Article

Who controls store atmosphere customization in electronic retailing?

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Abstract

Purpose – Technology now allows e-tailers to customize online store atmosphere at the individual level, with the customization controlled and executed by either the retailers or the customers, or both. Since in conventional retailing the manipulation of store atmosphere is controlled mainly by retailers (e.g. store layout, product display techniques, store theatrics, etc.), the potential for mass customization with consumer involvement radically changes the way research regarding online store atmosphere must be approached. Positioned in the e-tailing research area, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the research challenges presented by virtual store atmosphere customization and control and to formulate specific research propositions. Design/methodology/approach – This viewpoint paper employs an interdisciplinary “desk-research” approach. It elaborates on the emerging research challenges of customizing store atmosphere in electronic retailing highlighting the differences that exist among the conventional and the virtual retail channels. It then justifies the interdisciplinary nature of store atmosphere studies, investigates the customization challenges available online and formulates specific research questions and direct research propositions. Findings – E-tailing store atmosphere customization capabilities at the individual level, revolutionizes the established relevant theory from conventional retailing. However, the control of the customization process is a quite complex issue and should be treated as that, by e-tailers. Research limitations/implications – The paper sets the research agenda and builds avenues for further research. Practical implications – The paper provides direct managerial implications for effectively placing online store atmosphere customization in the hands of the consumer-user. Originality/value – The paper clearly justifies why current online store atmosphere studies should be adapted to the mass customization challenge applicable online. Similarly, it demonstrates the promising role that consumer control could potentially play on this topic.

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... In this manner, the GUI of a web store constitutes at the same time the virtual retail store Atmosphere of this store (Vrechopoulos, 2010). Therefore, while the GUI approach is positioned in the Information Systems domain, the Store Atmosphere approach is positioned in the Marketing one, since it is related with one of the 7Ps of the services marketing mix (physical evidence) called servicescape for services' retail contexts (see Bitner 1992, Zeithaml et al. 2006. ...
... • User-consumer co-creation of GUI (control, flow): how should the omnichannel retailing atmosphere be controlled (Vrechopoulos, 2010)? • 3D GUI design both online and in physical retail stores (e.g. ...
... In other words, since each consumer/user is different (i.e. "segments of one" in the context of the segmentationtargeting-positioning process followed by Marketing practitioners in their Strategic Marketing Planning) retailers (ICT-enabled) could provide a personalized shopping experience also in terms of the graphical user interface design they offer to their customers (Vrechopoulos et al. 2010). For example, in the traditional personal selling process, experienced salesmen treat their customers through a one-to-one manner. ...
Conference Paper
The increasing availability of electronic applications in physical retail stores has created a series of interesting research opportunities with challenging managerial implications for practitioners. Since the graphical user interface design constitutes a critical user-consumer influencing factor in the context of a multichannel retailing environment, there are several multidisciplinary research initiatives that could add value towards an integrated investigation of this topic. To this end, the paper discusses the promising role of combining Information Systems and Marketing disciplines for conducting behavioural studies in the context of multichannel/omnichannel retailing, approaching humans both as users of information systems and consumers of retail stores. Similarly, the paper treats the screen of the electronic applications available in online and offline retail stores both as a graphical user interface of an information system and as the atmosphere/servicescape of a retail store. The paper provides several future research directions and practical implications for this fast evolving topic.
... McLuhan (1964b) and Lee (2004b) Researchers have noted that the e-tailing environment often fails to present a realistic or "real world" shopping environment (Vrechopoulos, 2010;Wallace, et al., 2004). In so doing, e-tailers deprive consumers of many of the normal cues used in decision making, thereby, eliminating a significant portion of the opportunity offered by the e-tailing environment. ...
... In the e-tailing context, these sub-constructs offer a specific means by which etailers can enhance consumer online shopping experiences. Enhancing the OSP offered in e-tailing provides benefits such as achieving a more vibrant and realistic shopping environment (Vrechopoulos, 2010;Wallace, et al., 2004), engaging in warmer and more personal interactions (Hassanein & Head, 2007), and more effectively meeting consumer needs and demands ( Van der Heijden, et al., 2003). ...
Article
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This research proposes and validates the Online Social Presence (OSP) scale and framework as an effective means of addressing the struggle e-tailers have encountered in attempting to create persuasive and effective online retailing experiences, which persuade customers to purchase their products and services. Online Social Presence (OSP) reexamines and extends the original social presence theory to the complex and dynamic e-tailing environment to address research that indicates that the typical online shopping experience lacks warmth and sociability. A robust mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to validate the Online Social Presence (OSP) as containing three reflectively measured first-order constructs (intimacy, immediacy, and authenticity) which formatively create the second-order construct of OSP. The research process included qualitative item generation and qualitative and quantitative item purification procedures. PLS-SEM was employed to validate a twenty-one item validated OSP scale and establish nomological validity of the OSP scale and framework in the context of e-Satisfaction as an established outcome variable.
... Customization and personalization have many meanings and can be different things (Vrechopoulos 2010), depending on the domain. In the framework shown in Figure 1, customization is conceptualized as a continuum of value creation anchored by the degree of control retained by the firm and the degrees of participation delegated to the customer in the creation of goods and services. ...
... some of the nearest and dearest notions and axioms of marketing may have to be re-examined, recast, or even abandoned.' The changing marketspace may make traditional research approaches in marketing and experimental designs irrelevant, for example the contemporary testing of cause-and-effect relationships for hypotheses testing and theory verification will be of little practical use if they are essentially different for each customer under customization (Vrechopoulos 2010). There has been very little triangulation in Internet marketing research but future empirical studies on social commerce could employ cross-disciplinary research teams (Corley, Jourdan, and Ingram 2013) that build multi-theoretical and multi-method approaches to blend the 'logico-scientific' and narrative modes of knowledge generation (Cayla and Arnould 2013). ...
Article
Scholarly inquiry within the domains of social commerce has grown rapidly and seems destined to be a goldmine of future research opportunities. However, it is now time to reflect and assess these independent and spiraling contributions using a meta-theoretical approach. This captures and establishes the similarities occurring concurrently within the domains and highlights the linkages between them. This produces a firmer conceptual underpinning for future first-order theory building in social commerce and highlights the need to rethink fundamental concepts, definitions, and traditional research approaches.
... For food store, Sulek and Hensley (2004) identified store atmosphere has a role to identified store location. While Adam P. Vrechopoulos, (2010) emphasized that the most important thing on store atmosphere activities is customization. ...
... So, what Z. Zhu et al., (2012) reveal about service fault an information prepare could be hindered at Alfamart's technology scheme. Furthermore, according to Adam P. Vrechopoulos (2010) technology makes addition service which accustomed to customer. In this case, Alfamart connect to several online services such as electricity online service, cellular phone and some ticketing. ...
Article
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Impulse buying is mportant to be managed particularly on retail competitive marketing practice. The research purpose is to analyze the influence of store atmosphere, sales promotion on impulse buying where positive emotion is treated as mediation factor. To establish that purpose, survey is conducted where the unit analysis is Alfamart’s customer. Sample is chosen in quota way as many as 100 customers. The analytical method used is Partial Least Square (PLS). The results showed that store atmosphere has an effect on positive emotion, sales promotion influence positive emotion, and positive emotion influence impulse buying. Store atmosphere and sales promotion also indirectly affect impulse buying where the mediation factor is positive emotion. In practice, sales promotion is well conducted by the employee which created employee-customer relation and emotion as well. Hence, in order to sustain impulse buying practice, store atmosphere should be managed in an interesting way as well as sales promotion. Sales promotion however has important role, where the role of the employee is not only manage transaction, but encouraging consumer to buy more through their own emotion. In doing so, employee should be encouraged, pushed to manage sales promotion in order to sustain impulse buying. Hence future research relate with the role of technology and employee as the basis of retailer to build competitiveness over their competitors.
... Virtual atmosphere significantly differs from physical stores atmosphere and lacks some of the qualities (Eroglu et al., 2001), and obtains unique characteristics such as the availability 24 hours a day and 7 days a week and customization capabilities (Manganari, Siomkos, Rigopoulou, Vrechopoulos, 2011). E-retailers can now offer consumers partially to customize the atmosphere of website (Vrechopoulos, 2010). ...
Article
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By synthesizing prior literature, this research proposes a revised taxonomy of website elements and extends the knowledge of the website atmosphere. Website elements are grouped into four components based on Manganari, Siomkos, Vrechopoulos (2009). The component of virtual layout & design is extended by adding navigational design element. Virtual atmospherics are augmented by adding information, aesthetics design, and website brand / personality elements. The last component - virtual social presence is extended by adding elements such as avatars, virtual community, recommendations, and communication. This paper provides the taxonomy of website elements and provides general guidelines for e-retailers to develop an effective website in order to attract and retain consumers. Authors highlight key research implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.em.18.3.5285
... . Dentre os estudos elencados na revisão teórica destacam-se alguns resultados encontrados para esta agenda de pesquisa, como: i) a mudança do paradigma multicanal para o paradigma Ominichannel (Vrechopoulos, 2010;; ii) o impacto da integração de canais, preconizada pelo varejo Ominichannel (Emrich, Paul & Rudolph, 2015;Verhoef et al., 2015); iii) as tecnologias móveis podem engajar os consumidores no processo de multidimensionalidade do comportamento Cross Channel (Pookulangara et al, 2011;Yang et al. 2011); iv) os consumidores percebem benefícios em compras realizadas em multicanais e reagem com forte lealdade ao canal de sua preferência (Schramm-Klein et al. 2011); v) incipiência de métricas e instrumentos comportamentais para mensurar os benefícios percebidos pelo consumidor (Foxall, 2010aGerritsen et al., 2014Trenz, 2015); vi) o Comportamento "showrooming" como um potencial indício de canibalismo Cross Channel (Gong, Smith & Telang 2015;Rapp, et al.,2015;Zhang & Oh 2013); vii) os efeitos do M-commerce, aplicações móveis e novos formatos de varejo em relação ao comportamento free-riding cross-channel (Heitz-Spahn, 2013). ...
Thesis
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... Verhagen & van Dolen (2009) provide related literature, by employing quantitative methods, a linkage of store atmosphere with multichannel retailing: multichannel store image (as an element of the store atmosphere) can be achieved by online and offline database integration (managers can provide consumers with online offers that relate to offline purchases). Finally, Vrechopoulos (2010) talked about a paradigm shift in multichannel retailing store atmosphere, since for the first time the consumer is able to alter atmospheric elements utilizing emerging technologies in-store. ...
Conference Paper
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The continuously changing retail practices and consumer behavioural patterns mainly attributed to the wide diffusion and adoption of innovative technologies and applications for retail purposes, call for research initiatives that should investigate this topic through multiple perspectives and approaches. The paper provides a thorough literature review and implications for research and practice on the evolving retailing landscape, emphasizing on the transformation of multichannel to omnichannel retailing. Multidisciplinary research approach mainly positioned on the Marketing, Electronic Commerce and Information Systems domains is adopted aiming to explore the crucial role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in current business and consumer practices. The review of the literature is mainly displayed in a chronological sequence in accordance to multichannel-omnichannel concepts, so as to highlight the evolution of the research attempts and corresponding business initiatives on that topic and provide an integrated view of the available research insights. Also, it is attempted to present, discuss and synthesize available definitions, terms and concepts in order to further clarify the critical issues derived through the various disciplines/domains that are actively involved in that topic. A collection of relevant research calls, along with corresponding practical implications derived through the review of the existing literature, are thoroughly discussed.
... Indicatively, the use of pull instead of push approach towards customer interaction facilitates the effective application of permission marketing guidelines, offering privacy and control. The latter, perceived control, has yet to be achieved in physical shopping environments mainly due to the lack of customization (at least to the extent that it is applicable online) and other relevant offline channel constraints (Vrechopoulos, 2010). On the other hand, the online shopping environments feature these characteristics but lack the tactile feedback of the physical space (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
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The introduction of the Physical Web as a proximity-based gateway to the Internet of Things (IoT) constitutes a disruption to Omnichannel & Pervasive Retailing, creating a new breed: Physical Web Retailing. The interconnection of the World Wide Web with the physical world has been attempted several times in the past, however, this new approach relies on ubiquitous technologies (Bluetooth, URL, etc) with low cost and a critical user base of smartphone owners. When these users behave as Omnishoppers, the Physical Web could transform the physical store into a blended experience that has an impact on Store Atmosphere, as well. The aim of this study is to define Physical Web Atmospherics as online & offline atmospheric cues that are integrated with the Physical Web. A brief literature review of Store Atmosphere across channels and the Physical Web is presented in order to formulate these new concepts. Furthermore, future research directions and important managerial implications that derive from the introduction of the Physical Web to the retailing field are thoroughly discussed.
... Même si les recherches empiriques sur l"atmosphère d"un site web ne sont encore que peu abondantes, elles montrent que les facteurs visuels (couleurs, images, animations…) et sonores (sons, musiques…) influencent les émotions, attitudes et comportements des internautes (Coyle et Thorson, 2001 ;Dreze et Zufryden, 1997 ;Eroglu et al. 2003 ;Ghose et Dou, 1998 ;Gorn et al., 2004 ;Hoque et Lohse, 1999 ;Manganari et al., 2009 ;Vrechopoulos, 2010 ;Lemoine, 2012). ...
Thesis
L’objectif de cette thèse est triple : mieux comprendre la notion d’esthétique dans le cadre d’un site Internet ; proposer un outil de mesure de l’esthétique des sites web, l’échelle Websthetic ; comprendre l’influence des caractéristiques esthétiques d’un site Internet sur les variables attitudinales. Pour y parvenir, nous nous sommes appuyés sur la littérature évaluant l’esthétique dans différents domaines et nous l’avons enrichi d’une phase qualitative. Nous avons ainsi collecté 124 items esthétiques. Nous avons réduit ces items par l’intermédiaire d’analyses factorielles exploratoires puis confirmatoires. Au final, nous proposons une double échelle de la perception de l’esthétique d’un site web par le consommateur en six dimensions. D’une part, nous proposons une échelle en fonction de la perception conceptuelle du site. Les items se composent d’adjectifs permettant d’évaluer globalement le site. D’autre part, nous avons développé une échelle structurelle qui se compose d’items esthétiques détaillant la structure de la page. Ensuite, nous avons déterminé l’influence de l’esthétique sur les variables attitudinales. Nous avons pu déterminer le rôle prépondérant de l’harmonie, que ce soit d’un point de vue conceptuel ou structurel. Cette caractéristique esthétique a une influence sur toutes les variables attitudinales étudiées. Nous avons vu également l’influence assez faible de la simplicité, et enfin l’influence marginale du classicisme et de la pauvreté. Une belle page sera une page avec des couleurs harmonieuses, sans couleurs laides, avec du texte facile à lire, avec peu d’illustrations, avec des illustrations bien placées, des rubriques bien disposées. Au niveau managérial, l’échelle Websthetic est immédiatement exploitable par les entreprises. En effet, cette échelle permet de mesurer la perception esthétique d’une façon globale ou détaillée. Un score peut être calculé rapidement et permet de choisir entre différentes versions de sites.
... The effects of the platform economy and platform based businesses on the retail sector has received limited attention from academics. Recent research on retailing in the digital era has looked at topics such as consumer engagement and interactivity in online retail channels (e.g Dholakia & Zhao 2009;Vrechopoulos et al. 2010;Demangeot & Broderick 2016), consumer value (e.g. Poncin & Mimoun 2014), gamification (Insley & Nunan 2014), price promotions (e.g Breugelmans & Campo 2016), fraud (e.g. ...
Article
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Purpose Digitalization has transformed several industries during the past two decades. In this paper the authors focus on the retail sector, where new business models help retailers and suppliers meet the ever changing and demanding needs of retail shoppers. One example of this business model innovation is multi-sided digital platforms, which have become popular as they connect consumers with suppliers from around the world with a large ecosystem to support the retail platform. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how multi-sided digital platforms are transforming the retail exchange logic and assess the implications and impact of these platform-based businesses on the retail sector, especially for business managers and consumers. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the authors employ literature review, conceptual analysis and qualitative case study methodology. The authors provide an overview of how the platform economy is affecting the retail sector through the illustration of four digital multi-sided platforms: Alibaba Group, Amazon.com, eBay and Rakuten Group, and what differentiates them from incumbent business models in retailing. Findings The findings suggest that platforms transform the transaction logic of retailing as they simply intermediate transactions between buyers and suppliers rather than handling the entire supply and logistics chain themselves. The authors highlight the role of consumer understanding and Big Data as one example of how multi-sided digital platforms differentiate from their non-platform competitors. Practical implications The paper highlights how incumbent retailers can compete against new forms of business, such as digital platforms, and the authors demonstrate some of the managerial capabilities needed to remain relevant amidst this new digital competition. Originality/value Very little empirical studies in marketing and retail literature have focused on multi-sided digital platforms and their business models. The present study fills this gap with an overview of how multi-sided digital platforms transform the retail sector. Link: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/BJM-04-2017-0109
... lack of tactile feedback) can now be supported in-store due to physical product inspection. Therefore, who is in control of this hybrid retailing environment is now questionable (Vrechopoulos, 2010). ...
Article
The evolution of multichannel retailing in the form of omnichannel retailing (omniretailing), dramatically alters the retailing landscape. In parallel, physical web, a Bluetooth beacons approach to the internet of things (IoT) aims at revolutionising omniretailing, transforming it to physical web retailing. As a result, traditional store atmosphere is enhanced with online atmospheric cues, which create a multichannel environment that provokes several research questions and produces important managerial implications. The study proposes conceptual frameworks of the ‘omnichannel retailing store atmosphere (ORSA)’ and ‘physical web atmospherics’ based on the S-O-R model paradigm, in order to hypothesise that the presence of physical and web atmospheric cues in physical stores, which seamlessly integrate with each other (social-local-mobile settings), affects consumer’s behaviour in a synergistic manner. The validation of the dominance factor and the flow state in such environments could possibly indicate a shift to consumer’s perceived sense of control in traditional stores.
... Online retail environment is vibrant with its interactive product display [84,124]. Research establishes that product display leads to repatronage intention [128]; impulse buying [44], and since assortment satisfaction influences purchase intention [23,96], it can be construed that product display will influence assortment satisfaction. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence consumer's assortment satisfaction during online purchase of footwear. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 458 samples using stratified sampling, from online footwear shoppers. Residual analysis confirmed data normality. Structural equation modeling showed a significant impact of product display and price comparison upon assortment satisfaction. Further, a multi group analysis affirmed that the model remains invariant across the categorical variables gender, cohabitance and work status. Arguably this is the first paper which establishes a link between product display and price comparison upon assortment satisfaction during online footwear purchase.
... On the other hand, reasons that prevent dominance online (e.g., lack of tactile feedback) can now be supported in-store due to physical product inspection. Therefore, who is in control of this hybrid retailing environment is now questionable (Vrechopoulos, 2010). ...
... As the entertainment purpose is one of main drivers for consumers to visit retail websites (Vrechopoulos et al., 2009), the usage of 3D virtual models are likely to attract more consumers into retail websites. Previous research on 3D virtual model (Algharabat and Abu-ElSamen, 2013;Algharabat and Dennis, 2010a;Kim and Forsythe, 2009;Vrechopoulos, 2010) posit the positive relationship between using 3D product presentation and enhancing the entertainment value in online shopping. Thus, H3: Perceived enjoyment derived from navigating a 3D product has a positive impact on 3D quality. ...
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Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) is increasingly seen to be crucial to the success of online retailers. Surprisingly, however and despite the growing body of literature on e-CRM issues, little empirical research has been conducted on the link between three dimensional product presentation (3D) and e-CRM in the online retailing context. Therefore, this paper aims to address this gap by presenting and testing a conceptual model of the process by which the 3D website quality can enhance trust, site affective commitment and attitudinal loyalty. Findings reveal that 3D usability, 3D product presentation quality and 3D media richness positively impact 3D trust which affects site affective commitment which in turn impact attitudinal loyalty
... . Dentre os estudos elencados na revisão teórica destacam-se alguns resultados encontrados para esta agenda de pesquisa, como: i) a mudança do paradigma multicanal para o paradigma Ominichannel (Vrechopoulos, 2010;; ii) o impacto da integração de canais, preconizada pelo varejo Ominichannel (Emrich, Paul & Rudolph, 2015;Verhoef et al., 2015); iii) as tecnologias móveis podem engajar os consumidores no processo de multidimensionalidade do comportamento Cross Channel (Pookulangara et al, 2011;Yang et al. 2011); iv) os consumidores percebem benefícios em compras realizadas em multicanais e reagem com forte lealdade ao canal de sua preferência (Schramm-Klein et al. 2011); v) incipiência de métricas e instrumentos comportamentais para mensurar os benefícios percebidos pelo consumidor (Foxall, 2010aGerritsen et al., 2014Trenz, 2015); vi) o Comportamento "showrooming" como um potencial indício de canibalismo Cross Channel (Gong, Smith & Telang 2015;Rapp, et al.,2015;Zhang & Oh 2013); vii) os efeitos do M-commerce, aplicações móveis e novos formatos de varejo em relação ao comportamento free-riding cross-channel (Heitz-Spahn, 2013). ...
... The notion of control is central in online commerce (Song & Zinkhan, 2008;Vrechopoulos, 2010) and in particular in travel websites because of certain restrictive qualities (e.g., small interface, inability of the consumer to feel or touch the products, limited interaction with the personnel), which may constrain not only consumers' actual control over the environment but also their perceptions regarding the level of the control. At the same time, the nature of the online environment allows e-tailers to suspend some of the typical restrictions of the conventional store. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of the perceived online control effects on consumers' behavior in the travel industry. The article uses a laboratory experiment to investigate how perceived consumer navigational control affects consumer behavior. An online travel store of a fictitious company was developed as the experimental stimulus. The findings imply that perceived navigational control affects consumers' levels of pleasure and trust during the online navigation. In turn, pleasure and trust affect consumers' attitude toward the online store and satisfaction. Surprisingly, consumers' attitude is not directly affected by their perception of the level of navigational control over the travel website. Finally, gender moderates the relationship between the perceived navigational control and consumers' attitude toward the travel website. Managerial implications regarding the development of travel websites and research opportunities are discussed.
... As the entertainment purpose is one of main drivers for consumers to visit retail websites (Vrechopoulos et al., 2009), the usage of 3D virtual models are likely to attract more consumers into retail websites. Previous research on 3D virtual model (Algharabat and Abu-ElSamen, 2013;Algharabat and Dennis, 2010a;Kim and Forsythe, 2009;Vrechopoulos, 2010) posit the positive relationship between using 3D product presentation and enhancing the entertainment value in online shopping. Thus, H3: Perceived enjoyment derived from navigating a 3D product has a positive impact on 3D quality. ...
Article
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This study aims to explore the effects of perceived usefulness, perceived social presence and perceived enjoyment on three-dimensional product quality (3D-Q), which in turn impacts perceived risk and purchase intention. Particularly, this paper is implementing the 3D technology in the apparel industry. To test our model, we used My Virtual Model<sup align="right"> TM </sup> technology that presents an apparel online retailer. Participants were able to mix-and-match their clothing using this site. Moreover, participants have the ability to zoom in or out on the virtual model to see how the clothing fit on their bodies. Our results indicate strong support for the research model. We found that perceived usefulness, perceived social presence and perceived enjoyment have positive impact on 3D quality, which in return impacts perceived risk and purchase intention.
... The preferential control of consumers over the information accessible through decision aids reduces this self-selection effect, that is, personalization of information delivered to the consumers by the website rather than providing them with control. Perceived control influences consumers' affective and cognitive reaction towards the website and is expected to increase consumer stickiness (Vrechopoulos, 2010). Yet online retailers must be cognizant of providing decision aids on the web-interface as not all decision aids are equally employed by consumers in the two stages of choice formation. ...
Purpose Decision aids (DAs) in online retail stores ease consumers' information processing. However, online consumers do not use all decision aids in purchase decision-making. While the literature has documented the effects of individual decision aids or two decision aids at a time, no study has compared the efficacy of multiple decision aids simultaneously. Also, very few studies have looked at the use of decision aids for consumers with maximizing and satisficing tendencies. Hence, this study aims to understand the preferences of maximizers and satisficers towards online decision aids during the choice-making process. Design/methodology/approach This is an observational study with 60 individuals who were asked to purchase either a search-based or an experience-based product online. Participants' browsing actions and verbalizations during online shopping, were recorded and analysed using NVivo, and later the use of decision aids was mapped along their choice process. Findings Consumer's preference of decision aids varies across the two stages of the choice process (that is, consideration set formation and evaluation & choice). In their choice formation, maximizers use different decision aids in both stages, that is, filter tool and in-website search tool for search products, and collaborative filtering-based recommender systems and eWOM for experience products. Satisficers used more decision aids as compared to maximizers across the two stages for both product types. Originality/value This study is an exploratory attempt to understand how consumers use multiple decision aids present on e-commerce websites.
... As the entertainment purpose is one of main drivers for consumers to visit retail websites (Vrechopoulos et al., 2009), the usage of 3D virtual models are likely to attract more consumers into retail websites. Previous research on 3D virtual model (Algharabat and Abu-ElSamen, 2013;Algharabat and Dennis, 2010a;Kim and Forsythe, 2009;Vrechopoulos, 2010) posit the positive relationship between using 3D product presentation and enhancing the entertainment value in online shopping. Thus, H3: Perceived enjoyment derived from navigating a 3D product has a positive impact on 3D quality. ...
Article
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This research aims to investigate the impact of an authentic diagnostic 3D product presentation on trust, attitude and enjoyment which in return impact purchase intention. We believe that none of the previous studies linked 3D product presentation type with the online trust concept. Particularly, this article is implementing the 3D technology in the jewellery industries. In order to test our model, we designed a hypothetical retailer website which presents a variety of rings. The way we have designed our website allows users to see the presented product from different angles, rotate the product and custom design the colours of the diamond rings. Further, the designed web site allows participants to control the content and form of the 3D flashes. Our results reveal that using a well designed 3D enhances users‘ enjoyment, attitudes and trust which have positive impact on purchase intention.
... The advancement in technology and the use of artificial intelligence techniques (e.g., programmatic advertisement) is allowing online retailers to customise and manipulate the virtual environment in order to suit individual consumers' needs (Vrechopoulos 2010). In particular, mass-customisation is allowing brands to create targeted content to show products of interest on the customer's landing page. ...
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Retail layouts and atmospherics have been widely investigated within the physical retail environment, Research suggests that there is limited understanding of these elements in the virtual environment despite the fact that they would appear to be the easiest and most effective combination to implement by online fashion retailers. Considering potential applications in the fashion industry, a review of current literature on layout and atmospherics has identified the freeform layout as a valuable format for online fashion retailing. The freeform layout has been found to increase consumers’ hedonic motivations to purchase. Furthermore, design and visual cues have a significant influence on consumers, while aural cues despite being very important to the consumers’ experience appear to be underexploited in the online fashion space. This paper contributes a review of established retail elements, and identifies those that adapt well from the offline to online retail environment.
... This "social presence" leads to a "back to the basics" phenomenon (as it happens in physical stores) in the sense that one store (e.g. one layout) must serve more than one customer at the same time. Thus, limited personalization capabilities, as far as the customization of store atmosphere elements is concerned, are available to the retailer (see Krasonikolakis, Vrechopoulos, Pouloudi, and Dimitriadis, 2018;Foucart, Wan, and Wang, 2018;Vrechopoulos, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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While business and consumer practices radically evolved during the last decades (e.g. webrooming and showrooming phenomena in the context of omnichannel retailing today) and Digital Technologies continuously substitute and automate traditional Marketing processes and practices, there are still several critical tasks that should be implemented in the "old fashioned" way supported, obviously, by technology. Elaborating on the Kumar (2018) research call for new concepts in the evolving context of Transformative Marketing, this viewpoint paper introduces the term "Diachronic Retailing" as an evolution of Omnichannel Retailing focusing on the intelligent blending of traditional and innovative Marketing practices and corresponding human skills, knowledge and expertise (e.g. Personal Selling, Public Relations, Customer Service) with both "traditional" and innovative digital applications (e.g. E-Commerce, Social Media, Big Data, Business Analytics and Business Intelligence, Internet-of-Things, Augmented & Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence). The paper provides practical implications and directions for future research at the end.
Purpose – Online retailing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to its great potential and significant implications for buyers and sellers. This study adopts the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework to illustrate how store layout design and atmosphere influence consumers' shopping intention on the website. Design/methodology/approach – The sample for this study comprised 626 respondents from the internet users. A structural equation model was employed to identify the interrelationships of store layout design, atmosphere, emotional arousal, attitude toward the website, and purchase intention. Findings – The analytical results of this study indicate that store layout design has significant impacts on emotional arousal and attitude toward the website, and thus has a positive influence on purchase intention. In addition, atmosphere has a more influential effect on emotional arousal than store layout design. Originality/value – This study provides new insights into the influences of store layout design and atmosphere on consumer online shopping intentions.
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Based upon empirical research, and using a range of methods, this paper examines the behaviour and experiences of consumers in online bookselling settings and offers comparison between online and offline (traditional) bookselling. The research finds that while the convenience of online bookshops is important, the key factors enticing consumers online are a combination of breadth of range, ease of access to obscure titles, as well as ‘personalised’ recommendations and customer reviews. The research is of value to the book trade, highlighting consumer responses to widely adopted online marketing approaches. The research also contributes to scholarly knowledge in the fields of consumer behaviour, e-marketing and e-commerce in online bookselling, as well as providing findings which can be tested in other online settings, informing future theoretical research.
Purpose – This study seeks to examine the effects product presentation types on consumer's perceived risk reduction about apparel attributes (i.e. silhouette, colour, texture, and fit), and the effect of 3D virtual models' body shapes on consumer's perceived risk reduction about apparel fit. Internet shopping trust and consumer's actual body size have been considered as moderating variables, respectively. Design/methodology/approach – Three types of web sites were developed for the experiment. Participants were recruited by a survey firm, explored the web sites, and filled out online questionnaires. Findings – 3D virtual models significantly reduce perceived risk about the four apparel attributes more than 2D images. Especially, they are effective to reduce perceived risk about apparel fit when their bodies represent a consumer's actual body shape. Originality/value – This study verifies the informative role of 3D virtual models in apparel shopping. The implications related to the usage of the technology and the suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate consumers’ intention to use mass customization by incorporating preference fit and their ability to express preferences into the theory of planned behaviour and to examine how consumers perceive behavioural control over the process of online mass customization (OMC). Preference fit, which refers to fit between consumer preference and product attributes, and ability to express preferences were integrated into theory of planned behaviour as two belief variables related to OMC. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 346 potential respondents were invited via e-mail to participate in the present study acquired from an independent marketing company. We conducted a self-administrated online survey using a video clip with voice instructions to demonstrate the OMC process as a stimulus. Findings – The results suggest that consumers’ attitudes and perceived behavioural control predicted their OMC use intentions. Preference fit positively affected consumers’ attitudes towards OMC as a behavioural belief, and the ability to express preferences positively influenced preference fit but did not predict perceived behavioural control as a control belief. Clothing involvement was a positive predictor of preference fit and the ability to express preferences. Originality/value – This study contributes to the OMC literature by suggesting a theoretical framework by extending the theory of planned behaviour and identifying consumers’ belief variables as antecedents of attitudes and perceived behavioural control in the OMC context. In addition, the study examines the role of clothing involvement in facilitating consumers’ OMC beliefs, suggesting the crucial role of clothing involvement as one of individual factors extending theory of planned behaviour framework, in the OMC process.
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The rapid diffusion of more channels for shopping posits new challenges for retailers, who need to compete in a complex environment for avoiding the problem of consumer cross-channel free riding. To discourage this behaviour, we propose a new environment where one retailer simultaneously handles more channels. The emerging integrated environment would engage more consumers if compared to the single handled channel, which in turn would avoid switching behaviours towards competitors' channels. Our empirical research, based on the stimulus–organism–response paradigm, involves a sample of 237 consumers who were asked to explore the new retail settings simulated in a university lab. The results lead us to suggest the effective combination of multiple channels managed by one retailer as the new challenge for scholars and practitioners. We note that our participants showed positive emotional reactions towards the environment, which lead them to choose this environment for purchases.
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The purpose of this paper is to present the extended literature review on consumer experiences in online and offline shopping environment leading to identification of key dimensions of consumer experiences and providing an overview of current state of research in the identified areas. The paper begins with a brief introduction to the experience economy as a concept and to how consumer experiences are defined and understood. In the second part of the paper, theoretical and empirical research on models and measurement tools of consumer experiences in the shopping context is presented and discussed. The last section of the paper presents selected studies on consumer shopping experiences in online and offline retail context in each of previously defined dimensions.
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Aus Sicht der Konsumenten soll die Ladengestaltung – abhängig von den Einkaufszielen, die entweder eher auf nützlichkeits- oder auf erlebnisorientierten Motiven basieren können – zur Effizienzsteigerung des Einkaufens, zur subjektiv empfundenen Vorteilhaftigkeit des Einkaufs und/oder zum subjektiv erlebten Einkaufsspaß beitragen. Beim Versorgungseinkauf möchten Konsumenten in einer angemessenen Zeitspanne ohne lästiges Suchen in einer orientierungsfreundlichen Umgebung und mit genügend persönlichem Freiraum geplante Produktkäufe tätigen und auf besondere Preisaktionen aufmerksam gemacht werden. Beim Erlebniseinkauf erwartet der Kunde eine besondere Ladenatmosphäre, die Aktivierung, Vergnügen und Dominanz auslöst, zum Stöbern und Bummeln anregt, oftmals alle Sinne anspricht und dem Kunden einen von ihm angestrebten Lebensstil visualisiert.
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Aus Sicht der Konsumenten soll die Ladengestaltung – abhängig von den Einkaufszielen, die entweder eher auf nützlichkeits- oder auf erlebnisorientierten Motiven basieren können – zur Effizienzsteigerung des Einkaufens, zur subjektiv empfundenen Vorteilhaftigkeit des Einkaufs und/oder zum subjektiv erlebten Einkaufsspaß beitragen. Beim Versorgungseinkauf möchten Konsumenten in einer angemessenen Zeitspanne ohne lästiges Suchen in einer orientierungsfreundlichen Umgebung und mit genügend persönlichem Freiraum geplante Produktkäufe tätigen und auf besondere Preisaktionen aufmerksam gemacht werden. Beim Erlebniseinkauf erwartet der Kunde eine besondere Ladenatmosphäre, die Aktivierung, Vergnügen und Dominanz auslöst, zum Stöbern und Bummeln anregt, oftmals alle Sinne anspricht und dem Kunden einen von ihm angestrebten Lebensstil visualisiert.
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The way retailers sell and service customers is being revolutionized in recent years by the concept of the omnichannel. This concept revolves around an offer on multiple sales and service channels coordinated to provide a continuous experience, in contrast to offer multi-channel to attend customers but clients can't change from one to another in an immediate way. Currently in Mexico, there are few companies that have fully adopted this technologies that will allow a totally omnichannel purchase. This work aims to identify the factors that influence the behavior of consumers, who can adopt omnichannel technology during the purchase process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain behavior based on the variables used in two models of UTAUT2 analyzed simultaneously, creating a new model. The model was tested with a sample of Mexican Aeromexico’s customers who have purchased a ticket for a period of one year. The results indicate that the determinants of the intent to purchase in a context of omnicanal proposed in the new one are valid. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, generated by the use of this new model.
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The objective of this study is to examine factors that influence Indian consumer's assortment satisfaction towards the online purchase of footwear. A questionnaire was used to collect data using stratified sampling from different online shoppers. Structural equation modeling showed a significant impact of product display and price comparison on assortment satisfaction. Arguably, this is the first article which shows a linkage between product display and price comparison on assortment satisfaction for online footwear purchases. Further, a moderation of income and gender upon the two independent variables was studied using hierarchical regression method. Gender along with gender and income interaction with price comparison moderates assortment satisfaction.
Purpose E-commerce has become a key component of brand retail strategies since the advent of omni-channel distributions. Many researchers have investigated the strategic role of e-commerce, and some recent articles show the importance of exploring the impact of this distribution model on consumer behaviour. However, there is no study focusing on how visits to a website create expectations of the shop. Relying on the expectancy-value theory and the omni-channel literature, the purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by focusing on how the digital channel can create expectations for the physical channel. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on 24 semi-directive interviews with consumers, and all interviews included a browsing session on a real website. The methodology consists of both a thematic analysis of the interviews and a lexicographic analysis of the verbatim. Findings The findings reveal that direct online experience on a website will create beliefs about the physical stores of the same brand. These beliefs will, in turn, influence consumer attitudes towards the store. The study is the first to highlight such a link between channels and to explain in detail how this relationship arises. Originality/value The main contribution of this work includes showing the existence of a strong link between web-based and physical retail. From a managerial perspective, the study suggests that, from an omni-channel perspective, the design of the website impacts expectations towards the physical store in terms of its atmosphere, its location, its merchandising and even its level of crowding.
Purpose There is an increased interest in e-tailing research in the literature, along with the development of new technologies and e-tailing platforms based on consumer and industry perspective. The purpose of this paper is to examine the periodic changes within the content of e-tailing literature. Design/methodology/approach The data set of this study includes academic papers cited in the Web of Science, which was published between 2000 and 2017. In this context, a co-word analysis was conducted using SciMat software based on the keywords, including “online retailing,” “e-tailing,” “e-store,” “online store,” “e-tail” and “online retail,” found in the titles of published academic articles. Findings In this study, three different periods of the e-tailing study field were examined, major and emerging themes for each period were determined with a comparative bibliometric analysis. In this regard, consumer acceptance, choice and satisfaction were found as the major themes in the conceptualization of e-tailing research. Originality/value Understanding the transition from traditional marketing channels to online channels is an essential factor for retailers as well as consumers’ use and the acceptance of new technologies. This study contributes to the effective execution of the e-tailing systems.
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Nomenclatura Internacional de la UNESCO para los campos de Ciencia y Tecnología; CÓDIGOS: 530602, 530802, 531105, 531211. Este trabajo de investigación se centra en el estudio y análisis del comportamiento del consumidor y en como la experiencia del entorno / punto de venta, influye en sus decisiones de compra/consumo. Los antecedentes en los que se fundamenta proceden del área conocida como el “Shopper Marketing” , también el “Marketing Experiencial” e influencias más recientes del “Neuromarketing” Las cuestiones que se plantean en el mismo son relativas a los nuevos canales de compra virtuales que se han abierto al consumidor, y en concreto la vigencia y efectividad de elementos de estímulo a la compra que existen en el punto de venta físico (merchandising / ISD) cuando los trasladas a un canal de venta on-line. Se remarca en el estudio de investigación, que mientras que la experiencia de compra en un entorno físico siempre ocurre en un espacio tridimensional, sin embargo la práctica totalidad de los detallistas de comercio on-line (“e-tailers”) apuestan por una navegación 2D para sus tiendas en la web. El estudio de “mistery-shopper” planteado se centra en la categoría de productos “electrodomésticos” , que resulta de especial interés para este trabajo de investigación, dado que en una gran mayoría de los casos, los consumidores potenciales de electrodomésticos, prefieren utilizar los canales on-line como fuente de investigación para decidir sus comprar (Research On-line), pero finalmente realizar la compra/transacción en un punto de venta físico donde preferiblemente tengan en exposición el producto elegido previamente (Purchase Off-line). El papel de la denominada “webmosfera” y su impacto en la interactividad en un entorno virtual de gran realismo, se plantean en esta tesis doctoral, como una forma decisiva de mejorar la experiencia del consumidor virtual, gracias a la sensación de telepresencia que aportan estos elementos de merchandising virtual de presentación. Mediante un experimento controlado por ordenador se ha podido analizar y realizar estudios comparativos entre distintos formatos comerciales, incluyendo la experiencia de compra en entornos virtuales apoyada en técnicas de online mistery shopping entre otras. Tras la contrastación de las hipótesis inicialmente planteadas y su validación estadística mediante el sistema de regresión de los mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS) para probar el modelo de investigación se presenta el modelo resultante donde se muestran imultáneamente múltiples relaciones entre construcciones latentes. Sirva como referencia del campo del estudio el siguiente “keywording” de común aceptación en la literatura especializada: Online retailing/shopping; consumer/purchasing behavior; mental imagery/intangibility; Gamification; Virtual worlds; Arousal; store/retail atmosphere: webmosphere; consumer stimuli; ISD (In Store Displays); merchandising; familiarity; sensory marketing; experience marketing; omnichannel/multichannel marketing; Channel congruency; Patronage: Perceived Amount of information, Perceived Risk; Shopper marketing; Retail; Brand experience, Telepresence, e-commerce, virtual merchandising, neuromarketing,
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Purpose This paper aims to identify the dimensions of digital platforms' services quality and their impact on customers' purchase intent based on customer experience. Design/methodology/approach The research has a mixed method. Qualitative data is gathered by using of systematic literature review and Delphi method and quantitative data is gathered through survey of 412 experts from three well-known restaurant industry platforms. These restaurant digital platforms were Snapfood, Changal and Chelivery. Findings The results indicate the effect of platforms' service quality dimensions on customer hedonic and cognitive experiences. Also, the results indicate that the platforms' customers attach different priority to the various dimensions of platforms' services quality which are platform services' ease of use, platform information quality, services and products quality, platform customers interaction, platform design, platform response speed, platform services' trustiness, platform services' security and platform responsibility. Finally, the results showed that all of these dimensions have positive impact on customers' purchase intent based on their experiences. Originality/value The development of digital service platforms despite being new, has recently great progress, but, many dimensions of digital platforms' services quality have been not well-known yet. The present research has cleared the subject.
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework for studying the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour and a compilation of empirical studies from the time when research on web atmospherics emerged in the literature in 1999 until today. Design/methodology/approach – A desk research approach is followed in order to concentrate empirical research on the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour from top academic journals and conference proceedings through an interdisciplinary research approach (i.e. marketing and information systems literature). Findings – Extant research is concentrated and presented in a structured way. Online store atmosphere influences various aspects of consumer behaviour online. However, there are many open research issues on the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour. Originality/value – The present study develops a parsimonious conceptual framework for studying the effects of online store atmosphere, summarises the knowledge on online store atmosphere in a structured and systematic manner, and identifies gaps and opportunities for advancing established knowledge. No single comprehensive collection of empirical research progress on online store atmosphere exists. The paper constitutes a valuable reference of compact information and future research suggestions for both academics and practitioners.
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In expectation of the expanded use of full-motion commercials on the web to promote goods and services, this study examined the influence of webpage background on commercial effectiveness. More specifically, the research examined what type of background is most appropriate for positively affecting advertising effectiveness as measured by several common attitude measures: attitude-toward-the-ad, attitude-toward-the-brand, attention-to-the-commercial, and purchase intention. The findings of an experiment suggest that simpler webpage backgrounds are more effective than more complex ones. In addition, this research introduces the concept of attitude toward a website (A ws) and shows how it can play an important role in the advertising hierarchy-of-effects.
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Web sites are based on information and communication technologies that enable easy, rapid interactions between consumers and advertisers and thus represent more durable and common communication activity. In this context, the flow experience can provide a better explanation of consumer behavior in the context of Web sites as company communication activities. By adding the flow state to traditional advertising models, this study demonstrates the impact of flow state on Web site effectiveness. The results show that the flow state influences attitude toward the Web site, both directly and indirectly through Web site cognitions.
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Web users often face a long waiting time for downloading Web pages. Although various technologies and techniques have been implemented to alleviate the situation and to comfort the impatient users, little research has been done to assess what constitutes an acceptable and tolerable waiting time for Web users. This research reviews the literature on computer response time and users' waiting time for download of Web pages, and assesses Web users' tolerable waiting time in information retrieval. It addresses the following questions through an experimental study: What is the effect of feedback on users' tolerable waiting time? How long are users willing to wait for a Web page to be downloaded before abandoning it? The results from this study suggest that the presence of feedback prolongs Web users' tolerable waiting time and the tolerable waiting time for information retrieval is approximately 2 seconds.
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For companies to realize the benefits of recent innovations in customer interface technology, they need to understand the value consumers place on technology as part of the shopping process. A national survey of 2,120 online consumers was conducted to explore how people want to shop in both online and in-store environments and determine how interactive and conventional media work together to move consumers through the purchase process. The study investigated 128 different aspects of the shopping experience, from common elements to recent innovations. The results indicated that consumers are generally satisfied with the convenience, quality, selection, and value provided by retailers today. They are less satisfied with the level of service provided, the availability of product information, and the speed of the shopping process. The findings suggest that new technologies can enhance the shopping experience, but applications must be tailored to the unique requirements of consumer segments and product categories.
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Consumers shop online for both goal-oriented and experiential reasons. However, goal-oriented motives are more common among online shoppers than are experiential motives. This article identifies and discusses attributes that facilitate goal-oriented online shopping, including accessibility/convenience, selection, information availability, and lack of unwanted sociality from retail sales help or shopping partners such as spouses. Importantly, consumers report that shopping online results in a substantially increased sense of freedom and control as compared to offline shopping. While consumers are more likely to describe offline rather than online shopping in experiential terms, evidence of experiential motivations for online shopping is emerging. Also, while closing transactions at web sites is one important e-commerce goal, companies should not lose site of the continuing importance and power of their web site as an information and communications vehicle.
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Purpose – To examine some of the issues surrounding the integration of auditory features at online stores with reference to social and experiential implications of implementing auditory atmospherics, product presentation techniques and other features to the online context. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 70 online retail, manufacturer and representational web sites are surveyed recording and categorising their use of sound. Discussion is developed on projected directions for the use of sound online, adopting examples like product demonstrations to highlight conceptual and practical differences. Findings – Of the small number of web sites using sound, most are large corporations who employ audio features to enhance the display of products and within multimedia features. Sound is not used consistently for all products on offer or all parts of the store. Discussion centres on potential impact of auditory technologies for social and experiential aspects of shopping online and on how sound may better be used to overcome physical barriers between shoppers, products and the retail environment and to increase the potential for more fulfilling shopping and consuming experiences. Research limitations/implications – Research is needed to explore consumer perceptions of auditory features and their impact on experience. In particular, the effectiveness of using sound to enhance the presentation of product features online in a personally relevant way to shoppers should be examined. Practical implications – There is immense scope for improvement in the use of sound in online stores to present products and provide atmospherics. Retailers should treat the online store interface as a tangible point of interaction rather than inferior replication of bricks and mortar stores and focus on implementing features which encourage communication about products and increasing richness of the media employed to represent product attributes. Originality/value – There has been little research considering the role of sound in enhancing online shopping experiences, with most developments centring on visual aspects of the online store interface. This work provides a cross-disciplinary basis to guide initial developments in the integration of auditory features in online stores with regard to potential social and experiential implications for users.
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The importance of design as a composite in the strategic mix is often undervalued or ignored by retailers, yet it may present a significant competitive tool by which small/medium-sized retailers can compete more effectively. Considers the significance of design factors to customers in influencing their perception of and satisfaction with a retail chain, and how recognition of these factors might serve to address differences in perception between the company and its customers and communicate a holistic message to those customers. Concludes that the holistic nature of design and its informed status could serve to achieve a more coherent offer to the customer, which takes cognisance of customer feedback, the competitive environment and the skills and resources available to the organisation.
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This research investigates the influence on purchase decisions of the reference prices given by an Internet site providing comparison prices, which could be accessed by shoppers at the point of sale via a mobile device. We manipulated the reference prices given on the mobile device such that one group of shoppers was shown on-line prices that were slightly higher than those in the shop, another group was shown prices that were slightly lower, and a third group was shown prices that were clearly lower. The research reveals that consumers recognise differences in price. Furthermore, these differences influence their evaluation of the shop's price competence, their trust in the shop and their patronage of it. The findings have serious implications for retailers.
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This study empirically tests a model that proposes that the atmospheric cues of the online store influence shoppers' emotional and cognitive states, which then affect their shopping outcomes. The results support the model propositions and show a significant effect of site atmospherics on shopper attitudes, satisfaction, and various approach/avoidance behaviors as a result of the emotions experienced during the shopping episode. In addition, the findings confirm the hypothesized moderating effects of two individual traits, namely, involvement and atmospheric responsiveness. The results underscore the role that online store atmospherics play in creating positive reactions from shoppers and demonstrate that these positive reactions will be more pronounced under certain conditions. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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In this study, an Online Prepurchase Intentions Model is proposed and empirically tested in the context of search goods. The focus of this research is to determine whether intent to search the Internet for product information is a key element for marketing researchers to employ in predicting consumers’ Internet purchasing intentions. Data were collected through a mail survey to computer users who resided in 15 U.S. metropolitan areas. Two-stage structural equation modeling was employed to test hypotheses. The results show that intention to use the Internet to search for information was not only the strongest predictor of Internet purchase intention but also mediated relationships between purchasing intention and other predictors (i.e., attitude toward Internet shopping, perceived behavioral control, and previous Internet purchase experience). Direct and indirect relationships between two antecedents (attitude toward Internet shopping and previous Internet purchase experience) and Internet purchase intention were also found. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
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The use of internet as an interactive marketing media has captured much attention from managers in their quest for a better relationship with online customers. The belief that serving existing customers are more profitable than acquiring new ones, entailing relationship building effort no longer a choice, but a necessity. This study attempted to uncover the measures of E-CRM program and determining the extent to which these features influence consumer satisfaction and loyalty. The findings revealed that firms should focus on ten relationship marketing measures in order to build enduring consumer relationships. Further, this study provides evidence that the implementation of E-CRM on firm's web site does influence consumer satisfaction leading to loyalty. Finally, managerial implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
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This article explores the commercial website as a virtual landscape of consumption, and considers how six Canadian retailers are displaying this landscape to entice a rapidly growing community of surfers. The article argues that the virtual geographies of retail display are determined by the interplay between corporate philosophies and the specificities of the market sector. In turn, the resultant ‘experiential space’ of the web store can be thought of as being framed by two broadly opposed discourses, which propose divergent levels of technological complexity in the design of the web store. However, the tension between these discursive extremities is already beginning to stabilize around a customized strategy of display, which uses real-time information about consumer behaviour in the web store to realize an appropriate balance between simplicity and interactivity at the scale of the individual surfer.
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After a review of research on the use of store music, an experiment was conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. In-store interviews revealed a preference for foreground music but customers’ moods and unplanned purchases were not substantially enhanced by hearing foreground music. However, customers’ perceptions of their shopping time varied with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with time of day. These results suggest that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers’ preferences may not be the optimal approach but rather music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different-aged customers.
Article
The field of retailing has experienced significant changes in recent years. In this article, we review articles published in Journal of Retailing over the 2002–2007 time span, classified into ten broad topic categories: price, promotion, brand/product, service, loyalty, consumer behavior, channel, organizational, Internet, and other. Some areas have received a reasonable amount of attention; others would be worthy of additional work. We summarize a key insight from each article in the Appendix. Finally, we highlight some key insights for each area and some avenues for further research, in the hope that this review spurs additional research into these and other areas of importance to both academicians and retail practitioners.
Article
The consumer socialization (CS) perspective is applied to explore factors that influence a developing consumers’ use of different shopping channels—mall and Internet. The effects of channel involvement, access to funds, access to the channel, and socialization agent communication on adolescent shopping and intentions are examined using a high school student sample. Results indicate that involvement with a channel has a major influence on agent communication, time and money spent, and future intentions to shop in that channel. Agent communication was also found to influence shopping behaviors and intentions. Differences between channels are noted. Additional findings, implications, limitations, and future research directions are also presented.
Article
In this study, an Online Prepurchase Intentions Model is proposed and empirically tested in the context of search goods. The focus of this research is to determine whether intent to search the Internet for product information is a key element for marketing researchers to employ in predicting consumers’ Internet purchasing intentions. Data were collected through a mail survey to computer users who resided in 15 U.S. metropolitan areas. Two-stage structural equation modeling was employed to test hypotheses. The results show that intention to use the Internet to search for information was not only the strongest predictor of Internet purchase intention but also mediated relationships between purchasing intention and other predictors (i.e., attitude toward Internet shopping, perceived behavioral control, and previous Internet purchase experience). Direct and indirect relationships between two antecedents (attitude toward Internet shopping and previous Internet purchase experience) and Internet purchase intention were also found. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
To address the lack of systematic research on the nature and effectiveness of online retailing, a conceptual model is proposed which examines the potential influence of atmospheric qualities of a virtual store. The underlying premise is that, given the demonstrated impact of store environment on shopper behaviors and outcomes in a traditional retailing setting, such atmospheric cues are likely to play a role in the online shopping context. A Stimulus–Organism–Response (S–O–R) framework is used as the basis of the model which posits that atmospheric cues of the online store, through the intervening effects of affective and cognitive states, influence the outcomes of online retail shopping in terms of approach/avoidance behaviors. Two individual traits, involvement and atmospheric responsiveness, are hypothesized to moderate the relationship between atmospheric cues and shoppers' affective and cognitive reactions. Propositions are derived and the research implications of the model are presented.
Article
This review focuses on the research conducted over the years on the effects of facility-based environmental cues, or “atmospherics”, on buyer behavior. We review the pertinent literature by constructing a comprehensive table of the empirical studies in this area that focuses on the various findings associated with these investigations. This summary table indicates that atmospheric variables influence a wide variety of consumer evaluations and behaviors. In addition to discussing the findings and contributions of this literature stream, the article concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggesting potential future topics for atmospheric related research.
Article
Abstract In this conceptual paper, we propose that the next stage of evolution of mass customization is customerization– a buyer-centric company,strategy that combines mass customization with customized marketing. Spurred by the growth of Internet and related technologies, many leading companies (e.g., Dell) are beginning to deploy customerization on a large scale. In this paper we define customerization,and describe how it is different from the related strategies of mass customization, personalization,and one-to-one marketing. We also describe the opportunities and challenges companies,face in deploying a customerization strategy, and the potential benefits that they might realize. ,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,
Article
Building on the recent work in web atmospherics, the theoretical notions of psychological reactance and the flow experience, propositions and a model are developed, which provide a framework in which the navigational atmosphere of a web site can be examined. This paper specifically examines how and why consumers are influenced by restrictive navigation cues on the web. Essentially, the present author proposes that restrictive navigational cues act as barriers that threaten consumers' control over web navigation, which, in turn, arouses psychological reactance and leads to negative consequences for the web marketer. These negative consequences include increased levels of negative emotions, negative attitudes toward the web site and increased site avoidance behavior. The magnitude of the threat to control, consumers' expectation of control and the importance of web navigation are proposed to moderate this relationship. The reduction in navigational control associated with restrictive navigation cues is also posited to reduce the likelihood of the consumer flow experience, which, in turn, leads to negative attitudes and site avoidance behavior. Implications for web marketers and avenues for future research are discussed.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of successful customization of apparel in e-retailing and to provide managerial suggestions for strategic planning. Design/methodology/approach – Using an online survey, data are collected from 300 female adults in the US secured through a nationwide random sampling method. AMOS 7.0 and SPSS 15.0 are used to analyze the data. Findings – Customers recognize the benefits of online customization of apparel when they perceive the website to be useful and competent. Additionally, customers perceive customization websites to be more useful when the websites are secure for the information customers provide. Interestingly, the ease of operation of a website is negatively related to the perception of a competent website and does not influence a positive attitude toward the online customization of apparel. Practical implications – In order to give the impression of competent and useful websites, marketers need to develop secure websites. Ease of operation on the website may not always be an advantage for apparel customization; therefore, marketers need to find the optimal levels of ease of website operation to imply useful, yet competent, websites. Originality/value – This study identified the potential factors for successful customization of apparel in e-retailing and provided strategic implications to marketers.
Article
There are two main objectives of the paper. First, in a systematic and statistically rigorous manner, we attempt to descriptively document the types and nature of marketing information on commercial home-pages, with a view to identifying the major objectives of contemporary commercial Web sites that pre-dominate the Web. Using Resnik and Stern’s “information content” paradigm, we evaluate the informativeness of commercial home pages. Second, we attempt to empirically examine various important factors of commercial home-pages that lead to increased visits, or hit-rates. The identification of hit-rate determinants is likely to be of great value, both to Web page designers and to the many small and large firms seeking to establish their presence on the Web.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how sensory stimuli can influence environments, improve the shopper experience and change the nature of behaviour in ways beyond our consciousness. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews research gathered over several years and it considers how significant increases in sales can be achieved by attention to shopper “sightlines” and movement through each retail space; how neuro-imaging is starting to make sense of our reactions to products; how Virtual Reality can save money and how a well-designed study is a cost-effective means of ensuring environments are right for shoppers. The latest sensory approaches are also assessed together with thoughts to ponder for the next decade including a word of caution for all to ensure success does not come at the detriment of our planet. Findings – The current economic gloom need not spell financial disaster for the retail sector. Consumers will simply become more discerning as they spend their limited resources. The savvy retailer will invest in understanding shopper needs and motivations to create an enhanced shopping experience by moving beyond simple POP displays and signage, where “minor plus est”, through to shoppers' sense of sound, sight, smell and touch which will have a clear impact on decision-making, store choice and spend. Originality/value – This paper will be of interest to all operating in the retail sector.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify factors that may influence Chinese customers' online shopping satisfaction, including those which are ignored by prior studies, from the perspective of total online shopping experience. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the authors propose a model of the satisfaction process in the e-commerce environment, identifying key constructs proposed by prior studies and developing hypotheses about which dimensions of online retailer constructs are significant predictors of online shopper satisfaction. The authors test the hypotheses through multiple regression analysis based on a survey of 1,001 online customers. Findings – The analysis suggests that eight constructs – information quality, web site design, merchandise attributes, transaction capability, security/privacy, payment, delivery, and customer service – are strongly predictive of online shopping customer satisfaction, while the effect of response time is not significant. Research limitations/implications – This study does not control the differences across product categories; the use of self-reported scales to measure both independent and dependent variables may imply the possibility of a common method bias for the results. Originality/value – This research contributes to the study of online shopping customer satisfaction by: developing a model of the satisfaction process in the e-commerce environment, and identifying factors that may influence Chinese customers' online shopping satisfaction including those which are ignored by prior studies.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework for studying the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour and a compilation of empirical studies from the time when research on web atmospherics emerged in the literature in 1999 until today. Design/methodology/approach – A desk research approach is followed in order to concentrate empirical research on the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour from top academic journals and conference proceedings through an interdisciplinary research approach (i.e. marketing and information systems literature). Findings – Extant research is concentrated and presented in a structured way. Online store atmosphere influences various aspects of consumer behaviour online. However, there are many open research issues on the effects of online store atmosphere on consumer behaviour. Originality/value – The present study develops a parsimonious conceptual framework for studying the effects of online store atmosphere, summarises the knowledge on online store atmosphere in a structured and systematic manner, and identifies gaps and opportunities for advancing established knowledge. No single comprehensive collection of empirical research progress on online store atmosphere exists. The paper constitutes a valuable reference of compact information and future research suggestions for both academics and practitioners.
Article
An individual's attitude toward an object is a function of (a) beliefs about the object (i.e., the probability that the object is related to other objects, concepts, values, or goals), and (b) the evaluative aspect of these beliefs (i.e., attitude to related objects). The attitudes of 50 S's were predicted on the basis of 10 descriptive beliefs about Negroes. The correlation between predicted and obtained attitude scores was 0.801 (P < .001). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Identifies and measures relevant variables (e.g., color, heat, light, and sound) involved in environmental psychology and fits them into a systematic framework. It is proposed that environmental stimuli are linked to behavioral responses by the primary emotional responses of arousal, pleasure, and dominance. (31 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The popular and business press is enamored with the idea that the sense of smell can have strong effects on consumer responses to retail environments. The claims that odors have strong persuasive powers tantalize retailers looking for the competitive edge. Herein, we review the current paradigm of retailing-relevant olfaction research and find that "con-ventional wisdom" does not allow researchers or retailers to reliably predict olfaction effects. We suggest accessibility and availability theories as a way of explaining the current empirical research and as a method by which we can increase the reliability of capturing olfactory effects. We conclude by identifying fruitful areas of research in this interesting stimuli–that which we smell.
Article
Although the flow construct has been widely studied over the past decade in marketing and related fields, it has proven to be an elusive construct to measure and model. In this paper, we examine two of the most important themes in flow research in the last decade: the conceptualization and measurement of flow in online environments and the marketing outcomes of flow. In addition, while the unique characteristics of the Internet contributed to our belief that flow was an important construct for understanding consumer use of the Web in 1996, the environment of the Web itself has changed radically over the past decade. Thus, we consider the current context of the Internet, including virtual worlds, for the role and application of the flow construct, as well as important related constructs that will be useful for understanding compelling experiences in the contemporary online environment.
Article
The purpose of this research was to identify the atmospheric variables that contributed to satisfaction for internet consumers with different orientations toward shopping. Atmospheric categories that were proposed for studying internet environments included external and internal variables, layout and design, point-of-purchase, and customer services. Some consumers had a convenience orientation toward shopping on the internet, while others were apprehensive, apathetic, and highly involved in internet shopping. A segment of internet consumers also exhibited positive orientations toward store shopping. Results showed that some atmospheric variables influenced satisfaction for all consumers, regardless of their shopping orientation; however, some variables were contributors of satisfaction for specific shopping segments.