Venous ulcers: A reappraisal analyzing the effects of neuropathy, muscle involvement, and range of motion upon gait and calf muscle function
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA.Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.75). 03/2009; 17(2):147-52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2009.00468.x
Chronic venous insufficiency is a complex disease that can result in severe sequelae including venous ulceration. Though the exact progression from chronic venous insufficiency to venous ulcer remains unclear, the high cost and burden of this disease on patients and society is quite clear. Sustained ambulatory venous pressures or venous hypertension plays an integral role in the development of venous ulceration and involves the failure of the calf muscle pump system. Standard of care involves compression therapy to assist the calf muscle pump. However, several cofactors may contribute to or exacerbate this disease and understanding their impact may provide insight into new treatment modalities. Nerve involvement, which may result in neuropathic pain and muscle dysfunction, alterations in mobility and a decrease in range of motion may lead to gait alterations all affecting calf muscle pump function. In this paper, we analyze these cofactors and discuss possible treatment options to target them. Physicians treating this disease should be aware of the numerous factors involved in its development. Exploring new treatment options may 1 day lessen the burden and suffering caused by venous insufficiency.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To verify the diagnostic efficiency of venous duplex ultrasound and lymphangioscintigraphy (LAS) in establishing the cause of leg edema and to clarify the pathology of these leg edemas. Materials and methods: Between April 2009, and March 2010, 62 patients with leg edema of unknown origin were referred to the Edema Clinic of the Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine. All patients underwent a venous duplex ultrasound scan and LAS. Results: Of 62 patients, lymphatic insufficiency, venous insufficiency or both was diagnosed in 42 (68%), and lymphedema, in 29 (47%). Venous duplex ultrasound detected obvious venous disorders in only 13 (21%), and for 20 patients, the ultrasound and LAS did not reveal any abnormalities; however, for 15 of the 20 (24% of all patients), venous edema was attributed to functional causes. Conclusion: Venous duplex ultrasound and LAS assisted in the diagnosis of leg edema of unknown origin and also proved useful in establishing treatment strategies.
Article: Lipodermatosclerosis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The most commonly recognized form of lipodermatosclerosis (LDS), chronic LDS presents with induration and hyperpigmentation of the skin involving the one or both of the lower legs in a characteristic "inverted champagne bottle" appearance. Associated with venous insufficiency, LDS is most common in middle aged women. In addition to chronic LDS, an acute form may also occur and is often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, inflammatory morphea, or erythema nodosum. The "acute" refers to the symptoms present that are exquisite pain. Treatment of LDS is based on the clinical presentation with compression therapy as the mainstay of treatment if tolerated. For acute LDS, patients often cannot tolerate compression therapy due to pain. We advise the use of fibrinolytic therapy, if available, until the patient can tolerate compression stockings.
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