasting with the market and bureaucracy (Freidson 2001). The paper proposes a systemic point of view on the professions’ analysis within organizational contexts, according to which professional competence plays a pivotal role. The study focuses on social services, and particularly on local systems of measures against poverty, via the findings of a case-study conducted in Italy. Professional competences assume a key role, as their exercise is currently affecting the redefinition of contents and strategies of social intervention, in the delicate balance between consolidated settings (locally developed in a heterogeneous way) and an orientation towards administrative re-centralization at a national level, within a common community framework.
... The participants were encouraged to be actively involved from the scoping phase until they could identify and define (development) issues relevant to their area. This phase of problem framing is considered the critical, ethical element of the process, in which participants collectively explore, discuss and define a problem and jointly explore, develop and evaluate possible solutions [42]. The intention is to encourage the community to develop ideas and strategies to a point where they can identify their role within this, so they would have control over the process involved as well as the outcomes. ...
... The kind of study we propose is based on the belief that there is a hidden and tacit knowledge in design practice in Italy that has not yet been digitized nor is easy to be found by a simple internet research, rather, it takes studying archival material in personal archives and in libraries, in interviews and articles in historical journals such as Casabella, Domus, Progettare InPiù, Modo, Stile Industria and Ottagono, and in books written in Italian that have never reached an international audience. A large part of such a study would also include oral histories, through interviewing designers in design situations (Cross, 1996;Cross, 2004;Dorst et al., 1995;Dorst, 1997;Lawson, 1980;Lloyd & Scott, 1994;Rowe, 1987;Roy, 1993;Schon, 1983) focusing on how they think, how they approach a project and see if it is possible to trace some PUBLISHER PREPRINT patterns and build outcomes that can be replicated, taught and transmitted to a larger public. ...
Article
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This article outlines a direction for a research endeavour bringing together design research and design historical research from a perspective of contem- porary design methods. There is a need to probe and question the histories and geographies of design’s methods, to explore how they could contribute to expanding conceptual foundations and develop new ways of designing. We are proposing a programmatic framework that brings design methods to the attention of design history, and to historicity of design in design practi- ces, by sketching a map, a geography in time, to move toward a deeper understanding of the evolution of methods linked to the specific cultures and contexts from which they emerge. It is a starting point for a wider research project, an example bringing design historical and design methodological research agendas closer to each other. Starting from interviews with Italian designers we highlight the need for a deeper and continued investigation into design histories of design methods.
... En este contexto, conviene considerar que los problemas que se expresan en el territorio son inherentemente complejos no sólo por su impacto en la sociedad y la multitud de características que les dan forma, sino por pertenecer incluso a categorías que tienden más a lo abstracto del quehacer público (Rein, 1976;Schon, 1983) y que involucran a una diversidad de actores, quienes pueden presentar intereses encontrados o incluso en disputa (Warfield, 1976). De allí la relevancia de involucrar a actores con diferentes perspectivas y experiencias y de utilizar métodos o formas de interacción que aseguren el aprovechamiento de la inteligencia colectiva. ...
Book
Durante las últimas décadas, el tema de Gobierno Abierto ha sido un eje central en la transformación de las administraciones públicas. "Gobierno Abierto" es un concepto paraguas que ha agrupado temas como participación ciudadana, transparencia gubernamental, gobierno digital, datos abiertos, rendición de cuentas, entre otros. Estos temas están siendo insertados en la agenda pública, especialmente en los gobiernos subnacionales, nivel gubernamental donde la administración pública encuentra mayor proximidad y contacto con su entorno económico, político y social. Entendiendo las potencialidades del Gobierno Abierto y su relevancia en contextos subnacionales, la Red Académica de Gobierno Abierto, México (RAGA, MX), el Departamento de Políticas Públicas (DPP) y el Instituto de Investigaciones en Políticas Públicas y Gobierno (IIPPG) del Centro Universitario en Ciencias Económico Administrativas (CUCEA) de la Universidad de Guadalajara (UDG) colaborarán para configurar esta obra que concentra investigación novedosa y de carácter empírico que versa sobre Estudios de Caso analizando experiencias de Gobierno Abierto. Este libro representa una relevante contribución académica entre los estudios sobre Gobierno Abierto que ofrecen una mirada analítica con evidencia científica, más allá del debate teórico y discursivo.
... During the period covered by this study, the Work Experience was assessed on a pass/fail basis, but nevertheless it was felt that a rigorous and carefully thought out means of assessment INTEGRATING WORK EXPERIENCE 8 was still critical. Ruth Helyer, following Schon (Schon, 1983), argues for the role of reflection as a means of assessment in any form of work-based learning (Helyer, 2015). Schon identified the importance of the reflective practitioner; meaning an individual who is capable of reflecting on their own experience in order to engage in a continuous process of personal and professional development. ...
Conference Paper
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We present a case study of the integration of a work experience component into an undergraduate degree in Creative Digital Media. This is a fully accredited academic module that immerses the student in a professional working environment for most of a semester. The aim is to facilitate the development of digital media skills by applying them within the workplace and to leverage the use of work-based learning in order to produce more competent, confident and employable graduates. Our case study is informed firstly by analysis of, and reflection on, our experiences of running the programme since its inception in 2010. We describe the Creative Digital Media degree and how work experience is integrated into it, and also explain our strategies for securing, managing and assessing placements. Secondly we present the results of a substantial survey of the student experience of the process. We report on student attitudes to work experience and analyze the impact that it has on both undergraduate learning and post- graduation employment. Our findings indicate a strong belief within the graduate cohort that work experience is a valuable addition to the undergraduate programme particularly with respect to future employability. We also find that the effectiveness of the placement is closely linked to the type of organisation in which the student is placed. We conclude with some discussion of the results and some recent changes to the work experience process.
... Typical knowledge about the creation of an artifact, in our case a method, is usually described in the form of sequence of events that involves rapid "coevolution" (Dorst & Cross, 2001;Dorst, 2019) of problem and solution frames; the designer is then able to reflect and iterate upon this co-evolution by producing "problem frames" that bring certain constraints into consideration and background or ignore others (Schon, 1984;Dorst, 2015). Due to the limitations of data collection for this paper, we cannot explicitly draw the sequence or process of the creation of the method through post-hoc recall of our interview participants. ...
Article
Numerous methods have been designed to aid practitioners in identifying ethical concerns, imagining potential futures, defining values, and evaluating existing systems. However, there is little scholarship that addresses the design of these methods, including how ethical concerns are operationalized in these methods. In this paper, we report results of an interview study with thirteen ethics-focused method designers, investigating their process of instigating, creating, and disseminating their method. We conducted a top-down thematic analysis using the Biskjaer and Halskov framework of decisive constraints, identifying intrinsic, extrinsic, and self-imposed constraints alongside iterative and evaluative resonance-seeking activities. This analysis provides a rich conceptual vocabulary to better describe the design of methods for ethical impact from the perspective of researchers and practitioners.
... They let people know what they [are] thinking and then others [can] respond.'' Institutionalized ground rules for deliberation can help people reframe or restructure tensions, that is, see them from new angles and through a different lens (Schon, 1983). The Annenberg Institute National School Reform Faculty has developed protocols, or structured procedures such as the Tuning Protocol and the Sticky Issue Protocol, for supporting specific interactions (Annenberg Institute, 2001). ...
Article
Conflict, though often unsettling, is a natural part of collective human experience. It can leave participants ill at ease, so it is often avoided and suppressed. Yet conflict, when well managed, breathes life and energy into relationships and can cause individuals to be more innovative and productive. Conflict is present within our schools whether we like it or not. Educators must find ways to legitimize critique and controversy within organizational life. This article examines constructive conflict within the context of a comprehensive Midwestern high school engaged in significant reform efforts. Here conflict is employed as a means to promote individual and organizational learning and growth.
... Valli's critical reflection is related to the ethical, moral, political, and social issues. Schon (1983) characterizes two forms of reflection: reflectionin-action and reflection-on-action. Reflection-in-action represents practitioners' active thinking and understandings at the moment of teaching. This online process pertains to teachers' interpretations of and reactions to what happens at the moment of instruction. ...
Article
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The current study aimed to verify the multidimensional factor structure of teacher reflection and to examine the psychometric properties of a widely used teacher reflection scale using a large-scale representative dataset of 1,611 practicing Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. Furthermore, the measurement invariance of the hypothesized, a priori six-factor model of teacher reflection as measured by the adapted scale was assessed across gender and educational degree in M plus program. In addition, the differences in latent factor means of the same groups were examined. The result of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that teacher reflection was a multidimensional construct, encompassing six underlying factors. Overall, the adapted teacher reflection scale based on the 6-factor model showed an overall good fit. The results also indicated metric and scalar invariance which manifests that the factors underlying the adapted scale had an identical theoretical structure across educational degree/gender groups. Finally, there were significant factor mean differences in reflection components across gender and educational degree groups. A discussion of the results and their implications ensue.
... Schön (1983) [22] describes reflective practice as a dialogue between thinking and doing through which the learner becomes more skilled. Institutions of higher learning aim to produce learners who are skilled. ...
... Doing so will help foster problem focused theories about the types of policy design efforts that, through "the process of inventing, developing and fine-tuning a course of action" (Dryzek 1983, 346) are capable of, through mutual learning, incorporating the values and preferences of stakeholders and participants into goals and solutions (Schon 1984). This, in turn, will target participatory design techniques in ways that are expected to improve policy designer's understanding of the "realities of the users' situation" while the "users" are able to "articulate their desired aims and learn appropriate technological means to obtain them" (Robertson and Simonsen 2012, 2). ...
Article
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The formalization of citizen participation in public policy processes is now widespread. Despite its popularity, just how to design these initiatives to simultaneously create legitimate arenas for deliberation on the one hand, and substantive problem solving on the other hand, remains hotly contested. This Special Issue on Participatory Policy Design contributes to these questions by empirically cataloguing a range of practices aimed at engaging stakeholders in public policy creation and decisions making. The cases, which span a range of countries and local contexts, provide several insights for overcoming the limits, and maximizing the potential, of participatory policy design initiatives. Specifically, they help unpack, and better understand: the logic of participation for design which is targeted by those who are concerned with drawing on inclusionary processes to improve outcomes; and the logic of design for participation: which is championed by those who seek to empower the participants and democratic legitimacy. We argue the integration of these disparate logics hold the key for fostering transformative collaborative mechanisms.
... The first of these is procedural, and theoretically traces causal chains of situations, objectives and the means to achieve them; the other is produced in specific organizational contexts and connects technical knowledge with the concrete issues that one is faced with (Bourdieu 1980;Schon 1983;Vino 2001). However, both these approaches are insufficient to understand the contribution of competence to professional development and to that of society in general, since they show the limits of the sociological perspectives to which they refer: the individual approach mainly pays attention to the individual construction of competence and neglects the effects of its exercise, whereas the rationalorganizational approach suffers the limits of rational choice theories, according to which decisionmaking takes place within a limited ability to elaborate possible alternatives, and is unable to adopt behavior that is fully rational. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since some decades professionalism is profoundly changed and traditional approaches have now become insufficient to understand its developments, as mono-dimensional. During the 20th century many professions have been employed within organizational contexts, causing a bureaucratization and standardization of many professional activities. Organizations have become one of the main places in which professional practices take place and professionalism can no longer be considered a «third logic», different from market and bureaucracy (Freidson 2001). Pervasiveness of organizations in professional sphere has also led to the conceptualization of a new kind of «occupational professionalism» (Evetts 2006, 2011, 2014). The paper proposes a systemic perspective to the professions analysis within the organizational contexts, according to which the professional competence plays a pivotal role. The study focuses on social field and particularly on local systems of measures against poverty, providing the findings of a case-study conducted in Italy. Professional competences assumes a key role, as their exercise is currently affecting the redefinition of contents and strategies of social interventions, in the delicate balance between the consolidated settings (locally developed in heterogeneous way) and the orientation towards the administrative re-centralization at national level, within a common community framework.
Chapter
Psychological correlates of cancer incidence, progression, and quality-of-life difficulties have been well-documented in the literature; however, recent developments in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) may provide further confirmation for the relationship between psychological factors and cancer. In this chapter, we review the current literature on how psychosocial factors (e.g., depression, marital support) and physiological processes (e.g., glucocorticoids) impact cancer incidence and progression. We then explore cutting-edge research on the biological mechanisms (e.g., bioenergetic health) that may explain quality-of-life difficulties among cancer survivors. Finally, we review studies that use biomarkers (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines) to evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention strategies.
Chapter
This study aimed to develop “Project PAL,” a simulation game for solving the social problems of indigenous people, and to discuss its function and potential for social designs for the future. Many indigenous people face adversities and struggle with the hidden duality of overlapping mainstream and indigenous societies. This duality engenders difficulties when envisioning their future from both individual and indigenous perspectives. To untangle this duality, this chapter presents the development and trials of Project PAL based on the SECI model and used collaborative learning methods. The game employs case studies of indigenous people and participants role-playing as social entrepreneurs. The goal is to create solutions by developing effective strategies for social designs for the future. This chapter introduces one version of the game: “Project PAL: Hawaii,” about Native Hawaiians in Oahu, Hawaii. The game in practice revealed two effects on learning: “dual function” and “multilogue” through Simulation and Gaming.
Chapter
The majority of oncology patients/caregivers, who contact health care professionals for resource information feel overwhelmed or anxious and are often in a state of crisis. They turn to their health care professionals for solutions to their problems. It is the art and science of the practitioner to assess the level of distress and come up with a resource treatment plan. The skill of the health care professional in communicating to patients/caregivers about needed resources impacts their follow-up. Sometimes, our referrals are reactive to a patient situation, but increasingly, our referrals are proactive based on team assessment prior to crisis. Information and resource referrals are provided upfront to patients to empower and facilitate their coping. Health care professionals’ compassionate communication skills significantly impact patients’ successful utilization and access to recommended resources. The authors include a selected resource guide of useful resources for cancer patients. Interprofessional partnerships enable novel help for patients.
Article
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Objective We aimed to explore the strategic thinking concept by searching for differences within the population of strategic thinkers to contribute to the development of the “strategic thinking” concept. Methods applied To answer the research questions and achieve the research aim, we implemented the following research methods: a systematic literature review and biographical studies. Findings (1) As the first stage in researching strategic thinking, the qualitative approach is recommended. (2) The main features of strategic thinkers are a strategic perspective and a reflective style of thinking. (3) Two groups of differentiating features have been identified: features concerning the content of strategic thinking; and features concerning the process of strategic thinking. Originality/value Most academic research on strategic thinkers concentrates on the common characteristics and similarities, while little attention has been paid to features that internally differentiate the population of strategic thinkers. Our main contribution to the literature is filling this knowledge gap.
Conference Paper
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The field of service design has the ability to enrich and reframe design education in robust and meaningful ways. The paper presents a distinction between education (a top-down approach) versus learning (a bottom-up approach) and explores how service design can be used as a vehicle to educate reflective practitioners. This paper provides a framework for educators to re-evaluate courses and curriculum based on models of service design and Donald Schön's notion of reflective practice, as well as provide evidence of this approach through two case studies.
Article
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between preschool teachers' reflective thinking tendencies and children's creativity. The study is in general screening model and was conducted with preschool teachers, and normally developing children attending kindergarten, primary school and secondary school in Konya city center in the 2020-2021 academic year. Points of continuous and purposeful thinking, open-mindedness, inquisitive and effective teaching, teaching responsibility and scientificity, being inquisitory, prescient and sincere, profession overview, which are the sub-dimensions of the reflective thinking tendency of teachers scale, were found to differ significantly. Points of continuous and purposeful thinking, open-mindedness, inquisitive and effective teaching, teaching responsibility and scientificity, being inquisitory, prescient and sincere, profession overview, which are the sub-dimensions of the reflective thinking tendency of teachers scale, were found to differ significantly according to professional seniority. When the relationship between pre-school teachers' reflective thinking tendencies and children's creativity was examined in the study, a negative and significant relationship was found between open-mindedness, inquisitive and effective teaching, teaching responsibility and scientificity, being prescient and sincere, profession overview, which are the sub-dimensions of the reflective thinking tendency, and fluency and originality, which are the sub-dimensions of creativity.
Book
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El libro sistematiza las acciones realizadas en el marco del Proyecto Gestión Escolar para la Mejora de los Aprendizajes (GEMA) en una cooperación integral entre el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) y la Asociación Civil Estrategias Educativas (ACEE). GEMA es un curso breve de formación para directores, diseñado a partir de una propuesta marco para el liderazgo y la gestión escolar con enfoque en los estudiantes y sus logros de aprendizaje, que fue especialmente preparado para escuelas desafiantes. En este ciclo se incluyó el uso de GEMA Alerta, un sistema de información y alerta temprana para el seguimiento de los estudiantes, ampliamente reconocido como una innovación. GEMA se implementó durante seis años, entre 2012 y 2017, en cuatro provincias de Argentina (Salta, Jujuy, Chaco y Corrientes), y fue acreditado por 1.368 directores a cargo de 1.483 escuelas primarias y secundarias a las que asisten 468.964 niños, niñas y adolescentes. The book systematizes the actions carried out within the framework of the School Management Project for the Improvement of Learning (GEMA) in a comprehensive cooperation between the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Civil Association Educational Strategies (ACEE) . GEMA is a brief training course for principals, designed from a framework proposal for school leadership and management with focus on students and their learning achievements, which was specially prepared for challenging schools. The use of GEMA Alerta, an information and early warning system for monitoring students, widely recognized as an innovation, was included in this cycle. GEMA was implemented for six years, between 2012 and 2017, in four provinces of Argentina (Salta, Jujuy, Chaco and Corrientes), and was accredited by 1,368 directors in charge of 1,483 primary and secondary schools attended by 468,964 boys, girls and teenagers.
Article
Large group lectures, which are widely used in continuing medical education, are susceptible to pitfalls that can negatively impact their effectiveness. In this article, we describe evidence-based best practices from the educational literature that can revive the medical lecture as an effective educational tool. We provide practical tips for both developing and delivering lectures, emphasizing the key role that learning objectives can and should have in the development of lectures, the importance of organization, effective use of visuals and application of restraint in slide design. Pause techniques to authentically engage the audience are described. We also provide practical tips for promoting attention in virtual presentations.
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This study was conducted to investigate the impact of applying a Design Based Education approach to teaching on International Branch Campuses. A focus group was held with staff from Stenden Hotel Management School’s IBCs after which themes were identified from the transcripts and the academic literature on Transnational Education, Design Based Education and Problem Based Education. Four themes were identified – definitions and understanding of DBE; the impact of culture on teaching using DBE; opportunities and challenges of DBE, and Recommendations. Within these themes key findings were that the focus in DBE is on validation and creativity; that local culture plays a role in its adoption; that there is much confusion amongst both staff and students about what is expected of them; that there may be different challenges depending on whether the subjects are social sciences or technical; that management processes must also support DBE in their systems, and that IBCs are sometimes ahead of ‘home’ campus in DBE implementation and experimentation. In order for this approach to teaching to be adopted successfully across all campuses, significant amount of time needs to be spent explaining and allowing staff and students to experiment with this new approach. Additional training and support may be required to move students from rote and surface learning to a DBE approach. How this can best be achieved will need to be an act of co-creation between, campuses, staff, students, and industry.
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The obtained research results provide a cognitive image of the city in the shape of its linguistic representations. It seems that the presented research provides an interesting foundation and more detail on the issues related to the functions of the city and its image in the eyes of residents, which, as a result, may constitute an interesting apparatus for exploring solutions in the field of architecture or urban planning - after all, these two areas of design are, in principle, oriented towards the final user. The obtained data show that the city is primarily perceived from the perspective of possible socialities - social relations; in this area, the respondents see the characteristics of the city, which also translates into the dichotomy of its functions, which can be defined precisely by the category of social functions (social relations, entertainment, culture) and protective functions (shelter, house, flat, work). Although this is probably not a discovery for architects and town planners, the answers emerging from the presented results force us to reflect on the current design applied in the city and for its residents - the semantics of the city as such is ambiguous, and certainly not fully positive. Respondents point to problems that architects and city planners are also familiar with: overcrowding, congestion, pollution, noise.
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This thesis investigated and explored if and how boundary objects and their perspective can contribute to the meaningful design of innovation for the healthcare sector. The concept of boundary objects has found its way into healthcare and health contexts. Boundary object scan have many forms and can trigger different learning mechanisms: identification, coordination, relfection, and transformation. The reflection and transformation mechanisms are underrepresented in existing literature, but pursuing the reflective mechanism in design, development, and implementation projects is beneficial for a fluid and smooth integration of innovation into practice. Our case studies show that it is significant to trigger the reflective mechanism during the design and innovation process. By applying methods and prototypes as boundary objects and by approaching interventions to be developed as boundary objects, we see good effects in terms of acceptance, adoption, and creating (co-)ownership of the innovation, whit an inclusive design as outcome. The boundary object focus and perspective adds value to existing change and innovation frameworks by not pursuing consensus but harmony in differences. Results of this thesis are useful for both the growing design discipline in health as for policymakers in healthcare who have to come up with innovative strategies to meet the challenges healthcare faces today. Future work should focus on a more unambiguous use of the concept in healthcare, a pursuit to trigger the reflective mechanism in innovative processes in health, and adopt more 'designerly ways of knowing’ in health by applying design research in complex healthcare issues.
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Education, or better still learning, interests us all, especially our own and that of our children. It is surprising though how quickly interest is lost when the topic of education and its deep impact on society and culture is mentioned in polite society! Yet schooling is now ubiquitous—it is everywhere and in every parent’s mind and it is the universal key to the door of opportunity. Few people can get anywhere without it and whether it is enclosed in brick, concrete and glass or downloaded from the internet platforms which have come to dominate so many lives, learning in some form is intrinsic to life that swirls on all around it. Education goes deep but it squanders the talent of many who pass through it. Equally significant is the possibility that conventional education and its curriculum is now increasingly irrelevant to the world we are educating for—the world of 2050 and beyond.
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There has been considerable focus on the widespread destruction of cultural heritage in Afghanistan since the destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas by the Taliban in 2001 and much concern over the future for heritage in the region on the return of a Taliban regime in 2021, yet comparatively little has been written on the fate Afghanistan’s national collection of paintings, manuscripts and works on paper. Through a quasi-experimental study and a using combination of evaluation methodologies, this paper discusses the whether the overall impact achieved in Conservation capacity-building and training schemes in conflict zones justify the cost and risk of operating in such regions. Using an international collaborative Conservation training course carried out in 2020 at the Afghan National Gallery in Kabul as a case study, it discusses the appropriateness and effectiveness of the signature pedagogies in conservation when working in a conflict scenario, highlights the limitations present in conservation training programmes in post-conflict scenarios and highlights the need for sustainability of such programmes. The results of the study found that common constructivist-focused, Eurocentric Conservation pedagogies may not be effective for training museum professionals in regions where this approach is unfamiliar.
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