Article

Is Telework Effective for Organizations? A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Research on Perceptions of Telework and Organizational Outcomes

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Abstract

Purpose – Telework is an alternative work relationship with demonstrated positive benefits for individuals and society, yet it has not been implemented with enthusiasm by most organizations. This could be due to the lacking, consolidated evidence for management regarding whether or not telework is a good thing for the firm. The purpose of this paper is to integrate multidisciplinary literature that reports effects of telework on organizational outcomes with the aim of providing a clearer answer to the question: is telework effective for organizations? Design/methodology/approach – Meta‐analytical methods were used, beginning with an interdisciplinary search for effect sizes in eight databases. Limited to scholarly journals and dissertations, results included 991 articles scanned for inclusion criteria. The independent variable is telework, measured as a dichotomous variable. Dependent variables are outcomes of interest to organizations: productivity, retention, turnover intention, commitment, and performance. In total, 22 studies were double coded and meta‐analyzed using Hunter and Schmidt's approach, followed by five exploratory moderator analyses: level of analysis, level of the employee, response rate, proportion of females, and country of the study. Significant results are discussed. Findings – Review and meta analysis of 32 correlations from empirical studies find that there is a small but positive relationship between telework and organizational outcomes. Telework is perceived to increase productivity, secure retention, strengthen organizational commitment, and to improve performance within the organization. In other words, it is indeed beneficial for organizations. All five hypotheses are supported. H1 (productivity), rc=0.23 (k=5, n=620), (95% CI=0.13−0.33). H2 (retention), r=0.10 (k=6, n=1652), (95% CI=0.04−0.16). H3 (commitment), r=0.11 (k=8, n=3144), (95% CI=0.03−0.18); moderator analysis shows sample age is significant (F(1,4)=4.715, p<0.05, R2=0.80). H4 (performance), r=0.16 (k=10, n=2522). H5 (organizational outcomes), r=0.17 (k=19, n=5502), (95% CI=0.1−0.20). Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, this is the first meta‐analysis of telework research at the organizational level, providing a unique contribution to the field in filling the gap between research on effects to the individual and society. Additional contributions resulted from the moderator analyses: first, in finding that the relationship between telework and performance is moderated by whether or not the sample was one individual per firm, or many individuals from one; and second, in finding that the relationship between telework and organizational commitment is moderated by age. Thus, the paper provides unique contributions with both scholarly and practical implications.

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... Thus, how prepared teachers feel is essential for them to manage the e-learning process adequately. In the present study, the belief in unpreparedness is influenced by perceptions of pleasantness in the environment, well-being due to the flexibility of remote work and, productivity, factors that significantly influence home office (HARRISON, 2007;MARTIN;MACDONNELL, 2012). ...
... Thus, how prepared teachers feel is essential for them to manage the e-learning process adequately. In the present study, the belief in unpreparedness is influenced by perceptions of pleasantness in the environment, well-being due to the flexibility of remote work and, productivity, factors that significantly influence home office (HARRISON, 2007;MARTIN;MACDONNELL, 2012). ...
Article
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The purpose of this investigation was to analyze professional challenges faced by Brazilian teachers teaching remotely in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.The quantitative method was applied via Multiple Logistic Regression, using the 15.0 version of the Stata Software. The study was conducted with 258 education professionals working from home. A significant number of teachers described themselves as being unprepared to cope with remote teaching (26.8%). A greater percentage stated their enthusiasm for learning new technologies (70.2%), despite an increased workload (77.5%); still, 61.4% indicated that student absence had increased. The impact of the new working conditions on the participating teachers' performance revealed to be attenuated by such variables as educational level; pleasant work environment, including flexibility and well-being; tolerance to meetings and training sessions; perception of productivity; and professional identity. The results indicate that post-pandemic educational policies should foster participation as well as consider inequalities and issues of access to information and communications technologies, with attention to vulnerable groups of students and the necessary professional enhancement and appreciation of teachers. Resumo: O objetivo dessa investigação foi analisar desafios profissionais enfrentados por professores brasileiros com aulas remotas no contexto da pandemia do Covid 19. O método quantitativo utilizado foi a Regressão Logística Múltipla, utilizando o Software Stata versão 15.0. Foram estudados 258 profissionais da educação em home office. Entre os docentes, o despreparo para o enfrentamento das aulas remotas foi notório (26,8%) e o entusiasmo para aprender novas tecnologias (70,2%), mesmo em sobrecarga de trabalho (77,5%), mas 61,4% indicam que os alunos estão mais ausentes. Essa repercussão no trabalho foi atenuada por variáveis como grau de instrução, ambiente agradável para trabalhar, com flexibilidade e bem estar, tolerância a reuniões e treinamentos, percepção de produtividade e identidade profissional. Importa que as políticas educacionais pós pandemia sejam mais participativas e considerem o enfrentamento de desigualdades e o acesso às tecnologias da informação e comunicação com atenção a grupos de alunos em situação de vulnerabilidade e a necessária valorização profissional docente. Palavras-chave: Profissionais da Educação. Pandemia da Covid-19. Aulas Remotas. Equidade. Doutor em Administração, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) e Faculdade Adventista da Amazônia (FAAMA).
... Previous research about remote work has focused on how workers experience it [5,14,17,24,34], for example, saving time and money, building work-life balance and so on. One limitation of previous studies was the lack of prevalent data of workplace flexibility arrangements [22]. ...
... Even before the epidemic, researchers have examined the pros and cons of WFH [15,16,33]. On the one hand, WFH is a good way to solve work-family conflicting needs [17], save commuting time [20,29], improve productivity [7,24], increase time flexibility [32] and so on. On the other hand, WFH also has raised many issues and challenges, such as management challenges [14,32], shared identity [32], assessing teleworkers' performance [1], and impeded relationships 5 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-52103747 ...
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During the COVID-19 epidemic in China, millions of workers in tech companies had to start working from home (WFH). The change was sudden, unexpected and companies were not ready for it. Additionally, it was also the first time that WFH was experienced on such a large scale. We used the opportunity to describe the effect of WFH at scale for a sustained period of time. As the lockdown was easing, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 participants from China working in tech companies. While at first, WFH was reported as a pleasant experience with advantages, e.g. flexible schedule, more time with family, over time, this evolved into a rather negative experience where workers start working all day, every day and feel a higher workload despite the actual workload being reduced. We discuss these results and how they could apply for other extreme circumstances and to help improve WFH in general.
... Remote working has both advantages and disadvantages for employers and employees. While employees and employers are increasingly leveraging remote working to facilitate work flexibility, increase job autonomy, increase productivity, reduce business costs, reduce employee turnover intention, enhance work-life balance, improve job satisfaction, reduce commuting costs and increase work engagement (Stavrou and Kilaniotis, 2010;Ter Hoeven and Van Zoonen, 2015), employers' reluctance to facilitate remote working is due to some perceived adverse consequences thereof, such as limited communication; employee isolation; work intensification; disengagement; reduced dedication and commitment; and employers' loss of control over employees' work processes (Martin and MacDonnell, 2012;Bessa and Tomlinson, 2017). In addition, an unsupportive work culture; health and safety policies; and managerial concerns about trust and performance uncertainty also constrain the effectiveness of remote working (Lautsch et al., 2009;Kossek and Lautsch, 2018). ...
... Leadership of an organisation is crucial to the success of flexible working arrangements. In particular, the roles of employers in making decisions and in the implementation of remote working cannot be overlooked because there must be a mutual understanding between employers and employees in order to successfully implement remote working (Martin and MacDonnell, 2012). The pandemic forced many organisations to transition into remote working, affecting many workflow processes. ...
Article
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Purpose The urgent and unexpected transition to remote working during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for an increased focus on the contemporary workplace, especially for the post-COVID-19 era. While most studies undertaken during the pandemic have focused on the consequences of remote working, this study, using the UK as the research context, focuses on the factors that may facilitate the effectiveness of remote working in the post-COVID-19 era from the perspectives of employees and employers. Design/methodology/approach The study uses the interpretivist philosophical perspective to understand the study participants' subjective meanings and experiences. It utilises a qualitative approach, specifically data drawn from the semi-structured interviews of 31 participants. Findings The study highlights the factors that may facilitate the effectiveness of remote working in the post-COVID-19 era. Flexible working preferences, smart working practices, self-discipline, and leadership roles and expectations emerge as enablers of remote working among the participants. It is evident from the study’s findings that both employers and employees have expectations about remote working conditions. Originality/value Due to the changing work environment, where remote working is becoming more acceptable, this study focuses on a salient topic that examines how remote working may be facilitated effectively in the post-COVID-19 era. Thus, it makes predictions concerning the future of remote working post-COVID-19. It also emphasises that employers and employees have developed clear expectations about facilitating remote working and seek to meet these expectations by implementing various strategies.
... Harker Martin and MacDonnell (2012) find, following a meta-analysis, that teleworking is a factor that contributes to increasing productivity, maintaining employees, strengthening organizational commitment, and improving organizational performance [28]. Nakrošienė, Bučiūnienė, and Goštautaitė (2019) found that the most critical factors that impact the different results of teleworking are: reduced communication with colleagues, trust and assistance of the supervisor, adequacy of the home workplace, and the possibility to take care of family members when working in telework [29]. ...
... However, 24.88% of the participants in the study continued to work in the traditional system, physical work at work, as the work activities did not allow telework. Concerning the majority of employees (121) who worked exclusively in telework, results show that this process is widespread among employees in the field of education (31 respondents in this field had worked through telework), industry (28), finance (17), public administration (14), communications (13), trade (12), and tourism (6). For other fields of activity, work activity is performed either in a hybrid system or only through the physical presence of employees at work, as is the case of health, agriculture, and construction. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a mobilizing circumstance for rethinking the economic activities of companies, as well as reorganizing the way employees work. To comply with the regulations imposed worldwide, most economic activities were transferred to the online environment. The purpose of the paper is to carry out an investigation of the Romanian telework system implemented during the pandemic based on the perception of employees and employers. Our research was conducted based on an online opinion poll in which 438 respondents participated. The questionnaire included the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, methods and techniques for implementing telework among Romanian companies, and a correlation of the advantages and opportunities with the limits experienced both among companies and employees in carrying out this process. The results showed that 7.80% of companies wanted to maintain the conditions implemented for telework, 12.30% wanted to expand flexible practices to promote telework, and 27.60% would not make any changes in terms of telework methods. At the same time, 81.10% of employees preferred office work rather than teleworking. Successful implementation of the telework system involves efficient management that coordinates and motivates the performance of remote employees.
... Both empirical and meta-analysis studies have explored the role of job satisfaction as an antecedent of job performance (Edwards et al., 2008;Judge et al., 2001;Organ & Ryan, 1995). Scholars have highlighted that telework employees who feel more satisfied with their work are less likely to resign and show better quality of work and productivities (Bloom et al., 2015;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012;Tavares, 2017). On the other hand, poor working conditions, in which telework context covers unavailability of dedicated workspace, more work-home interferences, insufficient equipment, poor internet connection, ineffective communication, and social isolation (Ipsen et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2020;Wong et al., 2020), may create job dissatisfaction (Herzberg et al., 1959) that hinders effective work performance. ...
Article
This study investigates the socio‐demographic factors and work from home challenges associated with job satisfaction and work performance. Using a cross‐sectional survey design and convenience sampling, data from 482 Indonesian employees were gathered via a web‐based questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to assess job satisfaction and work performance differences across several socio‐demographic factors. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to identify the contribution of socio‐demographic factors and work from home challenges on job satisfaction and work performance. All work from home challenges, with the exception of social isolation, linked significantly to job satisfaction and work performance. However, no significant differences in job satisfaction and work performance were found across most socio‐demographic factors. Our final model suggests that, after controlling socio‐demographic and work from home challenges, the length of employment and job satisfaction were the most significant determinants of work performance. This study provides insights for organizations wishing to raise employees’ satisfaction, and maximize the benefits gained by addressing work from home challenges, by improving some of the less favorable work from home practices of the past.
... There is evidence on the literature which demonstrates this working dynamic emerged due to needs of a new generation of workers who seek flexibility and work-life balance (Schneider et al., 2021). According to Martin & MacDonnell (2012), the research scope goes from the impact of telework on society to influence of gender, besides considerations of possible increases on productivity, commitment, etc. ...
Conference Paper
The COVID-19 pandemic caused broad impacts around the world that affected not only the closing of business and educational institution due to the lockdowns and quarantines, to the job loss in several segments. In Brazil, the pandemic crisis started in mid-March 2020 and the government decreed quarantine and lockdowns to contain the virus from spreading. Such scenario was now posed as children at home, performing educational activities remotely while their family members were also home, teleworking, possibly causing conflicts denominated by the literature as the work-family conflict. Based on the literature concept of work-family conflict, the intensification of telework during the pandemic, lockdown, household chores, and childcare, it intends to understand how Brazilian women assess their new situation and whether there are benefits or it effectively increases the work-family conflict. It aims to comprehend Brazilian women’s point of view on their experience in teleworking during the pandemic and how it affects their family dynamic by assessing if teleworking in the pandemic establishes or reinforces the work-family conflict. The work-family conflict defends the roles of work and family domains and pressures are not compatible, what would result in difficulties when performing work activities in virtue of familiar (working) roles (Kahn, 1964). Such conflicts might intensify once families were under lockdowns and telework. Teleworking poses pros and cons, in which people divide themselves between being able to save time on commuting and spending more time home and the challenge of work and home responsibilities overlapping and causing lack of time, higher stress levels and intensification of the work-family conflict. A qualitative and quantitative approach was employed by applying a survey (online questionnaire) in June 2021, in which 108 women responded. The survey was structured with demographic questions to profile the respondents, followed by questions related to work-family conflict, workload, and the company’s reaction support to the telework. These questions have objective answers that allow us to perform a quantitative analysis by measuring the respondents by category, including a t-test to assess whether the work-family conflict difference is relevant to interviewees with/without children. It is possible to acknowledge females who were capable of enjoying their time by spending more quality time with their family, what could have been provided due to less time commuting to work and can also be corroborated by previous studies on the matter. Results also identified lack of contractual updates and financial support provided to the interviewees. Additionally, women with children and without children differ on their perceptions of work-family conflict, due to different experiences in workloads both home and work, besides experimenting higher levels of stress and working hours. It is possible to point females who were capable of enjoying their time by spending more quality time with their family, what can originate from less time commuting to work. Additionally, lack of support (either financially or equipment) was identified, we identified a majority absence of contractual update but, still, an increase of workload and activities outside working hours, which exercises pressure on women due to lack of time to perform tasks of home and childcare.
... As evidenced by a growing body of literature, flexibility of work in terms of time and space has long been regarded as a key factor in significantly increasing productivity (for example Eurofound, 2011Eurofound, , 2012Harker Martin and MacDonnell, 2012), while at the same time enabling individuals to better manage challenging work and life pressures (Van Dyne et al., 2007). Notwithstanding its potential, teleworking was rarely applied at either European or global level (Eurofound, 2010), with some exceptions. ...
... Trata-se de um resultado bem expressivo no que se refere ao grau de percepção positiva em relação ao teletrabalho por grande parte dos pesquisadores da Embrapa (487 participantes) que colaboraram com o presente estudo. Embora a percepção de produtividade seja uma autoavaliação que idealmente deve ser confrontada com as estatísticas de produção da empresa (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012), deve-se destacar que apenas 18% dos participantes da pesquisa acharam que sua produtividade laboral diminuiu durante o teletrabalho se comparado ao trabalho presencial (Figura 4B), enquanto que, 40% dos pesquisadores da Embrapa participantes do estudo afirmaram que a substituição do trabalho em regime presencial pelo teletrabalho aumentou sua efetividade e produtividade laboral. Outra parcela significativa dos participantes da pesquisa (42%) reportou que não houve ganhos e nem prejuízos na sua produtividade laboral no ano em que trabalharam em regime de teletrabalho. ...
Article
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The space-time flexibilization of work became common in private and public Brazilian companies after the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to analyze, through a survey questionnaire, the researchers' perceptions at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) about work, social, and labor productivity characteristics related to the teleworking adopted over the course of a year in the company. The target audience of the study included 487 scientific researchers (master, doctor and post-doc level) from the public company located in 32 cities, widely distributed throughout the Brazilian territory. The perceptions of the research participants were highly positive in relation to teleworking, with reflections on labor productivity enhancement and gains related to work autonomy and quality of life. Also, the future expectations about teleworking reveal the desire of a majority of the Embrapa researchers to maintain a flexible working arrangement, particularly based on a hybrid model.
... Although many studies focused on the positive effect of remote working, such as enhanced productivity and better work-life balance (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012), other studies found remote working to have negative outcomes, such as stress (Moore, 2006), anxiety (Allen et al., 2015), reduction in employee interactions, social connectedness, and creativity (Thorgeirsdottir & Kelliher, 2017). Anderson and Kelliher (2020) found that remote working in the new normal post-COVID-19 career space resulted in lower levels of psychological attachment. ...
Article
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Background: The new normal working context, characterised by fast changes, rapid upskilling, adoption of technology, and remote working, requires employees to remain psychologically attached to their organisations. More insight is needed regarding how career navigation (as an attribute of career agility) and career well-being attributes explain the psychological attachment of employees in order to invest in their career development amidst the chaos and demands driven by the new normal working context. Objective: The study explored career navigation and career well-being attributes (i.e. positive career effect, career networking/social support, and career meaningfulness) as potential explanatory mechanisms of individuals’ psychological attachment. Method: The study used a cross-sectional research design, which involved a convenience sample (n = 177) of national and international employees (mean age = 34 years; standard deviation [SD] = 10.14), represented by 39% managerial employees, 38% staff, and 23% professional consultants. Most of the participants (72%) were employed by South African organisations. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed that career navigation explains higher levels of psychological attachment (including affective, normative, and continuous attachment). Positive career effects significantly predicted continuous attachment, whereas social support/career networking positively predicted overall psychological attachment and affective and normative attachment. Career meaningfulness was found to explain higher levels of overall and affective psychological attachment. Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights into the construct of career navigation and career well-being attributes and extend research on the antecedents of psychological attachment in the new normal working space, characterised by remote working and technology.
... In the current article, we demonstrate how the COVID-19 pandemic shaped IPOs' understandings of occupational stressors and risk (and need). The imposition of telework improved some participants' productivity, which aligns with literature suggesting that remote work arrangements may contribute to increased employee productivity (e.g., Martin and MacDonnell 2012;Nakrošienė, Buči unienė, and Goštautaitė, 2019). Clearly, the removal of IPOs from the chaos of the prison environment increased IPOs' ability to focus on writing reports and applications when working at home; as such, their productivity, if measured by increases in written outputs, increased. ...
Article
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As the Canadian federal correctional system grappled with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, institutional parole officers, who play a central role in prisoners’ case management team, remained essential service providers. Working in uncertain circumstances, these correctional workers navigated new and rapidly changing protocols and risks, while attempting to continue to provide support to those on their caseloads. Based on semi-structured interviews with 96 institutional parole officers, conducted after Canada’s “first wave” of COVID-19 infections, we analyze three ways in which their work was impacted by the pandemic: shifting workloads, routines, and responsibilities; increased workloads due to decarceration (i.e., efforts to reduce the number of incarcerated individuals); and the navigation of new forms of risk and uncertainty. This study advances the understanding of stress and risk in probation and parole work and presents recommendations to ameliorate the occupational stresses experienced by correctional workers during and beyond COVID-19.
... En effet, le télétravail permet d'une part de diminuer les nuisances sonores, les interruptions et les distractions propres à l'environnement de travail « habituel » au sein des organisations et, d'autre part, d'accroitre la concentration, l'efficacité professionnelle, la qualité du travail, la performance et la productivité ( Le télétravail est également associé à un taux d'absentéisme, des niveaux d'intention de départ de l'entreprise et un taux de turnover moins élevés (Gajendra et Harrison 2007 ;Mello 2007 ;Martin et MacDonnell 2012). Il permet, de surcroit, de mieux faire face et de mieux réguler le stress professionnel, qu'il soit généré par de fortes exigences professionnelles (surcharge de travail, conflit de rôle) ou un environnement de travail délétère (Duxbury et ...
... In addition to these studies showing benefits of remote work for employees' objective productivity, some studies show that people report feeling more productive when they work remotely (Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Barrero et al., 2020;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012;Staples et al., 1999). For example, in a qualitative, quasi-experimental study of IBM employees, those employees who were arbitrarily assigned to switch to remote work reported higher levels of productivity than those who remained in office (Hill et al., 1998). ...
Article
Millions of employees across the globe, including a large proportion of knowledge workers, transitioned to remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic. As remote work continues to characterize work post-crisis, it is imperative to understand how employees adjust to remote work. The current research explores the extent to which knowledge workers hold a fixed mindset about remote work (e.g., that a person either is or is not suited to remote work and this cannot be changed) and tested how this mindset shaped well-being during coronavirus-related lockdown. In a longitudinal five-week study of 113 knowledge workers transitioning to remote work, we find that knowledge workers who endorsed a more fixed mindset about remote work experienced more negative and less positive emotion during remote work. The increased negative emotion prompted by fixed mindsets was associated with lesser perceived productivity among these knowledge workers in subsequent weeks. We conclude that understanding how fundamental beliefs (e.g., beliefs about the learnability of remote work) affect employee experiences can help create a brighter future as technology further enables remote work. Encouraging employees to view remote work as a skill that can be learned and developed could help people thrive in the new world of work.
... If mobile work addresses these motives, it increases work ability. In addition, work performance, commitment and employee loyalty can be positively influenced by mobile work (Harker Martin and MacDonnell 2012;Waltersbacher et al. 2019). Note though that these benefits are highly individual, which is probably one of the reasons that many surveys report positive as well as negative effects of mobile work on individuals (often in one person) (Mazmanian et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Objective This study examines the effect of mobile work on work ability as direct predictor and as factor moderating workplace stressors and resources. Originally, the study focused on the effects of mobile work on work ability in a mobile test group compared to office workers. As the study period of 1 year collided with the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown restrictions, we can now explore the association of mobile work and work ability before and during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This longitudinal, exploratory study took place in a medium-sized company in the social insurance sector in Germany. We used a mixed-methods design (online survey and focus group interviews) with two survey dates 1 year apart (T0: summer/autumn 2019 (before COVID-19 pandemic), T1: summer 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic, after first strict lockdown)). Quantitative data, which are reported here, were collected by means of an online questionnaire, which includes questions on mobile work and validated measures for work-related stressors and resources and work ability. Non-parametric tests, regression analysis, and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results The linked data set of both survey dates includes N = 102 persons (men: 37%, mean age: 41–50 years). Interestingly, we found an improvement in work ability over the course of the study ( p = 0.007), although it included the first and most drastic COVID-19 restrictions in Germany. Before the pandemic, correlations between work ability and work-related stressors (e.g., work–privacy conflicts) and resources (e.g., sense of community) were evident. Some of these factors are moderated by mobile work. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mobile work was identified as independent factor for work ability. In addition, technology competence conviction gained importance as a personal resource in our cohort. Conclusions Work ability can be influenced by many factors. Our study, which allowed for a comparison of work ability before and during COVID-19 pandemic, suggests that mobile work can be especially helpful to maintain work ability in times of change. Our findings support the notion that—under normal conditions—mobile work can influence work ability via work-related stressors and resources. In times of changes, it can have an independent effect on work ability. It must be assumed that the effects can be highly individual or context-specific.
... The accentuation of these practices in the short and medium term is being further reinforced by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has required accelerated expansion, on an unprecedented scale, of ICT-mediatised work "outside the walls" of companies. It has been identified in the literature that these new forms of remote work and their different characteristics alter the relationship between employees and the companies employing them [8]. Some studies report effects not only on the degree of organisational commitment felt by employees but also on recognition for their work [9]. ...
Article
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Several studies have emphasised the effects of perceived social approval in employees’ professional environment (colleagues and managers) on the implementation of remote and mediatised work practices and, more specifically, on their spatial, temporal and material characteristics. The use of information and communication technologies has been identified in the literature not only as affecting the levels felt by employees in terms of their relation to work (organisational commitment and recognition for work accomplished) but also in terms of work-life balance and health (stress and addictions). However, these studies are few in number when it comes to nomadic and informal work practices and rarely address perceived social approval in employees’ professional entourage. We used an empirical study based on a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that employees favour smartphone and laptop use. The effects of perceived social approval in their professional entourage differ according to the technologies used. These uses also have an impact on commitment and recognition, but their effects on employees’ perception of the effects of work life on “non-work” life and on addiction-related behaviours are more nuanced. These findings lead us to discuss the “right to disconnect” and the development of support and supervision schemes for nomadic, informal and mediatised work practices.
... One of the most common reasons WFH tends to be related to greater productivity is due to increased feelings of autonomy (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012). That is, workers are better able to tailor their schedule and decide when to WFH (or work from the office or coffee shop), which increases feelings of autonomy, and maximizes their levels of productivity (Delanoeije et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic forced workers to pivot to working from home (WFH), shifting from a dominantly offline to a dominantly online workplace, often conducting this shift to online work using video conference meetings. Although businesses tried to seamlessly continue business using video conferencing, research on how productivity has changed during the pandemic has been mixed. To better understand how productivity has been impacted during the pandemic, despite decades of research prior to the pandemic demonstrating the effectiveness of WFH, we conducted three quantitative and qualitative studies with workers from April 2020 to April 2021. Workers who reported video conferencing feeling like a forced interaction also reported dramatic levels of low subjective productivity through increased feelings of video conferencing anxiety (Studies 1–3). Qualitative reports of why workers felt forced to video conference identified feeling pressured by employers to use video and meetings being used as surveillance (Study 1b). However, some workers reported positive experiences while video conferencing, which was related to greater subjective productivity (Study 2). For workers who had video conference and face-to-face meetings, video conference meetings feeling like a forced interaction was still associated with lower subjective productivity through increased feelings of anxiety (even when controlling for face-to-face meetings feeling like a forced interaction; Study 3). Because WFH may last beyond COVID-19, organizations and managers should allow workers to use audio instead of video during meetings and refrain from using video conferencing meetings to surveil their employees to ensure workers are reporting that they are remaining productive.
... At that time, telework was used (Nasution & Rosanti, 2020). Gajendran and Harrison in Martin (2012) also define telework as a choice in work where every employee does not have to be at work but can do it anywhere using electronic media. ...
Article
Employee performance is often used as a benchmark for a company's success. Employee performance is particularly important in socio-economic crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, when habitual working conditions change and are limited. This study aims to examine the effect of work from home, work-life balance and job satisfaction on employee performance of employees. The number of respondents in this study was 141 respondents. All respondents were employees of PT X company who were selected by a simple random sampling method. This research uses a quantitative approach: the data for analyze the relationship between variables expressed by numbers or a numerical scale. Research data was obtained from the results of filling out the questionnaire. The questionnaire developed consisted of 37 statements: 11 statements for the employee performance variable, 7 statements for the work from home variable, 8 statements for the work-life balance variable, and 11 statements for the job satisfaction variable. The research data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with the help of the AMOS version 23 program. The results of this study show that work from home has a positive and significant effect on work-life balance, job satisfaction and employee performance. Work-life balance also positively and significantly impacts employee performance, while job satisfaction does not affect employee performance.
... The efficiency determinants of telecommuting are numerous and vary from context to context (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012), as well as being characterised in different ways. ...
Article
This research investigated the role of knowledge complexity and the individual, organisational, and technological determinants in telecommuting in an emerging economy. A sample of 452 Brazilian workers was surveyed, and PLS‐SEM was used for analysing the data. The results suggest that knowledge complexity matters, and its joint effect together with task interdependence has a negative impact on telecommuting performance. It was also found that technology‐based communication skills are more important for enhancing both telecommuting performance and satisfaction than the technology itself. Furthermore, it was found that telecommuting outcomes may be affected by demographic variables and the national culture. Identification of the antecedents of telecommuting in emerging countries helps managers to adapt their business models and work arrangements to achieve firm sustainability and respond to a complex socio‐economic landscape generated by the coronavirus crisis.
... Uzaktan çalışmanın performans üzerinde hem olumlu hem de olumsuz etkilerinin olduğunu gösteren çalışmalar mevcuttur (Elshaiekh, Hassan, Abdallah, 2018;Allen, Golden, Shockley, 2015;Martin, MacDonnell, 2012;Thorgeirsdottir, Kelliher, 2017). Bu çalışmamızda ise çağrı merkezlerinde çalışanların genelde kadın ve genç yaşta kişilerden oluştuğu göz önüne alındığında, uzaktan çalışma ile kişinin genel performansı algısı ve spesifik performans algısı arasında anlamlı ve olumlu yönde bir ilişkinin olması beklenmelidir. ...
Article
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COVID-19 salgını, tüm dünya ile birlikte ülkemizi de etkisi altına almış ve işletmelerin çalışma sistemlerinde köklü değişikliklere gidilmesine sebep olmuştur. Bazı işletmeler, çalışanlarının haftanın belirli günlerinde işyerinden, arta kalan günlerde ise evlerinden çalışmalarını isterken bazı işletmeler ise belli görevleri ifa eden çalışanlarının tümüyle evlerinden çalışmalarını istemişlerdir. Evden yapılan çalışmalarda doğrudan denetim olmaması, kişilerin özel hayatlarıyla çalışma hayatları arasındaki sınırın ortan kalkması, çalışanların ev ortamının rahatlığında ve güvenli bir alanda görevlerini yerine getiriyor olmaları, kendilerine vakit ayırabiliyor olmaları ve özellikle ev ve işyeri arasındaki ulaşım süresinin yaşanmıyor olması, evden çalışan kişilerin algıladıkları görev performanslarında, işyerinde çalışmak zorunda olan kişilere göre farklılık oluşturması gerektiği düşüncesiyle yapılan bu çalışma, çalışanlardan, COVID-19 öncesi işyerinde çalıştıkları sürede ve sonrasında evden çalıştıkları süredeki genel görev performansları ve yaptıkları işe yönelik spesifik görev performanslarını karşılaştırmaları istenmiştir. Araştırma hem sadece evden hem sadece işyerinden hem de hem evde hem de işyerinde görev yapmakta olan personeli olan bir çağrı merkezi firmasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Firmanın 260 kişiden oluşan tüm çağrı merkezi personelinin katılımıyla gerçekleştirilen çalışmada, elde edilen veriler SPSS programıyla istatistiki analizlere tabi tutulmuş, korelasyon tablosu ile ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. Sonrasında da tek yönlü ANOVA analizi ile gruplar arası farklılaşmaların varlığı incelenmiştir. Sonuçlar göstermektedir ki COVID-19 öncesi döneme kıyasla sadece evden çalışanlar veya haftanın belli günleri evden belli günleri işyerinden çalışanların genel görev performanslarına yönelik algıları, sadece işyerinden çalışanlara nazaran artmıştır. Bu çalışma, evden çalışmanın çalışanları olumlu yönde etkilediğini ortaya koymuştur. Ayrıca spesifik görev performansı kavramını literatüre kazandırmıştır.
... We included the control variables age, gender, and number of children, measured at time 1 because previous studies have shown that these factors can influence changes in remote workers' productivity and well-being 1 (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Harker Martin & MacDonnell, 2012;Kossek et al., 2006). ...
... In particular, the literature is spurred by the notion that telecommuting may provide individuals with the flexibility they need to address the demands of both work and family (Allen et al., 2015). Meta-analytic evidence has supported this notion and suggested the beneficial effects of telecommuting on work-related outcomes like organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, turnover intention, and role stress (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007;Harker Martin and MacDonnell, 2012;Allen et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This study explored (virtual) sickness presenteeism in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using qualitative data from 505 members of the German working population, it investigates how working from home, which rapidly increased because of the COVID-19 outbreak, is perceived with regard to the pandemic. The study explored how this development affects the decision to show absence or presence in case of illness. More than 1,300 responses to different open-end questions by presenteeists and non-presenteeists were analyzed. The findings suggest that many previously identified reasons for deciding for or against presenteeism are still applicable. However, noteworthy differences with regard to both telecommuting and the pandemic occurred. Virtual sickness presenteeism seems to be strongly encouraged by the possibility to adjust working conditions at home. Additionally, COVID-19 has affected the perceptions of health at work. The study contributes to a more in-depth understanding of (virtual) sickness presenteeism during a global pandemic. Six propositions for future research are developed, and the importance of context for the consequences of virtual sickness presenteeism is discussed.
... Most businesses struggle with maintaining team cohesion and addressing challenges for separated team members when working with remote teams. While remote work provides companies with agility, better scheduling, and lower staff turnover, it can also make it difficult for teams to communicate, collaborate, and interact, according to Harker and MacDonnell (2012). As a result of the introduction of 5G, even more work tasks can now be completed remotely. ...
Article
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Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role within a country’s economy considering that they provide a source of skills and innovation for entrepreneurship and their capacity for introducing, integrating and disseminating new technologies is incomparable. However, the world may be looking at an impending devastating recession delivered by the coronavirus pandemic. As governments intensify restrictions on business to halt the spread of the pandemic, the fear of the virus also reconfigures the very concept of business and the workplace. Therefore, there is a need for a greater focus on digital transformation considering that physical distancing requirements to curb the spread of this virus may become a cultural orientation for businesses and the workplace. A real digital transition is anticipated for small businesses with the 5G network technology. 5G network will not just be a technological connection but will affect different socio-economic sectors and will stimulate innovation in small companies. The goal of this paper was to carry out a literature review on the potential ways small businesses can leverage on 5G network for digital innovation. The paper proposed that small and medium businesses can leverage the 5G Mobile Technology through enhanced interpersonal communication, expanded remote work opportunities, innovative digital tools and supply chain efficiency. Finally, while many individuals and small business owners will profit from 5G technology some will work to undermine it. As a result, companies must keep this in mind when implementing 5G, or other new technology, and adjust their security protocols accordingly to remain secure.
... As many organizations and universities have undoubtedly learned during the COVID-19 pandemic, even if work gets done, the nature of social relationships and sense of organizational culture likely change when moving online (Prasad et al., 2020). Limited research shows that although teleworking is positively related to organizational commitment, the effects are small (Golden, 2006;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012). One significant challenge for existing online programs, new online programs, and (particularly) face-to-face programs that convert to online is how to create communication channels, a sense of support, social interactions, and rituals and routines that create a strong and positive culture. ...
Article
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As online graduate programs in psychology continue to proliferate, it is important to understand the research addressing the effectiveness of online graduate education so as to advise stakeholders in these programs: applicants, students, faculty, and institutions. In this article, we examine the effectiveness of online education in psychology at two levels of analysis. First, we examine empirical evidence at the course level: Do online, hybrid, and face-to-face instruction lead to different effects at the level of course outcomes? Second, we examine empirical evidence at the program level: Do online and face-to-face graduate programs provide different academic experiences for their respective students, and how does program type influence the employability of graduates? We supplement these discussions with results from a survey of faculty who converted graduate courses to online delivery methods during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring of 2020. Finally, we provide practical considerations for administrators, educators, students, and applicant stakeholders of online programs. We also offer suggestions for optimizing learning and development in online environments. Our intent is to stimulate discussion on building effective learning environments and continuing to educate optimally effective industrial-organizational psychologists, regardless of delivery modality.
... Prior to the pandemic, studies indicated that, with proper organizational support, employees working remotely can be equally, if not, more productive than when working in the office [44,52]. However, the rapid transition to working remotely and social distancing that occurred during the pandemic brought many challenges to office-based employees, including transitions to remote work without proper organizational support, inadequate home work stations, multiple family members trying to work remotely in the same space, having to care for children while working and the lack of social interaction with coworkers and friends [45,50,53,54]. ...
Article
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Abstract Sedentary behavior negatively impacts mental health, which can decrease employee productivity. Employee mental well-being and work performance may improve with sedentary reduction interventions, especially strategies that include environmental workplace modifications and behavior-changing strategies. However, such interventions have not been examined among employees working remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the Stand Up Kansas program, 95 sedentary university employees working from home were randomized into one of four intervention arms: height-adjustable desk provision (Desk Only), online sedentary behavior modification program (Program Only), Desk + Program, or Control. The outcomes were measured at a baseline (November 2020) and following the 12-week intervention (February 2021). Employees reported mood (positive and negative affect), stress, fatigue (duration, interference with activities and severity) and work performance (irritability, focus, work satisfaction, non-work satisfaction and productivity) were measured using established self-report instruments. The effect sizes, by comparing the Control arm to the Desk + Program arm, revealed large improvements in mood (positive affect, d = 1.106). Moderate improvements were also seen in fatigue (duration, d = −0.533, and interference with activities, d = −0.648) and several aspects of work performance (focus, d = 0.702, work satisfaction, d = 0.751, and productivity, d = 0.572). Moderate effect sizes were also seen for positive affect (d = 0.566) and fatigue severity (d = 0.577) among the Program Only arm, whereas no noteworthy effect sizes were observed among the Desk Only arm. Combining an online sedentary behavior modification program with height-adjustable desk provisions appeared to positively affect mental well-being and work performance among remote employees. Keywords: mental well-being; work performance; sedentary behavior; mood; energy
... This notion is particularly well established in the non-scientific discourse of practitioners and HR managers. Employees are said to profit from shorter to no commuting time (Ory and Mokhtarian 2005), show more organizational commitment (Chen and Fulmer 2018;Kelliher and Anderson 2010;Menezes and Kelliher 2017), and are more productive (Bloom et al. 2015;Harker Martin and MacDonnell 2012). However, recent studies also find negative effects on team performance when more co-workers WFH (van der Lippe and Lippényi 2020). ...
Thesis
Die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie ist eine der größten Herausforderungen und gleichzeitig Gelingensbedingung für Geschlechtergerechtigkeit auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und im familiären Bereich. Die vorliegende Dissertation verdeutlicht in drei empirischen Papieren die Relevanz von Sorgearbeit für die Arbeitsmarktpartizipation von Frauen und Männern, sowie die Rolle von Unternehmen für das Unterfangen, berufliche und familiäre Aufgaben zu vereinbaren. Im ersten Papier fragt diese Dissertation nach der Rolle von Haus- und Sorgearbeit sowie ihrer Verteilung im Paar für die Arbeitsmarktpartizipation von Frauen und Männern. Für die Analyse werden Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) der Jahre 2001-2017 herangezogen. Um sich bestmöglich einer kausalen Identifikation anzunähern, werden First- Difference Instrumentalvariablen-Regressionen (FD-IV) geschätzt. Das zweite Papier betrachtet die Gründe von Vätern gegen eine (längere) Elternzeitnahme. Anhand eines Mixed-Methods Forschungsdesigns wird untersucht, welche betrieblichen Determinanten eine (längere) Elternzeitnutzung erklären. Darüber hinaus wird analysiert, ob und in welchem Unternehmenskontext Männer und Frauen Karriereeinbußen nach Elternzeitnutzung erfahren. Die Datenbasis sind qualitative und quantitative Daten einer Zusatzbefragung zum AID:A II Survey. Das dritte Papier untersucht die Frage nach dem Zusammenhang von Homeoffice-Nutzung und Work-Family Conflicts. Konkret wird analysiert, ob es Unterschiede nach Unternehmenskultur gibt. Auf Grundlage des LPP-ADIAB werden Multilevel-Regressionen mit fixen Effekten für Berufe separat für Männer und Frauen geschätzt. Zusammengefasst belegt die Dissertation geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede in der Herausforderung, Erwerbstätigkeit und private Verpflichtungen in Einklang zu bringen. Darüber hinaus wird die Notwendigkeit von politischen Reformen und der Handlungsbedarf, aber auch die Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten von Unternehmen verdeutlicht.
... The meta-analyses of Gajendran and Harrison (2007) and Martin and MacDonnell (2012) found small positive associations between telework and positive organizational outcomes (e.g., productivity, retention, organizational commitment and performance). It thus appears that under the right circumstances (e.g., well-defined performance targets, availability of proper ICT to support virtual meetings and collaboration, a proper and undisturbed work location at home), the fear of reduced performance is mostly incorrect (Eurofound, 2017). ...
Chapter
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In the current economic environment, organizations are increasingly relying on technology, resulting in higher efficiency, reduced physical human effort, blurring boundaries between working life and private life, and more flexibility for both employers and employees. In this chapter we focus on the impact of three different technology-related changes in the workplace: (1) telework, (2) automation, and (3) algorithmic management. First, we discuss how telework has gained tremendous popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic and how it impacts performance, work-life balance, and social aspects of work. Second, we focus on the positive and negative sides of automation and digitalization: improvements of working and living conditions on the one hand and anxiety and stress among workers on the other. Third, we discuss how AI-based algorithms are used to direct, evaluate, and discipline workers and how workers respond to these forms of algorithm management. All in all, we provide organizations with suggestions and advice as to how they can successfully implement these new technologies in a human-friendly manner. In doing so, we hope that this chapter will stimulate interesting new avenues of research for understanding challenges and opportunities associated with technology in the workplace.
... Telework has been associated with some benefits such as flexible working, higher productivity, and autonomy (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007;Hill et al., 2010;Martin and MacDonnell, 2012). However, it has also been correlated with challenges such as social isolation and reduced job engagement (Sardeshmukh et al., 2012;Allen et al., 2015). ...
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New concerns have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic that greatly impact employees and many other aspects in organizations. We have highlighted the major organizational issues during COVID-19 and classified the relevant research findings based on 45 recent articles. Main themes identified include (1) work setting, (2) perceptions of COVID-19, (3) employee wellbeing, (4) organizational strategies, and (5) influences on career behaviors. Employees have faced challenges due to work conditions that have shifted from traditional commuting to telework. Employees have also become aware of the negative current situation, so their overall wellbeing has been threatened. In response, organizations have strived to promote positive psychological capital for employees as they attempt to cope with this crisis. Organizations have tried to maintain and manage both their employees and their business. People tended to adjust their career-related behaviors based on how they perceived their own wellbeing and organizational strategies.
... When we look at the link between teleworking and performance, based on research in the private sector, we see that some studies found no or at best a negligible association between teleworking and performance (e.g., Kossek et al., 2006;Wood & De Menezes, 2007). Others found a positive association between the two constructs (e.g., Eaton, 2003;Gajendran et al., 2015;Martin & MacDonnell, 2012), whereas there are also studies that indicate a negative association (De Menezes & Kelliher, 2011). Previous studies are thus inconclusive about the relationship between teleworking and performance (Kelliher & De Menezes, 2019). ...
Article
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Enhanced communication technologies increasingly allow us to work anytime and anywhere. Many organizations have moved from traditional offices to flexible workplaces in which employees are allowed to vary their work hours and work at different locations both outside and inside the office. So far, findings are inconclusive regarding the effects of teleworking and few studies have examined its use by employees. Our study, which addresses the pre-COVID-19 context, is based on COR theory and explores how employees working in a Dutch public sector organization ( N = 873) use teleworking and what the consequences of this are for individual perceived performance. With respect to teleworking, we focus on time spent working from home and time spent working elsewhere. To test hypotheses, we conducted SEM in AMOS using a two-step approach. Mediation analysis showed that the paths from teleworking to performance via autonomy and work-life balance satisfaction were significant for working from home.
... La litté rature associe couramment la pratique du té lé travail à une meilleure performance au travail (Martin & MacDonnell, 2012 ;Kim et al., 2021). Les employé s se percevraient plus performants en té lé travail puisqu'ils peuvent adapter leurs horaires de travail à leurs temps les plus productifs, ré duire les distractions occasionné es par les collè gues, ainsi que gagner du temps sur les trajets (Abord de Châtillon et al., 2020 ;Golden et al., 2008). ...
Article
Résumé L’objectif de cette étude est d’examiner comment le recours généralisé au télétravail durant la pandémie de la COVID-19 a pu créer un contexte de travail spécifique influençant la santé psychologique et la performance des employés. Les résultats des analyses menées sur un échantillon de 3771 télétravailleurs canadiens ont révélé que le travail à distance a engendré des demandes additionnelles telles que l’interdépendance des tâches et l’isolement professionnel. Ces demandes ont eu des effets négatifs sur la performance en télétravail en augmentant la fréquence du stress perçu. Toutefois, la présence de ressources telles que le soutien organisationnel semble jouer un rôle tampon en modérant l’effet direct de l’isolement professionnel sur la performance en télétravail.
... For instance, the literature suggests a new way to systematize the phenomenon: Harpaz (2002) distinguishes between advantages and disadvantages of remote working at the individual, organizational, and societal levels. Later studies that either offer a synthesis of the phenomenon (Martin and MacDonnell 2012) or explore it further (Tremblay and Thomsin 2012;Savić 2020) also conceptualize it in terms of benefits and disadvantages, although they include different constructs. It seems that conceptualizing remote working in terms of its advantages and disadvantages is a unifying, comprehensive way to define and operationalize it. ...
Article
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The changes that are constantly occurring in the labour sector have led organisations and companies to move towards digital transformation. This process was accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted to a massive recourse to the practice of remote working , which in this study is understood as the term for the way of performing work outside the usual workplace and with the support of ICT. Currently, there are no flexible scales in the literature that allow measuring the benefits and disadvantages of remote working with a single instrument. Thus, the distinction between the positive and negative consequences of working remotely, substantiated by a solid literature, provides a framework for a system-atical understanding of the issue. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate a scale on remote working benefits and disadvantages (RW-B&D scale). For this end, a preliminary Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with 304 participants, a tailored EFA with a sample of 301 workers and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with 677 workers were conducted. Participants were all Italian employees who worked remotely during the period of the COVID-19 health emergency. Data were collected between October 2020 and April 2021. The psychometric robustness of the model was assessed through bootstrap validation (5000 resamples), fit indices testing and measurement of factorial invariance. The statistical analyses demonstrated the bifactorial nature of the scale, supporting the research hypothesis. The model showed good fit indices, bootstrap validation reported statistically significant saturations, good reliability indices, and convergent and discriminant validity. Measurement invariance was tested for gender and organisational sector. The results suggested that the novel scale facilitates the quantitative measurement of the benefits and disadvantages associated with remote working in empirical terms. For this reason, it could be a streamlined and psychometrically valid instrument to identify the potential difficulties arising from remote working and, at the same time, the positive aspects that can be implemented to improve organisational well-being.
... Dessutom kan friare arbetsförhållanden bidra till att företag lyckas bättre med att behålla sin personal. Argumentet stöds av en forskningsöversikt där ett flertal studier jämförs, en så kallad meta-studie (Martin & MacDonnell 2012). Att minska personalomsättningen kan vara en faktor som bidrar positivt till företagets produktivitet, särskilt om upplärningstiden är lång. ...
Preprint
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I och med att Covid-19-pandemin tvingade många anställda att skifta arbetsplatsen från kontoret till hemmet, tycks stigmat kring distansarbete, och framför allt hemarbete, ha minskat. Med ett möjligt slut av pandemin i sikte är frågan hur (kontors-)arbetslivet kommer att se ut framöver: Vad behöver man tänka på när man som arbetsgivare och/eller HR person funderar kring om distans- och/eller hybridarbete ska bibehållas, utökas – eller avvecklas? För företag blir det nödvändigt att analysera och planera hur den nya post-Covid verksamheten ska utformas. Det är av vikt för företag att uppnå en ny status quo när framtidens arbetsplats planeras; målet behöver vara att hitta ett arbetssätt som är gynnsamt för både arbetsgivare och anställda, oavsett om det rör sig om kontors-, distans- eller hybridarbete. Denna rapport syftar till att redogöra för forskningsläget kring hem- och distansarbete för att ge de som planerar för framtiden ett beslutsstöd. Forskningssammanställningen gör inte anspråk på fullständighet då det i nuläget är för tidigt att dra slutsatser om världens förändring efter pandemin. Rapporten diskuterar flera relevanta aspekter och presenterar konkret tolv punkter som är av vikt för den som leder och fördelar arbetet, samt dess stödfunktioner, på ett företag.
Conference Paper
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Palavras-Chave: Teletrabalho; Trabalho Remoto; Qualidade de Vida no Teletrabalho; Administração Pública.
Article
Samenvatting Telewerken is het ‘werken op afstand’ van een bedrijfslocatie, kantoor of opdrachtgever, waarbij de telewerker wordt ondersteund door informatie- en communicatietechnologie (ICT). Vaak gebeurt dit vanuit huis: hiervoor wordt zowel de term ‘thuiswerken’ als ‘telethuiswerken’ gebruikt. In dit artikel worden de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen besproken in de periode vanaf ongeveer 1980 - toen telewerken in de praktijk werd geïntroduceerd - tot aan de coronacrisis begin 2020 - toen thuiswerken sterk werd aanbevolen door de overheid. Tele(thuis)werkers blijken een zeer heterogene verzameling te vormen van werknemers en zelfstandigen. Ten eerste zijn er grote onderlinge verschillen in de locaties waar of van waaruit ze werken. Ze werken thuis of op een eigen kantoor, onderweg naar klanten of opdrachtgevers, of in satellietkantoren, telewerkcentra en openbare ruimten. Bovendien is er sprake van variatie in de tijd die ze op de verschillende locaties doorbrengen. Ten derde zit er veel variatie in de aard en intensiteit van het ICT-gebruik. Van drie (hoofd)typen telewerkers worden in dit artikel de kenmerken en voor- en nadelen beschreven: telethuiswerkers, mobiele telewerkers en zelfstandig werkende telewerkers. Dit artikel sluit af met een discussie over de rol van autonomie bij telewerk, de relatie tussen telewerk en werkintensivering en de optimale intensiteit van telewerken.
Chapter
Unter dem Begriff „New Work“ werden vielfältige Szenarien einer zukunftsorientierten Arbeitswelt diskutiert. Hierzu zählen nicht zuletzt Bürowelten, die Agilität und Produktivität von Unternehmen steigern und die Arbeitgeberattraktivität bei Beschäftigten aller Generationen sichern sollen. Verbunden sind damit nicht nur strukturell-architektonische Neuerungen. New Work berührt wesentliche Fragen der Führung, der Zusammenarbeit sowie der Kommunikation und bedingt damit einen tiefgehenden unternehmenskulturellen Wandel in der Organisation. Ausgehend von der Analyse wesentlicher Trends bei der Gestaltung flexibler und attraktiver Arbeitswelten skizziert der Beitrag zentrale Elemente und Voraussetzungen innovativer Konzepte von Büroarbeit. Sodann wird aufgezeigt, wie der Übergang von tradierten Büro-Konfigurationen zu zukunftsfähigen Arbeitsumgebungen erfolgreich gelingen kann.
Article
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Peran Empowering Leadership Dalam Meningkatkan Produktivitas Karyawan Selama Work From Home. Kebijakan Work Fom Home (WFH) di masa pandemi belakangan ini menimbulkan banyak dilema bagi organisasi terkait keberhasilan kinerjanya atau tidak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara Work from home (WFH) dan Computer-mediated communication (CMC) dengan produktivitas yang didukung dengan pemberdayaan kepemimpinan sebagai mediasi. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 89 responden yang termasuk dalam kelompok pekerja milenial. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling dengan alat analisis SmartPLS 3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepemimpinan yang memberdayakan mampu memediasi hubungan antara WFH dan CMC dengan meningkatkan produktivitas pekerja milenial. Fleksibilitas yang ditawarkan oleh WFH dan kenyamanan CMC serta dukungan intens dari para pemimpin dapat meningkatkan produktivitas.
Article
Purpose This study focuses on work from home (WFH) issues faced by faculty members of higher education institutes in India during the coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aims to understand the impact of these issues on faculty productivity. The study also analyzes the moderating effect of information technology (IT) training on the relationship between work- from-home issues and faculty productivity. Design/methodology/approach This study is quantitative. Data were collected from 215 faculty members working in higher education institutes in India. Correlation and hierarchical regression analysis have been used to analyze the data. Findings The analysis revealed that online teaching, lack of technology acceptance, poor working environment and work–life conflict negatively impacts faculty productivity. Thus, IT training work as a moderator plays an important role in reducing the WFH issues mainly Online Teaching, Lack of Technology acceptance & Poor Working Enviornment by increasing faculty productivity. IT training work does not moderate the relationship between work–life conflict and faculty productivity. Research limitations/implications This research is limited to the higher education sector; the research limits the generalization of the higher education sector's finding to other sectors. Practical implications The findings would help policymakers and educational institutes to explore the use of digital technology to break boundaries of workplace and education institutes to disseminate knowledge to a global level. The findings also help to understand how the workplace is essential for the smooth functioning of tasks of the institute. Social implications The study will also help management, institute, organization, society and individuals to change their mindset that education can be imparted through online mode in a better way with the help of digital technology. Originality/value There is a scarcity of research work examining WFH issues in conducting mandatory online classes due to COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19's relation to faculty productivity in the higher education sector. This study contributes to the knowledge regarding the impact of COVID-19 on faculty productivity in the education sector.
Chapter
Covid-19 spreads very rapidly at the beginning of 2020 to a larger section of Europe, especially to Italy. To curb the rapid viral transmission, the Government ordered to close the offices and instruct the employees to work from their private places including home. This chapter aims to understand the changing use of technology in managing human resources in a specific organizational public context, to learn about the potential solutions adopted and eventual improvements for other organizations. The relevant elements on performance will be shown through one case study analysis, which will help us to understand if it will be possible to replicate some aspects in other organizations. The case study has adopted a qualitative approach (Yin, 2009). Specifically, the case study regards the Chamber of Commerce of Catanzaro (or CCIAA). The study aids in adding the Italian perspective to the world studies and helps in enriching the existing literature on employee and productivity in Covid-19 times especially in the context of remote working.
Conference Paper
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The Covid-19 pandemic caused major work disruptions and made remote working the only prevailing work arrangement for knowledge workers and organizations across the globe. The primary objective of this study is to identify the key drivers that impact the self-reported productivity and job motivation of remote working employees. The secondary objective is to identify the underlying factors that remote working employees perceive as important to increase the success of remote work. We adopt a mixed-methods approach through quantitative and qualitative research methods. Through the analysis of a self-administered questionnaire from 142 participants, we identified factors that impact the productivity and job motivation of remote workers and used these insights to create a conceptual framework. We then conducted Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to discover the factor structure of the large set of variables in our study. Based on our findings, an interactive application with three features was proposed. To validate the features and to gather feedback about the usability, we conducted focus group interviews using storyboards in phase two of the study. This paper helps in understanding the five factors that remote working employees perceive important to increase the success of remote working teams. Researchers predict that the post-pandemic work will be a hybrid mix of traditional in-office and remote work where the latter will be more prevalent. Consequently, the findings and factors determined in this research contribute to the knowledge of remote work and can benefit the HCI community for designing usable, meaningful products and services for remote and hybrid teams.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify specific management practices that promote the psychological health of remote workers in the context of the COVID‐19 crisis. A two‐round Delphi study was conducted among 28 teleworkers and 22 managers. A list of 60 specific management practices was presented and participants had to identify whether each one could be used in the current remote working context and, if so, how useful it was to promote psychological health at work. Results indicate that most specific management practices usually used in a face‐to‐face setting can also be used in a remote context (85%). Practices that show consideration, establishing work structure, and allowing flexibility were also identified as the most useful to promote remote workers' psychological health during the pandemic. This study contributes to the advancement of knowledge about specific management practices, remote working, and crisis management. It also suggests specific practices that managers can adopt to promote the psychological health of their employees during a period of crisis, even while managing from a distance. Cet article a pour objectif d'identifier les pratiques de gestion favorisant la santé psychologique des télétravailleurs durant la crise de la COVID‐19. Une étude Delphi a été réalisée auprès de télétravailleur·euses et de gestionnaires (n = 50). Parmi 60 pratiques de gestion, les participant·es devant identifier celles qui s'appliquent en travail à distance et leur utilité afin de promouvoir la santé psychologique au travail, le cas échéant. Les résultats révèlent que les pratiques de gestion orientées vers la considération, la structure de travail et la flexibilité seraient les plus utiles pour promouvoir la santé psychologique. Cette étude suggère les pratiques de gestion à instaurer par les gestionnaires afin de favoriser la santé psychologique au travail dans un contexte de gestion à distance.
Article
Digital and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and, consequently, remote working have increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, workers’ economic–financial perception of remote working conditions, such as digital technology and its implementation, has scarcely been researched. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the economic–financial impacts of remote working on labourers. Using a mixed-methods sequential exploratory design, a sample of 976 workers is investigated. This study highlights that the majority of workers experience a negative economic–financial impact due to the additional costs incurred for digital technology and platforms and for utilities as well as the non-payment of overtime and meal vouchers, which are higher than the savings in commuting costs and out-of-pocket expenses. Furthermore, this research emphasizes that psychological–behavioural variables, specifically job satisfaction and technostress, are essential in the choice to continue working remotely after the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, our results have important theoretical implications related to the existing literature both on the managerial issues connected to digital transformation, with interdisciplinary elements linked to psychological aspects, and on corporate finance topics associated to the economic–financial impacts of remote working.
Conference Paper
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In the worldwide, there has been many inevitable outbreaks in various periods of history that are classified as epidemics and pandemics. It is suggested that these outbreaks lead to the emergence of various social, psychological and economic problems and also death of hundreds of people. Therefore, it is seen that several strategies have been developed and tried to be implemented at the stage of solving the emerging problems. COVID-19 is considered as one of the significant outbreak ever seen in the worldwide which deeply affected work and social life of individuals. In this context, it is aimed to examine the effects of the COVID-19 outbreaks on work life and to present the strategies of employees to cope with the outbreak period within the scope of the research. For the purpose of this research, semi-structure interview method has been used for data collection from 29 employees in private and public sector. All interviews were analyzed using with MAXQDA 2020 software and themes, categories, codes, sub-codes were formed by this program. In addition, inductive content analysis was used for the analyzing of the data. Consequently, as a result of the analyses the positive and negative effect and coping strategies with COVID-19 were examined under the main and subthemes.
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Various forms of quarantine and social restrictions to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted lifestyle. WFH has emerged as a growing trend in this new normal era. The implementation of WFH results in all work-related activities becoming home-centred. This study aims to analyse the pheasant and find out the effect of household appliance use on energy consumption during the implementation of WFH. The questionnaire survey was conducted in April 2020 and it collected 215 responses from residents of Indonesia, during the pandemic which was distributed online. The data were analysed using a multiple regression analysis with SPSS to determine the relationship between variables. The results showed that the length of WFH time affected an increase of energy consumption especially from the use of home computer, internet, rice cooker, AC, and water needs. In addition, the increase that happened also depends on the population living and the size of the building they live in. If this continues, it could lead to the risk of an energy crisis. Strategies related to proper distribution and energy demand are needed to build resilience and form a sustainable society.
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Work from home or teleworking, continues to expand not least due to the COVID-19-crisis and poses challenges for employees and companies. In uncertain and dynamic times, organisations wonder what skills make employees successful when working from home and which measures support employees. By performing in-depth research that addresses employee agility as skills and capabilities, a research framework is proposed. Based on an international survey of employees working from home during the COVID-19-crisis (N = 1,016), the impact of agile work characteristics on work from home success and the mediating effect (accounting for 48% of the total effect) of tailored support measures by HRM were investigated. The results of the mediation analysis show that agile work characteristics have a direct, positive and significant effect on the success of working from home. Part of the effect is explained by HRM measures as a mediator. The findings contribute to the research stream of dynamic capabilities by applying the theory to working from home. The comparatively simple research model provides companies with information on how they can best support employees in the dynamics of a crisis and the expansion of work from home and, therefore, has high relevance for practitioners.
Preprint
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The forced remote working relationships experienced during the COVID-19 pandemics made employers and employees more aware of the productivity gains arising from the digital revolution. To investigate the characteristics of such gains, we model firms' production allowing companies to choose among three types of (face-to-face in presence, remote synchronous, and remote asynchronous) employees relationships. The introduction of remote interactions allows us to outline five features affecting workers productivity such as i) mobility reduction, ii) frequency of interactions, iii) optimal time/place, iv) work-life balance, and v) relationship decay effects. We calculate the optimal share of the three types of relationships that maximise corporate profits conditional to reasonable parametric assumptions on the five effects under perfect and asymmetric information. We as well assess the potential productivity growth of companies that use only face-to-face interactions when allowing also remote interactions. We finally discuss existing private business contracts that introduced hybrid combinations of in-person and remote work activities for their employees, that are aligned with our theoretical findings and call for new industrial and environmental policies at national and supranational level.
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Purpose This paper aims to create a better understanding of the challenges posed by work from home (WFH) during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, to investigate the public sentiment toward this transition, and to develop a conceptual model incorporating the relationships among the factors that influence the effectiveness of WFH. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses netnography method to collect data from the Twitter platform and uses Python programming language, Natural Language Processing techniques and IBM SPSS 26 to conduct sentiment analysis and directed content analysis on the data. The findings are combined with an extensive review of the remote work literature to develop a conceptual model. Findings Results show the majority of tweets about WFH during the pandemic are positive and objective with technology and cyber security as the most repeated topics in the tweets. New challenges to WFH during pandemic include future uncertainty, health concerns, home workspaces, self-isolation, lack of recreational activities and support mechanisms. In addition, exhaustion and technostress mediate the relationship between the antecedents and outcomes of WFH during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the fear of pandemic and coping strategies moderates these relationships. Originality/value This paper is one of the first efforts to comprehensively investigate the challenges of WFH during a crisis and to extend the remote work literature by developing a conceptual model incorporating the moderating effects of fear of pandemic and coping strategies. Moreover, it is the first paper to investigate the tweeting behavior of different user types on Twitter who shared posts about WFH during the ongoing pandemic.
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This study investigates the impacts of the Broadband Initiatives Program (BIP), established by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in 2009, on growth in broadband adoption and use of home telework. We find robust positive impacts across multiple econometric models and methods using census tract-level data in first differences. Across models and methods, the estimated average impact of BIP is in the range of 1.1–3.0 percentage point increase in the share of households adopting broadband and 0.2 to 0.4 percentage point increase in the share of workers using home telework. The estimated impacts of BIP represent roughly one-fourth to two-thirds of the average increase in broadband adoption and one-third to two-thirds of the average increase in home telework in the study tracts during the study period. The impacts of BIP vary across geographic contexts. Broadband and home telework adoption are also affected by prior levels of broadband availability, adoption, and telework, and by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population and the industrial structure of the economy.
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Employees increasingly claim they do not have enough time to manage the demands of both work and family/life. Workplace flexibility policies have been offered as a key solution to managing these conflicting demands. Yet, employers remain resistant to develop, implement, and endorse these policies. We suggest one avenue to further our understanding is a more holistic look at the connection between availability and use of flexibility, and the workplace context. We specifically examine flexplace. The data derive from 25 in-depth interviews of employees in professional and supervisory positions in the U.S. automotive industry. By examining the variation of flexplace policy availability, we unpack the logics of employee use/non-use of flexplace. We argue that different assumptions of the ideal worker norm undergird flexplace availability, which in turn create different rules of engagement and use. This study offers an analytical model to extend our theorizing on the availability/use gap. Examination of ideal worker norms allows insight into how employees struggle to decipher signals on permissible flexplace use. The findings capture dynamic and interrelated relationships to uncover the constraints of policies and the power of the workplace context.
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This paper assesses disabled employees’ likelihood of working from home relative to non‐disabled employees, and the implications of doing so for their experiences of work. Analysing British nationally representative data, the findings suggest that disabled employees are less likely to work from home than non‐disabled employees, given they are disproportionately excluded from the higher‐paying and/or managerial roles in which working from home is more widely available. In addition, organizations in which working from home is more commonplace do not employ a higher proportion of disabled people. The results also confirm disabled employees report poorer experiences of work than non‐disabled employees regarding job control, job‐related mental health, job satisfaction and work–life balance. Although working from home is positively associated with these outcomes (except for work–life balance) for both disabled and non‐disabled employees, there is very little evidence it is associated with smaller disability gaps in these outcomes. Therefore, our analysis questions the potential for working from home to reduce disability disadvantage within organizations, and highlights the need for more substantial action to address the barriers to employment that disabled people encounter.
Book
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate. Notably, work-related factors like managers' willingness are most predictive of which employees will telework. Employees' motivations for teleworking are also unclear, as commonly perceived reasons such as commute reduction and family obligations do not appear instrumental. On the firms' side, managers' reluctance, forged by concerns about cost and control and bolstered by little perceived need, inhibits the creation of telework programmes. As for outcomes, little clear evidence exists that telework increases job satisfaction and productivity, as it is often asserted to do. We suggest three steps for future research may provide richer insights: consider group and organizational level impacts to understand who telework affects, reconsider why people telework, and emphasize theory-building and links to existing organizational theories. We conclude with lessons learned from the telework literature that may be relevant to research on new work forms and workplaces. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Millions of employees now use portable electronic tools to do their jobs from a “virtual office” with extensive flexibility in the timing and location of work. However, little scholarly research exists about the effects of this burgeoning work form. This study of IBM employees explored influences of the virtual office on aspects of work and work/life balance as reported by virtual office teleworkers (n = 157) and an equivalent group of traditional office workers (n= 89). Qualitative analyses revealed the perception of greater productivity, higher morale, increased flexibility and longer work hours due to telework, as well as an equivocal influence on work/life balance and a negative influence on teamwork. Using a quasi-experimental design, quantitative multivariate analyses supported the qualitative findings related to productivity, flexibility and work/life balance. However, multivariate analyses failed to support the qualitative findings for morale, teamwork and work hours. This study highlights the need for a multi-method approach, including both qualitative and quantitative elements, when studying telework.
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We examine professionals’ use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work–family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences flexibility (perceived control over where, when, and how one works, boundary management strategies regarding separation between work and family roles). Survey and interview data were collected from 245 professionals in two Fortune 500 firms with telework policies. Employees who perceived greater psychological job control had significantly lower turnover intentions, family–work conflict, and depression. Boundary management strategies higher on integration were positively related to family–work conflict. Although we found a main effect for formal policy use and higher depression, an interaction existed where women users with children had lower depression. Formal use positively related to supervisor performance ratings. Future research should distinguish between descriptive use and psychological experiences of flexibility.
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While technology enables home-based telecommuting HBT, it also has been blamed for its slow growth. Thus, technology may both facilitate and hinder HBT. In order to clarify the role that technology currently plays when employees telecommute, this study investigated the relationship between different forms of organizational support classified as technology-related, somewhat technology-related, and nontechnological and employees' reactions to HBT. Dependent variables included satisfaction, Perceived Productivity, and number of days/weeks spent telecommuting. Respondents were 50 full-time employees from 20 organizations. Two technology-related support variables and manager's trust a nontechnological support had a broad impact on employees' reactions to HBT. So, technology plays a crucial role and, thus, could be a major factor in HBT's slow growth, but HBT is better understood within a multi-factor rather than a single-factor framework. Results also indicate that organizations should emphasize providing IT support and appropriate technology for telecommuters as well as HBT-related training for nontelecommuting coworkers and managers.
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One of the most problematic issues in contemporary meta-analysis is the estimation and interpretation of moderating effects. Monte Carlo analyses are developed in this article that compare bivariate correlations, ordinary least squares and weighted least squares (WLS) multiple regression, and hierarchical subgroup (HS) analysis for assessing the influence of continuous moderators under conditions of multicollinearity and skewed distribution of study sample sizes (heteroscedasticity). The results show that only WLS is largely unaffected by multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity, whereas the other techniques are substantially weakened. Of note, HS, one of the most popular methods, typically provides the most inaccurate results, whereas WLS, one of the least popular methods, typically provides the most accurate results.
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Managing salespeople you rarely see is no easy task. Here's how to turn a far-flung sales force into a cohesive-and disciplined-team.
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Working from home offers potential advantages as well as disadvantages to employers, employees and the self-employed alike. Although no consistent time series exist, data from various sources suggest that the number of Canadians doing some or, in a few cases, all of their regular work at home has been increasing over the past three decades. That growth, however, has been matched by similar proportionate increases in the employment of non-home-based workers, leaving the share of home-based work relatively unchanged. For operational reasons, the practice is most common among social science and educational workers, and least common among manufacturing, construction, accommodation and food service, and health workers. Innovations in information technology in the past decade or two appear to have affected home-based workers more strongly. Use of the computer, e-mail, Internet and telephone for work purposes is much higher among home-based workers than among those who work only outside the home. Also, a larger percentage of home-based workers (employees and self-employed alike) felt their work had become more interesting as a result of computers. The future of home-based work, especially for employees, rests on many factors. From the employr's side, these include issues related to co-ordination and communication with employees, concerns about the security of confidential information, and problems and costs of providing computer technical support at home. From the employee's side, the appeal of a home-based work arrangement is that it is not static and can change according to personal and family demands. For the self-employed, zoning laws will continue to play an important role.
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Teleworking is a developing, practice in an increasing trend towards more flexible forms of work. This study investigates the attitudes of employees who have no experience of teleworking and their willingness to opt for it. The 74 participants, from four United Kingdom and three Hong Kong matched small companies in the high technology industry, represent a 54 per cent response rate. The results were surprisingly similar (in means, but not in standard deviations) and showed that both groups, even though coming from different cultures, tend to have similar diversified distribution of tendency to opt for teleworking, with the Hong Kong people more coherent in their answers. Both populations were willing, to a certain extent, to opt for teleworking given a chance, and preferred to practise it on part-time schemes. However, the reasons for the inclinations comprise different sets of antecedents for both populations.
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This study examines the impact of alternative telework strategies on professional and personal outcomes. The research design is a longitudinal between‐participants field experiment with two manipulated factors: satellite office space available (no, yes) and downtown office space available (no, yes). In all four conditions, participants could telework from home. The design incorporated a fifth (control) condition with no telework, reflecting current company policy. One hundred sixty medical coders from a large health care company participated in the experiment. Archival data recorded work locations, task interruptions, quality adjusted task performance, and employee retention, while the experience sampling method (ESM) captured cognitive and affective responses. The findings help to explain the social dynamics of work location autonomy in the rich ecological settings of employees' organizational and personal environments.
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Active experimentation with telecommuting in both the United States and Japan is among the most extensive in the world. However, policy, social, and cultural distinctions result in some important differences in the way telecommuting is adopted by each country. This paper presents a comparison of the policy, social, and cultural contexts for telecommuting in Japan and the United States. An overview of various types of telecommuting and remote office arrangements is provided, illustrating the diversity of Japanese experimentation with the remote-work concept. Reasons for interest in telecommuting are compared, including commute stress, urban growth management, air quality and energy concerns, employee recruitment and retention, savings on office-space costs, and disaster response. Cultural barriers to the adoption of telecommuting in Japan are discussed, including the lack of formal job definition, the preference for face-to-face communication, the importance of the group, limitations of home-based telecommuting, and others. Operational issues potentially supporting or inhibiting the adoption of telecommuting are also described, including technology, marketing, and training. Keywords: telecommuting, teleworking, comparative studies (U.S. / Japan).
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contribution of human resource (HR) commitment practices to firm performance through the adoption of workplace practices that require the organisational climate created by HR commitment practices. Design/methodology/approach – The approach is a survey of 156 Spanish firms and statistical test of research hypotheses through structural equation modelling. Findings – The results indicate that the extent that employees have access to HR commitment practices and HR social benefits is positively related to the intensity of telework adoption. Firm performance is positively associated to the intensity of telework adoption, functional flexibility and internal numerical flexibility, and negatively related to external numerical flexibility. HR commitment practices impact directly and indirectly on different measures of firm performance. Research limitations/implications – Cross-sectional, survey-based data that cannot infer causality. Longitudinal and qualitative designs are needed to get a better understanding of the relationships. A follow-up study of employees perception of several variables analysed in this study (e.g. access to HR commitment practices and employee benefits) could reveal possible contradictions between what policies managers claim there exist, and what policies employees perceive to exist. Practical implications – The adoption of HR commitment practices can facilitate the organisational change required by the adoption of telework. Originality/value – The findings provide evidence that HR commitment practices are indirectly related to firm performance through their effects on the use of flexibility practices like telework that require organisational climates containing high levels of trust.
Article
Accurate forecasts of the adoption and impacts of telecommuting depend on an understanding of what motivates individuals to adopt telecommuting, since those motivations will offer insight into who is likely to telecommute under what circumstances. Motivations for telecommuting are likely to differ by various segments of society. In this study, we analyze gender and occupation differences in the percep- tions of telecommuting for 583 employees of the City of San Diego. Numerous differences are identi- fied. Most broadly, women on average rated the advantages of telecommuting more highly than men— both overall and within each occupation group. Women were more likely than men to cite family, personal benefits, and stress reduction as advantages of telecommuting, and more likely to see the lack of visibility to management as a disadvantage. Clerical workers were more likely than managers or professionals to see the family, personal, and office stress-reduction benefits of telecommuting as im- portant, whereas managers and professionals were more likely to cite getting more work done as the most important advantage of telecommuting. Reduced social interaction appeared to be of about equal concern to both clerical and professional/technical workers, and reduced professional interaction was of greatest concern to managers and professionals. Professionals were more likely than the other two job types to see the lack of visibility to management and the need for discipline as disadvantages.
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Contrary to expectation, the strong growth in telework during the 1990s was not sustained in the 2000s. Indeed, the number of employees doing some or all of their regularly scheduled work at home stalled at 1.3 to 1.4 million. The overall incidence remained unchanged at about 10%. The reasons for the stall, which was widespread, are unclear. It could have been partly caused by employees and employers re-evaluating the advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of this type of work arrangement. In addition, continuing developments in information and telecommunications technology now permit many employees to work effectively from many places other than home.
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Telework is a rapidly emerging reality in the workplace. This study explores the influence of mobile telework on family life as reported by teleworkers in a large national corporation (n = 157). In addition, this group is compared to an equivalent group of office workers (n = 89) from the same corporation. Mobile teleworkers reported much greater work flexibility. Some reported that their families thrived because of this flexibility. Others reported that their families struggled because workplace and schedule flexibility blurred the boundaries between work and family life. Suggestions are given for how family life educators might help mobile teleworkers ease the transition from traditional work to the virtual office.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between teleworking adoption, workplace flexibility, and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach – Empirical survey of a representative sample of 479 small- and medium-sized firms. Data gathered through interviews with company managers using a structured questionnaire. A t-test used to analyse the mean differences of flexibility dimensions between companies, and a regression analysis used to study the impact of teleworking and other flexible workplace practices on firm performance. Findings – Firm performance is positively related to the use of teleworking, flexitime, contingent work and spatial decentralisation. Teleworking firms use more flexitime, have more employees involved in job design and planning, are more intensively managed by results, and use more variable compensation. The relationship of teleworking and external workplace flexibility is not so conclusive. Measures of external flexibility like subcontracting or contingent work are not associated with teleworking but spatial decentralisation is positively associated. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this research is the measurement of flexibility at the firm level and the use of cross-sectional data. To the extent that organisations may obtain functional and numerical flexibility by means of their relations to other organisations in networks, the most appropriate unit of analysis may be the network which it has implications for future longitudinal studies. Practical implications – Flexibility is a source of competitive advantage. Enhancing flexibility may be costly in the short run, but it gets easier over time. Firms become more flexible because their managers emphasise the importance of flexibility and because they practice being flexible. A self-reinforcing process then begins. The relationships between the different forms of flexibility are important to understand the interaction between the dynamic control capacity of management and the responsiveness of the organisation. Originality/value – The article analyses the relationship between teleworking adoption and other flexibility dimensions.
Article
A review of 30 meta-analyses that have been conducted in organizational behavior and human resource management using procedures described by J. E. Hunter et al (1982) suggests that there is confusion regarding the use and interpretation of confidence intervals and credibility intervals. This confusion can lead to conflicting conclusions about the relationships between variables. The most frequent mistake has been the attempt to address the accuracy of the estimate of the mean effect size using "confidence intervals" based on the corrected standard deviation instead of on the standard error of the mean r or d. The corrected standard deviation should be used to generate a "credibility interval" to assess the extent to which moderators might account for the unexplained variance in effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The results of a survey of 156 Spanish firms indicate that HR development practices are positively associated to the intensity of telework adoption and they moderate the relationship between telework and firm performance. The positive moderator effect of HR development practices indicates that their implementation is necessary not only to facilitate telework adoption but also to enhance the otherwise marginal contribution of telework at organisational level. © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation
Article
This study explored personality and motivational traits related to teleworker performance and satisfaction, including sociability, need for achievement and autonomy, diligence and organisation. Situational factors were also compared between teleworkers and non-teleworkers, such as number of children, job autonomy and job complexity. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Article
Popular images of teleworkers' autonomy, such as 'the electronic cottage', give unrealistic pictures of the control exercised over teleworkers, particularly when these are call centre operators and highly integrated information and communication technology systems facilitate pervasive forms of control. However, this study of Italian home-located call centre operators demonstrates that extensive and multifaceted monitoring practices cannot 'solve' the controversial issue of control. © 2006 The Authors; Journal compilation
Article
This study explores how teleworking is perceived by employees and highlights its possible benefits and pitfalls. Interviews with sixty-two teleworkers in five UK organisations provide a comprehensive view on this mode of work. In particular the study examines teleworking impact on effectiveness, quality of working life, and family life.
Article
While telecommuting has received considerable attention in recent years, most of the discussion is descriptive and the empirical investigations have been limited. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selected variables on telecommuting productivity and satisfaction. Respondents (N=97) were from eleven different public and private organizations. Five research propositions were examined. Among the findings, telecommuter satisfaction with the performance evaluation system was significantly correlated with both telecommuting productivity and satisfaction. Technical and emotional support received from the telecommuting supervisor was significantly correlated with telecommuting satisfaction, and the negataive correlation between family disruptions and telecommuting satisfaction was also statistically significant. A significant negative correlation between the ratio of telecommuting hours to total work hours and telecommuting productivity was revealed. Interestingly, child care issues and most demographic and occupational characteristics were not significantly correlated with either telecommuting productivity or satisfaction. A detailed discussion of the implications of the results is provided.
Article
This paper presents an analysis of telecommunications and travel costs for typical business meetings. It is contribution to the debate on the substitutability of telecommunications for travel. An underlying assumption which supports the substitution hypothesis is that the cost of traversing distance through the use of telecommunication is lower than the cost of travelling. This paper addresses the relative cost of telecommunications and travel in conducting interactions. Three factors are assumed to determine these costs: distance, duration of interaction and number of participants. The analysis assumes that cost alone affects choice, and ignores other communication qualities. The relationship between telecommunication and travel costs was tested quantitatively through a case study of typical business meetings in the U.S., based on data from 1988. The results show that travel costs are lower than telecommunication costs for shorter distances, and that the relationship between telecommunications and travel costs differs substantially as a function of number of participants and meeting duration. Because of ongoing rapid changes in the costs of both of these interaction modes, the complex competition between them will continue. The implications of the findings for location decisions and policy-making are discussed.
Article
Despite the tremendous growth of telework and other forms of virtual work, little is known about its impact on organizational commitment and turnover intentions, nor the mechanisms through which telework operates. Drawing upon the conservation of resources model as the theoretical framework, I posit telework’s impact is the result of resource stockpiling and flexibility as teleworkers are able to yield work and personal benefits and protect themselves from resource depletion in the office. Using a sample of 393 professional-level teleworkers in one organization, I therefore investigate the intervening role of work exhaustion in determining commitment and turnover intentions. Results indicate that telework is positively related to commitment and negatively related to turnover intentions, such that a higher degree of teleworking is associated with more commitment to the organization and weakened turnover intentions. Moreover, work exhaustion is found to mediate the relationships between teleworking and both commitment and turnover intentions.
Article
Millions use electronic tools to do their jobs away from the traditional office. Some labor in a “virtual office” with flexibility to work wherever it makes sense and others telecommute primarily from home. This IBM study compares how three work venues (traditional office, n=4316, virtual office, n=767, and home office, n=441) may influence aspects of work (job performance, job motivation, job retention, workload success, and career opportunity) and personal/family life (work/life balance and personal/family success). Perceptions, direct comparisons, and multivariate analyses suggest that the influence of the virtual office is mostly positive on aspects of work but somewhat negative on aspects of personal/family life. The influence of the home office appears to be mostly positive and the influence of traditional office mostly negative on aspects of both work and personal/life. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
This article uses a well-researched deterministic model from the attitude literature to empirically examine how attitudes that decision makers within the Canadian federal public sector hold towards various work arrangements relate to behaviors (use of the work arrangements), intended behaviors (proposed adoption of the work arrangements), and personal preference. Attitude formation and decision making with respect to both organizational and employee quality of work life issues are considered. The results indicate that decision makers in the public sector consider organizational issues to be more important than employee issues with respect to the selection of alternative work arrangements. They also strongly support the underlying theoretical model initially proposed. Manager's intentions to implement work arrangements in the future can be predicted by their current attitudes towards these work arrangements. Results from this analysis should prove useful to organizations planning to implement alternative work arrangements.
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This article develops the first resource-based analysis of telework impacts on large organizations. We adopt an ‘integrative’ approach that goes beyond the immediate and easily quantifiable effects of telework adoption. This approach takes into account both top-down considerations (managerial preoccupations with strengthening the organization’s competences) and bottom-up demands (employee needs). We identify several telework impacts on a variety of resource-domains, including effects on the strategic development and operational functioning of the human capital resource-base, the organization’s broader productive efficiency, the external linkages of the organization, and finally, a number of externalities. We observe that the teleworkers themselves do not experience the negative effects on job satisfaction observed in earlier research, with the exception of a reduction in professional interaction. Broader human resource management practices appear to have adjusted well to the specific requirements of telework adoption.We also observe a strong divergence between the views of adopters and non-adopters, with the latter having less positive expectations across the board, as compared to the former. We thus demonstrate that broader strategic considerations, beyond immediate impacts on the bottom-line, do influence the choice to adopt this practice. The difference in employee perceptions between adopters and non-adopters suggests that the latter lack confidence in their firm’s broader HRM practices to adapt appropriately to the requirements of effective telework implementation.
Article
Today's telecommuting workforce encompasses all categories of workers including managers, professionals and other knowledge workers. While organizations have the choice of mandating telecommuting or offering it as an option, individuals also have the choice of participating or not when telecommuting is optional. This research investigated whether individual factors, such as age, skills, identification with organization, or job category influenced these individuals' decisions to telecommute or not. A survey of telecommuters and non-telecommuters was conducted in two large work groups working for a high technology organization. Job category and gender showed a significant difference between telecommuters and non-telecommuters. Age, years with organization, and computer skills did not show significant differences. Reasons provided by respondents for opting not to telecommute are discussed. In addition, a comparison of perceived productivity, performance, sense of personal control, and satisfaction between telecommuters and non-telecommuters was performed. Differences were found between telecommuters and non-telecommuters in their ratings of personal control and productivity. The paper concludes with suggestions for practitioners and recommendations for future research.
Article
Diversity in the conceptualization and measurement of organizational commitment has made it difficult to interpret the results of an accumulating body of research. In this article, we go beyond the existing distinction between attitudinal and behavioral commitment and argue that commitment, as a psychological state, has at least three separable components reflecting (a) a desire (affective commitment), (b) a need (continuance commitment), and (c) an obligation (normative commitment) to maintain employment in an organization. Each component is considered to develop as a function of different antecedents and to have different implications for on-the-job behavior. The aim of this reconceptualization is to aid in the synthesis of existing research and to serve as a framework for future research.
Article
A survey of the attitudes of female computer professionals in Singapore towards telecommuting was carried out. Seventy-three percent of the 459 respondents were in favour of telecommuting. Most would prefer to work at home 1 to 3 days a week and at the office on the other days, rather than working at home full time. They would telecommute only in times of need (e.g. when they have young children) and were concerned with work and interaction-related problems which might arise from telecommuting. The findings suggest that telecommuting will be of particular interest to employees who are married, those with a high proportion of work that can be done at home, those who find their journey to work frustrating, and those with supervisors and coworkers who are supportive of telecommuting. Respondents who are single and have a study room at home are also likely to favour telecommuting. Implications are discussed.
Article
After-hours telecommuting (AHT) is a work arrangement where job-relevant work is done at home on a computer outside of regular office hours. This study examined how after-hours telecommuting affects an individual's ability to balance work and family demands (measured as role overload, spillover of interference from work to family and spillover of interference from family to work). It also examined the impact of gender and maternal career employment on these relationships. The analysis showed that men and women who performed after-hours telecommuting worked significantly more hours per week and a greater number of hours of overtime at home than did individuals without computers at home. After controlling for total work hours of both spouses, significant gender differences and differences due to performing after-hours telecommuting were found. These differences were associated with role overload and spillover of interference from work to family.
Article
A key issue in HRD is to identify and determine factors that influence the performance of employees and organizations. Two possible factors are the initiation of teleworking and the reduction of work-family conflict. The purpose of this survey questionnaire study was to investigate the differences in work-family conflict between full-time worksite employees and full-time teleworking employees (individuals who worked from home at least 2 days per week). Two hundred and twenty-one usable surveys were returned from full-time teleworkers and nonteleworkers in 7 corporate organizations. The findings indicate that teleworkers had lower levels of various dimensions of work-family conflict. Relationships were also found between work-family conflict and gender, health, number of hours worked, and number of children.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Human Environment and Design, 2004. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 120-128).
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Georgia State University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 139-158).
Article
Abstract. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Temple University, 2004. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 145-163).
Article
The present study investigates the relationship between employee telework and work attitudes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and perceived co-worker support. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to employees at five organizations. Surveys were completed by 1,350 employees. A positive relationship was predicted between telework and overall job satisfaction, as mediated by perceived autonomy. Further, moderating effects of job level were predicted for the above relationships. A negative relationship was predicted between telework and perceived co-worker support, moderated by task interdependence. It was also predicted that teleworkers would report higher levels of affective commitment, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceived organizational support. Finally, it was predicted that teleworkers would report higher levels of continuance and normative organizational commitment than non-teleworkers, and that the telework-normative commitment relationship would be moderated by employee exchange ideology. The predicted relationships received mixed support. Time spent teleworking was found to be related to overall job satisfaction, and this relationship was mediated by perceived autonomy. Employee job level had no moderating effects. Time spent teleworking was also found to be related to perceived co-worker support, although the direction of the relationship was opposite what was predicted and no moderating effect of task interdependence was found. Teleworkers did report higher levels of perceived organizational support than non-teleworkers, as predicted, although teleworkers did not report higher levels of affective commitment. Similarly, teleworkers did not differ from non-teleworkers on normative commitment, and exchange ideology did not moderate the relationship. Finally, teleworkers reported lower levels of continuance commitment than non-teleworkers, contrary to what was predicted. Explanation of results, study limitations, directions for future research, and theoretical implications of the present study are presented.
Article
Although the teleworking literature continues to raise concerns regarding the adverse consequences of professional isolation, researchers have not examined its impact on work outcomes. Consequently, the authors first examine professional isolation's direct impact on job performance and turnover intentions among teleworkers and then investigate the contingent role of 3 salient work-mode-related factors. Survey data from a matched sample of 261 professional-level teleworkers and their managers revealed that professional isolation negatively impacts job performance and, contrary to expectations, reduces turnover intentions. Moreover, professional isolation's impact on these work outcomes is increased by the amount of time spent teleworking, whereas more face-to-face interactions and access to communication-enhancing technology tend to decrease its impact. On the basis of these findings, an agenda for future research on professional isolation is offered that takes into account telework's growing popularity as a work modality.
Article
What are the positive and negative consequences of telecommuting? How do these consequences come about? When are these consequences more or less potent? The authors answer these questions through construction of a theoretical framework and meta-analysis of 46 studies in natural settings involving 12,883 employees. Telecommuting had small but mainly beneficial effects on proximal outcomes, such as perceived autonomy and (lower) work-family conflict. Importantly, telecommuting had no generally detrimental effects on the quality of workplace relationships. Telecommuting also had beneficial effects on more distal outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, and role stress. These beneficial consequences appeared to be at least partially mediated by perceived autonomy. Also, high-intensity telecommuting (more than 2.5 days a week) accentuated telecommuting's beneficial effects on work-family conflict but harmed relationships with coworkers. Results provide building blocks for a more complete theoretical and practical treatment of telecommuting.
Retaining teleworkers: telework as a moderator of typical relationships between turnover antecedents and turnover intentions
  • E.S. *Brenner
The effects of telecommuting on employee productivity: a perspective from managers, office co-workers and telecommuters
  • K.R. *Kemerling
Telework and organizational commitment: a test of the Meyer and Allen three-dimensional model of commitment
  • H.H.M. *Piper
Profiles of fit for successful telework outcomes
  • S.P. *Poissonnet
The use of telecommuting as an alternative workplace strategy for Missouri businesses
  • S C Byrd
Byrd, S.C. (2005), "The use of telecommuting as an alternative workplace strategy for Missouri businesses", unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, available at: ProQuest Dissertations, ID 920927651.