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Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to develop a series of conclusions about the key features of appraisal effectiveness. Significant features are associated with relationships based on high trust and openness which, in turn, can lead to problem resolution and improved performance. An outline of how training can be targeted at helping appraisers to establish such relationships is provided. Other key features of effectiveness associated with objectivity, clarity and depth in objective setting are also discussed.
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Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 1
Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness
Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine
Director, NZPLC
Note: This is the author’s draft of a published paper. Readers should not quote from this draft but access the
definitive version: The International Journal of Educational Management, 1 June 2003, volume 17, issue 6,
pp. 254–261(8)
This paper initially provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in
schools in New Zealand (NZ), briefly backgrounding the context and purposes as well as
the legislative framework. One principal appraisal cycle is provided as an example of an
approach fitting the intended development and accountability balance of the nationally
mandated guidelines.
In the later component of the paper the author’s conclusions on the key features of
effectiveness of appraisal are examined. These conclusions are drawn from the findings
of three converging, but distinctive, studies conducted by the author between 1996 and
Performance Management as an Integrated Cycle of Micro-Processes
Performance management is a macro-descriptor that encompasses all of the micro-
processes associated with personnel management. It covers the functions that begin
when a staff member enters the school through to their exit. In NZ, the Ministry of
Education (MoE) document Performance Management Systems 1 (PMS1; MoE, 1997:1)
describes it as encompassing recruitment, retention, selection, appointment,
employment contracts, registration, appraisal and assessment, professional
development, career development, succession planning, remuneration, discipline, and
dismissal. Performance management is therefore the bigger picture within which
appraisal is located. This is an important point to clarify because many principals
confuse the two terms and use them interchangeably.
Appraisal, although only one contributing micro-process in the macro context, is central
to the effectiveness of performance management. The mandated guidelines for
appraisal in NZ (MoE, 1997) designate that clarification of performance expectations is a
first step in appraisal. Here a job description, covering nationally prescribed professional
standards, and a performance agreement (with development objectives) are written and
ratified. The clarification of expectations is followed by professional development,
monitoring of development objectives, data collection, observation of teaching if
appropriate, self-appraisal, checking professional standards, a final interview and
reporting. The following cycle represented in Figure 1 reflects the integrated
development and accountability intent of the MoE guidelines. Note that the term “Board”
refers to the governing body of each school.
Getting the right balance of accountability and development in appraisal is difficult and,
in this author’s opinion, is associated with several key features linked to effectiveness.
The background to the findings that the features were derived from is provided prior to
discussion of the features themselves.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 2
Figure 1: A Principal Appraisal Cycle (Piggot-Irvine, 2001)
Model Principal
Appraisal Cycle
Appraisal Interview
Appraiser/Board chair and
principal discuss
achievements, concerns.
Principal provides evidence of
achievement of professional
standards, job description and
objectives. Drafting of
appraisal report.
Against professional
standards, job description
and performance
objectives in preparation
for appraisal interview.
Data collection
From agreed
Principal continues to
gather own data for
Interim Appraisal
chairperson and
principal check on
modification if needed.
Ongoing monitoring
and feedback about
performance and
Data Collection
From agreed
Principal gathers own
data for portfolio (a
collation of
observation carried
out (if pertinent).
Principal finalises PAAP.
PAAP signed off.
Ongoing development
Initial Meeting
Appraiser/Board chairperson
and principal:
1. Confirm performance
expectations in job
description and
professional standards
2. Develop objectives
3. Draft outline for
Agreement Action Plan
Appraisal report submitted
to Board.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 3
The Research Leading to Conclusions about the Key Features of Appraisal
Between 1996 and 1999 the author was contracted to facilitate training associated with
the introduction of the mandated guidelines for appraisal (see Cardno, 1999, for a review
of aspects of the training). Throughout this period (and subsequently in 2000 and 2001)
data was collected to both monitor the implementation status of appraisal generally and
to evaluate the impact of the training delivered. The findings cited in support of the
conclusions for the features of effective appraisal noted in this paper were collected from
three separate but parallel studies conducted during this 1996 to 2001 period.
The first study occurred as a type of exploratory, “State of Play” study, involving an
average of 70 appraisers nationally each year from 1996 to 1999 (see Piggot-Irvine,
2000 for sampling detail). In early 1996, as preparation for the training (a needs
analysis), initial data was collected on the general implementation status of appraisal.
The 1996 results provided an alert that some aspect of the training needed to be
focused on helping appraisers to establish trusting, open, non-defensive, yet problem-
confronting relationships. The development of such openness via an “educative
process” (Piggot-Irvine, 2001) was subsequently included in training conducted by this
author. On-going data collection in the “State of Play” study continued during 1997 to
1999 in order to monitor the impact of the mandated requirements and training on
appraisal implementation. In summary, the results of this study revealed that the
tightening of requirements for appraisal and training had an overall positive impact on
almost all aspects of appraisal systems implementation (for example policy
development, process establishment) but that there was variable implementation of
these processes in schools (Piggot-Irvine, 2000). The results also provided a strong
indication that much of the training conducted nationally for appraisal had largely been
superficial and had failed to help appraisers to confront problems with appraisees.
The second study was an evaluation of the educative process component of training for
219 appraisers from 25 secondary schools. The overall training covered general skills
implementation (two to three days) as well as one day focusing on developing the type
of educative process elaborated earlier in this paper. Here, data that was collected from
a sample of 45 appraisers (and their appraisees) showed a considerable gap between
appraiser espousals of educative process skill implementation and their actual practice
(Piggot-Irvine, 2001).
The third study was a more in-depth evaluation of longer-term (approximately eight
meetings over one year) training based on an action research approach employing the
Problem Resolving Action Research (PRAR) Model (Piggot-Irvine, 2001). The focus of
this training, again, was on developing educative process interactions. Here the
triangulated data from interviews, surveys and observation with appraisers and
appraisees showed a positive shift in skills implementation for three of the five
appraisers involved in the action research (see Piggot-Irvine, 2001).
The features of effective appraisal described in the following section have been
developed from the data of all three studies.
Key Features of Effective Appraisal
What does effective mean? In this author’s terms effectiveness occurs when appraisal
interactions are non-controlling, non-defensive, supportive, educative and yet
confidential. Effective appraisal therefore is underpinned by a relationship of respect
and has outcomes directly linked to improved learning and teaching. Effectiveness is
also linked to appraisal processes and information that have clarity, objectivity and high
integrity, where deep development is a goal rather than quick-fix expedience. The
features described are not presented in order of significance - all are important, as
Figure 2 shows.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 4
Figure 2: Elements of Appraisal Effectiveness
An Integrated Development and Accountability Approach
Earlier in this paper the dual development and accountability components of an
integrated appraisal cycle were described. Feedback from participants in all three of the
studies conducted indicated the desirability of a retention of the balance between
development and accountability in appraisal. A quote from a contributor to the “State of
Play” data noted that appraisal had to be “An avenue to help staff identify future
developments and highlight strengths/weaknesses” (Piggot-Irvine, 2001:71).
Objective Information
Results from the “State of Play” study pointed to a continued avoidance of appraisers
and appraisees assembling objective information for appraisal (Piggot-Irvine, 2000). For
example only 27 percent of respondents in 1996 reported that they assembled objective
information; 26 percent in 1997. Although there was a rise to 59% in 1998, one
respondent in that year suggested that observation was conducted in a loose way when
they stated that information was gained as “Only informal casual observations” (Piggot-
Irvine, 2001:57).
It is essential that discussions are based on factual, objectively collected, “data-based”
(Cardno & Piggot-Irvine, 1996:20) information if the process is to be considered as a
valid, fair, rigorous and reliable approach to managing the performance of staff. If such
information is not collected then an outcome may be of perceptions of appraisal as a
poorly constructed process that reinforces inadequate, inaccurate and subjective
decision-making at management level. This, in turn, could lead (an hypothesis that
needs checking) to a climate of substantial mistrust between managers and staff and the
demise of appraisal as a credible process for enhancing organisational and individual
Independent from
disciplinary aspects
Integrated development and
Beyond the superficial – on-
going and in-depth
Well resourced
with training and
Transparent and
An educative
Based on objective,
informative data
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 5
In particular, the lack of assemblage of objective information could create a potentially
explosive situation given the current trend to associate promotion with appraisal. Lack of
objective information could be linked to lack of transparency, subsequent iniquitous
decision-making and injustice in summative decisions made about the most sensitive
issue in teachers’ lives, that is, their remuneration. A sense of injustice, in turn, could
result in a proliferation of litigation between aggrieved staff and the governors whose
responsibility it is to ensure an effective appraisal system.
What can be done about this? Foremost there should be an emphasis on the
establishment of appraisal procedures that ensure valid information gathering. The use
of triangulation, or “multiple perspective” (Cardno & Piggot-Irvine, 1996:20), data
collection can enhance validity. In this author’s practice in appraising principals, for
example, there is a non-negotiable expectation that the cycle incorporates documentary
evidence. Policies, procedures, self, student (if teaching), staff and Board (and possibly
community) evaluations frequently form part of this evidence. In the case of the latter
evaluations, the use of a sampling process and well designed data-collection tools can
mean that this is an efficiently co-ordinated system that should not be overly
burdensome in terms of time or cost to the school.
Confidential and Transparent Processes
Implicitly linked to objective information gathering is the requirement for confidential and
transparent processes. Both of these features were considered to be important by
appraisers and appraisees in the short and long-term training evaluation studies cited.
At first glance, the two descriptors of confidentiality and transparency may seem
contradictory, or self-cancelling. This is a misconception. There is a logical congruency
between confidentiality and transparency. As an appraiser it is important to be absolute
in maintaining confidentiality in dealing with information, whether it is from respondents
providing feedback, or documentary evidence, or information from the principal.
However, an appraiser also needs to be clear, with all respondents providing information
(for example in evaluations), that their information will not be tampered with or altered.
The latter is an example of the way that an appraiser can be transparent about process
in dedicating to represent the situation as it is, without own alteration or interpretation. It
also shows that confidentiality is assured.
Setting Deep Objectives
The findings from the three studies cited showed that a key to effective appraisal is the
establishment of appraisal objectives and plans for improvement that are in a “deep” as
opposed to “surface” format (Piggot-Irvine, 1999). Deep refers to plans that outline small
action research type projects that are carried out on an individualised (for personal
objectives) or group (for department or school-wide objectives) scale. The following
example from a participant in the short-term training is such a deep plan. John, the
appraisee, was guided by his appraiser but he wrote the plan. The latter is crucial if
ownership by the appraisee is a goal. John’s plan (Table 1) contains stages of
reconnaissance (examining the current situation with the issue), planning for
change/improvement, carrying out improvement and then evaluating its effectiveness.
At all stages of the plan there are expectations of data-based reflection and an emphasis
on improved learning and teaching.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 6
Table 1: John’s PAAP (Performance Agreement Action Plan)
Objective Actions Measurable
(Recorded for each
Date for
To improve
the way
that I
with staff
so that I
don’t waste
1. Check how I facilitate
meetings currently by:
a. asking staff to
complete a quick
response questionnaire
on my effectiveness
b. asking a colleague to
check and record what I
do in meetings
2. Do some reading on
meeting facilitation and
develop some criteria for
Planning for
3. Think about the
results from the
feedback etc. and
develop a plan for the
way I will improve
Carrying out Plan
4. Attend a 2 hour
workshop on meeting
5. Observe another
manager who is reputed
to facilitate good
6. Put my plan for
improved facilitation into
practice for 2-3
7. Seek further feedback
from staff on
improvements, and ask
my colleague to observe
against my criteria for
effective facilitation
knowledge of
facilitation, and
a clear set of
criteria for this
facilitation as
recorded in
feedback from
staff, and my
meetings that
are not only
more efficient
but are focused
on improved
learning and
1a. Photocopying
of questionnaire
1b. Nil
2. Photocopying of
articles $5.00
4. Workshop fee
Travel $20.00
5. Nil
6. Nil
7. Photocopying
April 20th
April 20th
June 1st
June 15th
June 20th
June 25th
End July
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 7
John’s plan is not a typical one observed in the short-term training. More frequently
plans contained just a couple of sentences outlining development such as “attend a
workshop on literacy”. The latter is a quick-fix approach to objective setting: one that is
concerned with getting the objective out of the way as quickly as possible rather than
focusing substantially on something that results in considerable improvement to learning
and teaching. It conforms to a surface approach which McKay and Kember (1997, p.58)
state, is “based on a motive to minimise effort and also to minimise the consequences”.
John’s approach, however, is “deep”. He is committed to a thorough examination of his
facilitation of meetings, to changing his practice and then to checking to see if what he
has done has worked. He is basing his decisions for change upon his reflections on
data and background reading. It will cost the school no more than a surface approach to
meet his development objectives and yet the outcome is most likely to be substantial
change at both a personal and professional level. The development of such a deep plan
also provides clear indicators for assessment of the achievement of objectives. The
latter accountability feature helps to provide the objective data that was noted earlier as
an important feature of the entire appraisal process.
Separation of Discipline Processes from Appraisal
Participants in the evaluation of the short and long-term training on appraisal noted that
an aspect that would jeopardise the development of trust and openness in appraisal was
having the same personnel carrying out appraisal and disciplinary proceedings. Support
for this critical separation has been reported elsewhere (Cardno & Piggot-Irvine, 1997).
That is not to say that appraisal may not alert the appraiser and management to the
areas that need to be addressed under discipline proceedings. Once the alert has
occurred, however, either a different individual should carry out the disciplinary-based
system, or if the appraiser is to be nominated as carrying out this process, then a new
appraiser should be appointed.
The crucial separation of appraisal from disciplinary processes highlights the importance
of principals and Boards clarifying the linkages, connections and distinctions between
the earlier mentioned micro-processes in performance management generally. Such
linkages need to also be clarified in policy development for each micro-process.
The latter statement suggests that clarity in guidelines and criteria for all performance
management micro-processes is crucial if staff are to understand how to implement
policy effectively. NZ now has appraisal criteria established in the nationally mandated
guidelines, however individual schools have some flexibility in the way that they adopt
processes to meet the guidelines. It is clear from the findings cited in this author’s
research that the process should be developed with a genuine intent for improvement
and not check-listing alone. The process should also be well publicised in the school
and explicitly detailed.
Quality Time
Making and taking enough time to carry out appraisal was considered by participants in
all three studies cited as crucial to effectiveness. The following quote from an appraiser
(in the evaluation of the short-term training) concerning what makes appraisal effective
supports this:
Time - use class time - counterproductive; use staff time - resentment - already
under stress; that is a problem - any solutions? (Piggot-Irvine, 2001:143)
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 8
There is an implication from all of the findings that management (particularly middle
managers as the key implementers) must be given time and support to implement
appraisal. Where appraisal is working well for example, it is often because management
has accorded it priority in the plethora of management tasks that occur in schools and
middle managers have time allocation to carry it out. It is also apparent that, in these
schools, the senior managers themselves fully engage in their own appraisal, that is,
they model that it is worthy of a high priority in their time management.
How can time be provided in a context as frantic as that in schools? There are multiple
ways that time for appraisal was allocated in the schools associated with the three
studies cited in this paper. Several schools gained consent to open one hour later, two
times a term, to allow for appraisal interactions to occur. Other schools used specified
teacher only days for appraisal. Others still recognised that appraisal is too important an
activity to squeeze into a free period during the school day and they made use of time
before and after the timetabled day to conduct the process. Ultimately however until the
issue of overload is addressed and managers are given time to manage appraisal then
we will continue to see not only highly stressed staff in schools but also poorly
implemented approaches.
Developing Educative Interactions
Respectful, trust-based and open relationships are at the core of appraisal effectiveness,
as one of the appraisees in the long-term evaluation study reported “The trust
issue is
the most important” (Piggot-Irvine, 2001:259).
Good interpersonal interactions generally are often noted as important but elaboration
beyond such broad statements is rare in the general appraisal literature. It is the more
specific literature on productive reasoning (Argyris, 1985, 1990) that led this author to
conclude that openness and trust could only be established if appraisers and appraisees
created what has been described earlier as an “educative process”. An educative
relationship is based on bilateralism (shared control, shared thinking, shared evidence,
shared planning and monitoring) leading to appraisers having more confidence to help
appraisees to confront and resolve problems if they arise.
The educative process is not merely the sort of good listening and questioning skills type
interpersonal interactions that several authors nominate as being important for appraisal
(see Edwards, 1992; Immegart, 1994; Marshall, 1995; and Middlewood, 1997). An
educative process is situated at a deeper, problem-confronting, level. Such a process,
in turn, can create high trust, shared (bilateral) rather than hierarchical control, and
therefore an open relationship. Such an open, bilateral, relationship should enhance the
potential for problems to be confronted rather than avoided. The confronting of
problems, in turn, should lead to problems being solved. Problems solved should mean
that appraisal has improvement outcomes for learning, teaching and management. This
causal link is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Causal link diagram of appraisal effectiveness
Educative Problem Problems Appraisal
Process Confronting Solved
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 9
The dearth of literature on how to help appraisers develop the sort of educative,
problem-resolving, interactions in appraisal, is indicative of the extent to which this is
overlooked and perhaps even avoided because it is in the “too hard” basket. The
following quote from an appraiser in the short-term training evaluation study underscores
that appraisal is not only hard but other complex issues also impinge:
It’s still an uncomfortable thing to do, especially with an average teacher or one
who is out of their depth. It’s an extra burden on an already over-abused group,
the HoDs.
(Piggot-Irvine, 2001:137)
Helping appraisers to develop educative relationships should be an essential feature of
all appraisal training. This author’s research in the appraisal context indicates that such
educative process training has to be in a different format to that of the standard one to
two day block allocation which was used for initial appraisal training in NZ schools.
An implication from the findings of the studies noted is that school management must re-
think their approach to training for appraisal so that it goes beyond the quick-fix, one day
(or even shorter), approach. It is recommended that the training includes a coverage of
all elements of appraisal such as values, purposes, objective setting, observation skills,
data-gathering skills, interviewing and report writing. The training should also focus on
helping appraisers to develop an educative process. A suggested approach for this
could include that the principles and content:
focus on personalised actionable knowledge (Argyris, 1993), where individuals
are helped to examine their own actions and to take responsibility for both
detecting and correcting defensiveness associated with interactions;
should help appraisers to expose the gap between their espousals and actions.
This exposure must also involve challenge and critique and be based on
objective evidence that the appraiser can reflect on;
must introduce appraisers to effective models for interacting in bilateral, open,
non-defensive and problem confronting ways. Regardless of the model chosen,
it must be presented at a level that is both simple and concise, “yet its
complexity must not be underplayed” (Cardno, 1994:237);
must engage participants in taking this model from a level of espousal (thinking
or beliefs) to implementation; and
must be followed-up by intensive, on-going practice. The follow-up may be best
designed in a series of spaced (say one to two months) sessions of
approximately four hour duration over at least a year. This spacing, or “time-
lapsed learning” as Cardno (1994:240) describes it, allows participants to
assimilate and internalise their new learning.
The following quote from one of the participants involved in the evaluation of the
longer-term, action research based approach to training, underscores the complexity
and intensity associated with helping appraisers to appropriately establish an educative
process with staff.
Our senior management team initially attended a 2 day “Positively Dealing with
Conflict” course with Eileen, following an earlier year long management contract
…but it wasn’t until Eileen came in to do an evaluation of my performance that
the reality of the extent of my avoidance and controlling strategies when dealing
with staff problems became painfully clear.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 10
I was totally devastated! … I guess the really depressing part of it all was that I
really believed that the way that I was dealing with staff issues was okay. The
sudden realisation that I wasn’t really shattered the idealistic view I had of myself.
After four days of intensive reflection, self-doubt, and self-loathing, I returned to
the school feeling very scared. I was also really determined to deal with these
problems I had.
Eileen and I then began some intensive reflection on the reasons for my
behaviours. She got me to re-read all of the material we had covered in
workshops (my Christmas holiday task!). She asked me to draw up a set of
criteria for analysing my implementation of appraisal. All of this has led to Eileen
and I now constantly re-examining the way that I manage and appraise staff. I
am recording the interactions. We then critique this against my summarised
criteria, and I re-practise more effective ways of interacting. I am focusing on
developing shared control, and genuine openness to learning with staff.
(Piggot-Irvine, 2001b:11)
This account reveals that substantially more than short-term training is required to help
appraisers to develop educative process interactions with appraisees.
Creating Respect, Openness and Trust Generally
The final feature of effective appraisal overlaps with earlier mentioned features. The link
between appraisal effectiveness and on-going educative relationships cannot be
ignored. The findings in each of the studies cited reveals that respect, openness and
trust need to be established through honest interactions in all situations - not just that of
appraisal, but in every interaction at every level of the school.
The development of an approach to appraisal that has the key features of effectiveness
described in this paper begins with an understanding of the location and integration of
appraisal in the wider context of performance management. Underpinning the approach
are values linked to objectivity, fairness, honesty, openness, transparency, respect, trust
and non-defensiveness. These values, however, cannot just be “turned on” for
appraisal. For appraisal to be effective the process must be embedded in a wider
culture where the values form part of the fabric of the everyday life of the school. Most
importantly the values need to be modelled from the top down. That is an ultimate
challenge for all school leaders and governors.
Draft of ‘Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness’, by Dr Eileen Piggot-Irvine, page 11
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Piggot-Irvine, E. (2001b). Tackling the Hard Stuff! New Zealand Principal,I6 (2), 11–13.
... The purpose of this paper is not to examine the reasons, or performance review, per se. A comprehensive account of varied reasons for resistance to performance review can be found in previous publications (Piggot-Irvine, 2003a, 2003b, 2001. Rather, the focus in the paper is on just one potential underlying reason for such contention and resistance -reviewer defensiveness when they need to address concerns with reviewees. ...
The paper reports on an action research (AR) project with six public high school leaders (reviewers) who volunteered to engage in an 18 month project to overcome their own defensiveness in addressing concerns with teachers (reviewees) whose performance they were evaluating. In the paper I outline how I acted as a coach in a long-term development approach where participant ownership of focus, data collection, analysis and interpretation was given highest priority. An exploration of the AR approach adopted, and the theory and strategies for addressing concerns is provided. The strategies may likely be a new, unique, contribution for many reviewers. A transcript of one reviewer-reviewee discussion sets the scene for an outline of reviewer tracking of their implementation strategies for improvement and subsequent evaluation. The final part of the paper covers a meta-level discussion of outcomes associated with the overall evaluation findings. Positive outcomes were shown for four of the six leaders for enhanced employment of strategies.
... In relation to the process of PA, several studies (De Cenzo & Robbins, 1996;Longenecker & Fink, 1999;Piggot-Irvine, 2003a;Kondrasuk, 2011) have indicated that reasons behind doing ineffective PA within organizations are psychometric errors. ...
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Abstract In contemporary society, nation development relies heavily on the presence and availability of human resources/capabilities. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are vital to create of this human resource. The Kurdistan Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MoHESR) reformed its Higher Education policy in 2009 to enhance service/product quality. The most tangible aspect of these reforms was the evaluation of academic performance. MoHESR claimed it is the duty of academics to invest time/effort to fulfil their contractual obligations. Consequently, a new mechanism of performance appraisal (PA) for evaluating teachers‘ performance was formally launched. Despite its benefits, PA has created many challenges for Kurdistan HEIs due to external and internal factors, including: culture; continual wars; inadequate laws and regulations; political unrest; poor management of HEIs and mismanagement of human resources, which have exposed gaps in effective PA management and dissatisfaction amongst key stakeholders - particularly academics. This exploratory sequential mixed methods study explores the perceptions of senior/middle managers and other stakeholders at different levels of the organisational hierarchy of PA management at the University of Sulaimani (UoS) and examines their experiences of/aspirations for better PA. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify the key contextual and institutional factors affecting PA, supported by quantitative data collected through a questionnaire involving 654 teaching staff at UoS. The study reveals PA in Kurdistan HEIs is strongly influenced by contextual factors: cultural dimensions; legal characteristics; political hegemony, which have eroded attention to human values so human resource activities were not fully embraced in Kurdistan HEIs. Consequently, PA is challenged by: low commitment, support and enthusiasm from top management; little engagement between PA and institutional strategy; unclear purpose/standards; little communication; poor training; unfavourable rewards; absence of interviews, equality and promptness in the process. The study presents a final model of PA more suited to the Kurdistan HE context and makes recommendations for government, MoHESR, HEIs, leaders and faculty members.
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The mediating role of feedback, employee participation and perceived fairness in the relationship between performance appraisal system and employee satisfaction has been established using Commercial Bank of Ethiopia North Addis Ababa District, yet theories and empirical studies have demonstrate that feedback, employee participation and perceived fairness mediate in the performance appraisal system-employee satisfaction relationship. The study used a mixed research approach. A systematic random sampling was used to sample 280 respondents from Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, North Addis Ababa district. The study used questionnaires and interview as for data collection instrument. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis and correlations were used to analyze the data collected. The result of the study shows a statistically significant relationship between performance appraisal system and employee satisfaction. The Baron and Kenny approach was used to test the mediation. The study revealed that feedback, employee participation and perceived fairness partially mediate between performance appraisal system and employee satisfaction. Key challenges identified include low feedback rate, appraisal is conducted annual base and manager is the only source that appraise employee's performance. The study recommends that participation style should be encouraged in order to appreciate employees in the performance appraisal process. Further, top management should consider giving performance feedback and coaching on time.
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The major aim of the study was to examine the impact of e-human resource management on organizational ambidexterity. Therefore, it focused on telecommunication companies operating in Jordan. Data were primarily gathered through self-reported questionnaires creating by Google Forms which were distributed to a purposive sample of senior managers via email. The statistical program AMOSv24 was used to test the study hypotheses. The results of the study show that e-human resource management has a positive impact relationship on organizational ambidexterity. Based on the findings of the study, researchers recommend managers and decision makers to strengthen the electronic human resources management system, to raise the level of organizational ambidexterity and improve organizational performance, and to use electronic human resources management applications to improve the organization's performance.
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The major aim of the study was to examine the impact of e-human resource management on organizational ambidexterity. Therefore, it focused on telecommunication companies operating in Jordan. Data were primarily gathered through self-reported questionnaires creating by Google Forms which were distributed to a purposive sample of senior managers via email. The statistical program AMOSv24 was used to test the study hypotheses. The results of the study show that e-human resource management has a positive impact relationship on organizational ambidexterity. Based on the findings of the study, researchers recommend managers and decision makers to strengthen the electronic human resources management system, to raise the level of organizational ambidexterity and improve organizational performance, and to use electronic human resources management applications to improve the organization's performance.
Full-text available
The major aim of the study was to examine the impact of e-human resource management on organizational ambidexterity. Therefore, it focused on telecommunication companies operating in Jordan. Data were primarily gathered through self-reported questionnaires creating by Google Forms which were distributed to a purposive sample of senior managers via email. The statistical program AMOSv24 was used to test the study hypotheses. The results of the study show that e-human resource management has a positive impact relationship on organizational ambidexterity. Based on the findings of the study, researchers recommend managers and decision makers to strengthen the electronic human resources management system, to raise the level of organizational ambidexterity and improve organizational performance, and to use electronic human resources management applications to improve the organization's performance.
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This study aimed at examining the impact of E-HRM on organizational health. It focused on telecommunications companies operating in Jordan. Data were primarily gathered through self-reported questionnaires created in Google Forms and distributed to a purposive sample of senior managers via email. AMOSv24 was used to test the study hypotheses. The results of the study show that E-HRM has a positive impact on organizational health. Based on the obtained results, the researchers recommend managers and decision-makers of the telecommunications companies in Jordan to invest in electronic human resources systems, which can help them fully implement human resources practices electronically, to obtain economic savings and to be able to attract talents. The study also highlights the importance of focusing more on the electronic training and development process in order to raise individuals' practical capabilities, which is reflected in their creativity.
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Performance evaluation is an important component of the human resource management and it is widely used method to evaluate the employees in an effective manner. It is needed to recognize and reward the performance of the employees to improve their commitment and satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was to identify the strengths and the weaknesses of the current performance evaluation system of the Leeds International School to recommend a suitable performance evaluation system. The success of educational organization is dependent upon the quality, commitment and performance of the people who work. Effective performance appraisal is one system aimed at improving teachers' performance. Therefore, it can be drawn that the company's existing performance evaluation system has some shortcomings and further improvement is required to improve the effectiveness of the system. The researcher has given some recommendation to improve the level of the effectiveness of the existing performance evaluation system.
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Outlines how an action research approach can be used for management training and education. The emphasis on developing competence in problem-solving processes, using action research, is supported by the literature and this is illustrated by several examples of institutional projects and award-bearing programmes. Details how the authors’ interpretation of action research, in the school management training context, can both challenge and develop educational leaders.
In noting the human being's propensity to value and evaluate, explores five levels of assessment from the casual to the very serious and rigorous. A distinction is made between management or normative appraisals and leadership or discretionary evaluations for organizational improvement and making a difference. The importance of rigorous assessment of the school by the school head or principal is underscored in the discussion of the why, what, and how of school evaluation for management and leadership by the head or principal.
Increased control has been linked with increased defensiveness, decreased internal commitment, inconsistent adoption of initiatives, and mixed reception. In New Zealand we have seen an incremental tightening of control in the appraisal (evaluation) context with progressively enhanced requirements for accountability in the post-reform (post-1989) period in schools. Reports on the context of this tightening of accountability, or increased control, and presents evidence to demonstrate its impact. The evidence was provided via the results of a four-year (1996-1999) longitudinal questionnaire study from the period prior to the introduction of the 1996 Draft National Guidelines for Performance Management in Schools (DNGPMS), through to that of prescribed performance criteria (professional standards) for teachers and managers in schools in 1998 and 1999. The results contradict the predicted negative impacts and provide evidence that by 1999 there was a developing positive impact from the tightening of accountability in appraisal. The conclusion discusses recent threats to the positive gains reported in this study.
The failure of schools between 1990 and 1995, to respond to the imperative to establish systems for staff appraisal resulted in the Ministry of Education in New Zealand prescribing guidelines for schools to follow from 1996 onwards. This paper explores forces which shaped national policy in the framework of the reform movement, describes the policy development process and a national training programme for its introduction and examines challenges presented for principals who are expected to be accountable for policy implementation. National policy (which frames problems and solutions in structural terms) is analysed to show how it can fail to address dilemmas at the heart of staff appraisal activity. Problems inherent in attempting to mesh dual purposes of appraisal are identified, and the requirements of a “dilemma management” approach are explained in relation to the role of the principal.