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A New Species of Quadrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): A Gall-inducing Pest on Erythrina (Fabaceae)

Abstract

Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim sp.n. is described from Singapore, Mauritius and Ré-union. This species forms galls on the leaves, stems, petioles and young shoots of Erythrina var-iegata and E. fusca in Singapore, on the leaves of E. indica in Mauritius, and on Erythrina sp. in Réunion. It can cause extensive damage to the trees. Species of Eulophidae are mainly para-sitoids, but secondary phytophagy in the form of gall induction has arisen on many occasions (Bouček 1988; La Salle 1994; Headrick et al. 1995; Mendel et al. 2004; La Salle 2004). Gall-inducing Eulophidae generally belong to two groups: Opheli-mini is an Australian lineage which con-sists mainly of gall inducers on eucalypts, but perhaps also on some other myrta-ceous hosts (Bouček 1988; La Salle 2004); and Tetrastichinae includes several in-stances of gall induction, but it is ques-tionable that these represent a single evo-lutionary event (La Salle 2004). Genera of Tetrastichinae where gall induction is known to occur include Quadrastichodella, Oncastichus, Epichrysocharis, Aprostocetus, Paragaleopsomyia, Ceratoneura, 'Exurus', and Leptocybe (La Salle 2004; Mendel et al. 2004). Several species of tetrastichine gall in-ducers have become invasive pests, partic-ularly in the last decade, these include: Quadrastichodella nova Girault (Flock 1957, as Flockiella eucalypti; Timberlake 1957, as Flockiella eucalypti; Bouček 1988); Oncasti-chus goughi Headrick & LaSalle (Gough 1988; Redak and Bethke 1995; Headrick et al. 1995); Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff (Schauff and Garrison 2000); and Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Mendel et al. 2004). Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim sp.n. has recently achieved pest status in Sin-gapore, Mauritius and Réunion. Erythrina trees have been grown in these areas for decades, and this species has never been recorded from them. Although its exact origin remains unknown, it is likely to represent another example of an invasive pest species. There are approximately 110 species of Erythrina around the world, mostly found in tropical regions (Mabberly 1987). Their beautiful red flowers have earned them the common name of coral trees, and made them a popular tree to be used in landscaping in many tropical regions. Recently, a eulophid species was found from galls on Erythrina in Singapore and sent to one of us [JL]; at about the same time galls were found in Mauritius and Réunion, with wasps being sent to another of us [GD]. Comparison of the two sam-ples showed that there was a single, wide-spread species involved. This wasp can
J. HYM. RES.
Vol. 13(2), 2004, pp. 243–249
A New Species of Quadrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae):
A Gall-inducing Pest on Erythrina (Fabaceae)
I
L
-K
WON
K
IM
,G
ERARD
D
ELVARE
,
AND
J
OHN
L
A
S
ALLE
(IKK, JLS) CSIRO Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia;
email: john.lasalle@csiro.au
(GD) CIRAD TA 40L, Campus International de Baillarguet-Csiro, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5,
France; email: gerard.delvare@cirad.fr
Abstract.Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim sp.n. is described from Singapore, Mauritius and Re´-
union. This species forms galls on the leaves, stems, petioles and young shoots of Erythrina var-
iegata and E. fusca in Singapore, on the leaves of E. indica in Mauritius, and on Erythrina sp. in
Re´union. It can cause extensive damage to the trees.
Key words.—Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Quadrastichus, phytophagous, gall inducer, Singapore,
Mauritius, Erythrina, Fabaceae
Species of Eulophidae are mainly para-
sitoids, but secondary phytophagy in the
form of gall induction has arisen on many
occasions (Boucˇek 1988; La Salle 1994;
Headrick et al. 1995; Mendel et al. 2004;
La Salle 2004). Gall-inducing Eulophidae
generally belong to two groups: Opheli-
mini is an Australian lineage which con-
sists mainly of gall inducers on eucalypts,
but perhaps also on some other myrta-
ceous hosts (Boucˇek 1988; La Salle 2004);
and Tetrastichinae includes several in-
stances of gall induction, but it is ques-
tionable that these represent a single evo-
lutionary event (La Salle 2004). Genera of
Tetrastichinae where gall induction is
known to occur include Quadrastichodella,
Oncastichus, Epichrysocharis, Aprostocetus,
Paragaleopsomyia, Ceratoneura, Exurus’,
and Leptocybe (La Salle 2004; Mendel et al.
2004).
Several species of tetrastichine gall in-
ducers have become invasive pests, partic-
ularly in the last decade, these include:
Quadrastichodella nova Girault (Flock 1957,
as Flockiella eucalypti; Timberlake 1957, as
Flockiella eucalypti; Boucˇek 1988); Oncasti-
chus goughi Headrick & LaSalle (Gough
1988; Redak and Bethke 1995; Headrick et
al. 1995); Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff
(Schauff and Garrison 2000); and Leptocybe
invasa Fisher & La Salle (Mendel et al.
2004). Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim sp.n.
has recently achieved pest status in Sin-
gapore, Mauritius and Re´union. Erythrina
trees have been grown in these areas for
decades, and this species has never been
recorded from them. Although its exact
origin remains unknown, it is likely to
represent another example of an invasive
pest species.
There are approximately 110 species of
Erythrina around the world, mostly found
in tropical regions (Mabberly 1987). Their
beautiful red flowers have earned them
the common name of coral trees, and
made them a popular tree to be used in
landscaping in many tropical regions.
Recently, a eulophid species was found
from galls on Erythrina in Singapore and
sent to one of us [JL]; at about the same
time galls were found in Mauritius and
Re´union, with wasps being sent to another
of us [GD]. Comparison of the two sam-
ples showed that there was a single, wide-
spread species involved. This wasp can
244 J
OURNAL OF
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YMENOPTERA
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cause severe damage to Erythrina trees,
and has become a nuisance in these coun-
tries.
Records of gall-inducing wasps on Ery-
thrina are not extensive. Annecke & Moran
(1982) reported on Erythrina galls in South
Africa. Five species of chalcidoid wasps
were reared from these galls, the most
common being a Eulophidae sp. and a
Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae). At that time,
the Eurytoma was suspected as being the
gall inducer. Recent examination of the
material (by Dr. G.L. Prinsloo) has shown
that there are two eulophid species pres-
ent, but neither of them are the same as
Q. erythrinae. Because this species was
found on Re´union and Mauritius, one of
us [GD] compared this species with all
species described by Risbec from Mada-
gascar; however, it did not agree with any
previously named species.
Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim represents
the first record of a gall inducer in the ge-
nus Quadrastichus. Species of Quadrastichus
have a variety of biologies: many are par-
asitoids of gall-inducing hosts, such as Ce-
cidomyiidae (Diptera) and Cynipidae (Hy-
menoptera); others are parasitoids of Bu-
prestidae and Curculionidae (Coleoptera),
or Agromyzidae and Tephritidae (Dip-
tera); Q. sajoi (Szele´nyi) larvae are preda-
tors of eriophyid mites within galls (Gra-
ham 1991, La Salle 1994, Hansson and La
Salle 1996).
Terminology used in this paper is taken
from Gibson (1997) and Graham (1987);
OOL, ocell–ocular distance; POL, post-
ocellar distance; MPS, multiporous plate
sensilla.
Acronyms used in the text are as fol-
lows. ANIC, Australian National Insect
Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra,
Australia; BMNH, The Natural History
Museum, London, UK; CIRAD, Centre de
Coope´ration Internationale en Recherche
Agronomique pour le De´veloppement;
CNC, Canadian National Insect Collec-
tion, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; MZB, Mu-
seum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Bogor, In-
donesia; PPRI, Biosystematics Division,
Plant Protection Research Institute, Preto-
ria, South Africa; QMB, Queensland Mu-
seum, Brisbane, Australia; USNM, United
States National Museum of Natural His-
tory, Washington, D.C., USA.
SYSTEMATICS
Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, sp.n.
(Figs 1–10)
Types. Holotype
: SINGAPORE,
02.vi.2003, He Liansheng, reared from
galls on Erythrina fusca (ANIC).
Paratypes: 63
, 118
, Same data as Ho-
lotype (28
,83
ANIC; 5
,5
each:
BMNH, CIRAD, CNC, MZB, PPRI, QMB,
USNM).
Non-type material: MAURITIUS: Bras
d’Eau, 04.iv.2003, D. Ramkhelawon, vii.03,
ex. Erythrina indica leaves (12
,14
,
ANIC); Quatre Bornes, 17.vii.2003, (S. Per-
malloo), ex. leaf galls on Erythrina indica
(3
,5
, ANIC). LA RE
´
UNION: Saint-
Pierre, Bassin Plat, 06.xii.2000, G. Delvare
& A. Franck, ex. galls on Erythina sp. (33
,
38
CIRAD); Saint-Benoıˆt, 24.ii.2003, S.
Quilici, ex. galls on Erythina sp., Ref. N
RQ 4611 & Cirad 18009 (21
,11
CIR-
AD).
Description
Female Length 1.45–1.6 mm. Dark
brown with yellow markings. Head yel-
low, except gena posteriorly brown. An-
tenna pale brown except scape posteriorly
pale. Pronotum dark brown. The mid lobe
of mesoscutum with a ‘‘V’’ shaped or in-
verted triangular dark brown area from
anterior margin, the remainder yellow.
Scapula yellow. Scutellum, axilla and dor-
sellum brown to light brown. Propodeum
dark brown. Gaster brown. Fore and hind
coxae brown. Mid coxa almost pale. Fem-
ora mostly brown to light brown. Speci-
mens from Mauritius are generally darker
than those from Singapore.
Head (Figs 1–2). Ocellar triangle sur-
rounded by groove; transverse groove ex-
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Figs. 1–6. Quadrastichus erythrinae sp. n.—1. Head, frontal view; 2. Head, dorsal view; 3. Head and thorax,
lateral view; 4. Mesosoma, dorsal view; 5. Gaster, lateral view; 6.
Genitalia, dorsal view.
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YMENOPTERA
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tending from lateral ocellus to eye. POL
1.6–2.0 times longer than OOL. Frons with
broad median area, but without median
carina. Toruli situated at level of lower eye
margin. Shallow groove present beneath
torulus, extending slightly over half the
distance from torulus to clypeal margin.
Gena slightly swollen and malar sulcus
only slightly curved, without triangular
fovea below eyes. Clypeal margin biden-
tate.
Antenna (Fig. 7) with one large anellus.
All funicular segments 1.3–1.6 times lon-
ger than wide and each segment approx-
imately equal in length and width to the
others. However, under the microscope
with slide-mounted antenna, each succes-
sive segment appears slightly wider than
previous one. Sensilla (MPS) slightly
shorter than length of funicular segment,
each sensilla reaching to the next funicular
segment; 1–2 sensillae visible on each seg-
ment in lateral view. Scape not extending
above the vertex.
Mesosoma (Figs 3–4). Median line on
the mid lobe of mesoscutum very weak to
absent but usually at least indicated in cer-
tain angles and light; if indicated, it can be
seen superficially only in posterior half.
Mid lobe of mesoscutum with 3 to 5 short
adnotaular setae. Scutellum with distinct
submedian lines and sublateral lines; 2
pairs of setae on scutellum (occasionally
with an additional seta), anterior seta sit-
uated well behind midlength of scutellum.
Precoxal suture distinct and extending
about 0.7 length of mesopleuron. Propo-
deal spiracle relatively large, whole rim
exposed. Propodeum without distinct me-
dian carina or paraspiracular carina. Pro-
podeal callus with 2 setae.
Wing (Figs 9–10). Submarginal vein
with 1 seta, situated slightly basal to the
middle. Costal cell without setae. Post-
marginal vein almost rudimentary; less
than 0.3 length of stigmal vein. Costal cell:
marginal vein: stigmal vein: postmarginal
vein
3.9–4.1: 2.8–3.1: 1.0: 0.1–0.3. Cubital
line of setae not extending all the way to
basal vein, leaving the speculum partially
open behind; the speculum small.
Gaster (Fig. 5). Slightly longer than the
head plus mesosoma. Hypopygium ex-
tending 0.8–0.9 the length of gaster and
reaching up to the posterior margin of G6.
Ovipositor sheath not protruding, short in
dorsal view. Cercus with 3 setae, the lon-
gest one slightly curved and about 1.3 as
long as the others, which are subequal in
length.
Male. Length 1.0–1.15 mm. Pale colora-
tion white to pale yellow as opposed to
yellow in female. Head and antenna pale.
Pronotum dark brown (but in lateral view,
only upper half dark brown; lower half
yellow to white). Scutellum and dorsellum
pale brown. Axilla pale. Propodeum dark
brown. Gaster in anterior half pale; re-
mainder dark brown. Legs all pale.
Antenna (Fig. 8) with 4 funicular seg-
ments; without the whorl of setae; F1 dis-
tinctly shorter than the other segments
and slightly transverse; about 1.4 wider
than long. Ventral plaque extending 0.4–
0.5 length of scape and placed in apical
half.
Gaster shorter than female. Genitalia
(Fig. 6) elongate, with digitus about 0.4
length of the long, exserted aedagus. [Dor-
sally exposed parts of the genitalia were
measured.]
Etymology. The specific name erythrinae
comes from the genus name of the host
plant.
Biology. Reared from galls on Erythrina
variegata L., E. fusca Lour. (
E. glauca
Willd.) and E. indica L. (Figs 11–12). Inside
the leaf galls there is usually only one
wasp per cell, while in the swollen tissues
of shoots, twigs and petioles more than
five individuals were observed.
Distribution. Singapore, Mauritius, Re´-
union. It is not known if this wasp is na-
tive to one of these regions or not.
Discussion
This species fits the definition of Quad-
rastichus offered by Graham (1991): SMV
V
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Figs. 7–10. Quadrastichus erythrinae sp. n.—7. Antenna,
; 8. Antenna,
; 9. Forewing; 10. Submarginal vein.
Figs. 11–12. Galls on stems, petioles, and young shoots of Erythrina induced by Quadrastichus erythrinae.
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with 1 dorsal seta, antenna with all funic-
ular segments longer than wide and with
1–3 anelli in female and gaster longer than
the head plus mesosoma. However, the
species is distinct from all other Quadras-
tichus on the basis of the long hypopy-
gium.
The only key to species of Quadrastichus
of any region is Graham (1991) for Euro-
pean species. In this key, this species
would run to the anysis-group of Q. anysis
(Walker), Q. citrinus (Thomson) and Q.
xanthosoma (Graham) as follows: body
black and yellow as opposed to metallic
and without yellow markings; frons with
median area but without median carina;
gena slightly swollen, malar sulcus only
slightly curved, malar sulcus without a
large subtriangular fovea just beneath eye.
However, Quadrastichus erythrinae dif-
fers from the anysis-group because: clypeal
margin bidentate, scape not exeeding
above the vertex, apex of hypopygium ex-
tending distinctly beyond middle of gas-
ter. Males of the anysis-group have whorls
of long setae on the funicular segments
(Graham, 1991; Reina & La Salle, 2004),
however these are absent in Q. erythrinae.
Additionally, the anysis-group appears to
be restricted to leafminer hosts.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are grateful to He Liansheng (Agri-Food & Vet-
erinary Authority of Singapore) for providing speci-
mens and information about the biology of Q. ery-
thrinae, and S.I. Seewooruthun (Ministry of Agricul-
ture, Mauritius) for sending us samples of Q. erythri-
nae. Gerhard Prinsloo, Plant Protection Research
Institute, Pretoria, offered advice and helpful com-
ments. A. Franck, from CIRAD Re´union made the
photographs of the infested Erythrina.
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... Palacios et al. (2017) reportaron a este himenóptero en Oaxaca, México. En Panamá (Medianero y Zachrisson 2019), Guadalupe, Martinica, Cuba, y Puerto Rico (Étienne y Dumbardon-Martial 2013, Jenkins et al. 2014, Ramos et al. 2018, Brasil (Culik et al. 2014), China (EPPO 2017), India (EPPO 2017), Japón (Uechi et al. 2007, EPPO 2017, Malasia (EPPO 2017), Maldivas (GlSD 2020), Filipinas (EPPO 2017), Singapur (Kim et al. 2004), Sri Lanka (EPPO 2017), Taiwán (Yang et al. 2004), Tailandia (EPPO 2017) y Vietnam (EPPO 2017), Samoa Americana (EPPO 2017), Fiji (GlSD 2020), Guam (EPPO 2017), Micronesia, Nueva Caledonia, Tonga, y Vanuatu (GlSD 2020) y en Polinesia Francesa (IPPC website 2017). La avispa Q. erythrinae es una amenaza para las especies de Erythrina del todo el mundo (Li et al. 2021). ...
... El color del cuerpo es marrón con porciones del cuerpo color amarillo. La cabeza presenta coloración amarilla excepto en la parte posterior de las genas (Fig. 3c) (Kim et al. 2004). Pronoto marrón oscuro. ...
... Gáster café-marrón. Ala presenta una seta en la vena submarginal y vena postmarginal rudimentaria (Kim et al. 2004). El macho presenta una longitud de 1.5 mm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen. La avispa Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim es una plaga invasora que se registró su presencia a inicios del 2017 en México. Para conocer su distribución geográfica actual se muestrearon hojas y peciolos de árboles de Erythrina variegata L. en lugares urbanizados y en campo de algunos municipios de la Cuenca del Papaloapan. En total fueron 84 árboles con presencia de daños, 85% de éstos en Veracruz y 15% en Oaxaca. Este árbol en la región es usado como ornamental. Para el estado de Veracruz, en Otatitlán y en Oaxaca en la cabecera municipal de Loma Bonita fueron las localidades con la mayor cantidad de árboles infestados. La importancia de conocer la distribución de Q. erythrinae ayudará a realizar y establecer medidas de protección sobre las especies de Erythrina spp. las cuales son consideradas susceptibles y vulnerables a los daños ocasionados por este insecto. Abstract. Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim is an invasive wasp pest that was registered at the beginning of 2017 in Mexico. To document its current geographical distribution, leaves and petioles of Erythrina variegata L. trees were sampled in urbanized places and in the field of some municipalities of the Papaloapan Basin. In total, 84 trees with presence of damage, of which 85% were sampled in Veracruz and 15% in Oaxaca, planted in the regions as ornamental trees. The importance of knowing the distribution of Q. erythrinae would help to carry out and establish protection measures on the species of Erythrina spp, which are considered susceptible and vulnerable to damage caused by this insect. Introducción El ritmo de dispersión en el mundo de la avispa Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim no tiene precedentes, y representa unas de las más devastadoras y rápida invasión ________________________
... However, several species in Aprostocetus Westwood, Epichrysocharis Girault, Leprosa Kim & La Salle, Leptocybe Fisher & La Salle, Moona Kim & La Salle, Oncastichus LaSalle, Quadrastichodella Girault, Selitrichodes Girault etc. are known to be phytophagous. They induce galls mainly on leaves, twigs, flower buds and seeds of Eucalyptus and a few other Myrtaceae (Bouček 1988;Headrick et al. 1995;Kim et al. 2004Kim et al. , 2005, Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) , leaf buds and cones of Pinus massoniana (Pinaceae) (Li et al. 2014), leaves and twigs of several species of Erythrina (Fabaceae) (Kim et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2014) and Madhuca longifolia (Sapotaceae) (Kumar & Singh 2018). The majority of the gall inducing species of Opheliminae are found in two genera-Ophelimus Haliday and Australsecodes Girault (La Salle 2005). ...
... However, several species in Aprostocetus Westwood, Epichrysocharis Girault, Leprosa Kim & La Salle, Leptocybe Fisher & La Salle, Moona Kim & La Salle, Oncastichus LaSalle, Quadrastichodella Girault, Selitrichodes Girault etc. are known to be phytophagous. They induce galls mainly on leaves, twigs, flower buds and seeds of Eucalyptus and a few other Myrtaceae (Bouček 1988;Headrick et al. 1995;Kim et al. 2004Kim et al. , 2005, Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) , leaf buds and cones of Pinus massoniana (Pinaceae) (Li et al. 2014), leaves and twigs of several species of Erythrina (Fabaceae) (Kim et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2014) and Madhuca longifolia (Sapotaceae) (Kumar & Singh 2018). The majority of the gall inducing species of Opheliminae are found in two genera-Ophelimus Haliday and Australsecodes Girault (La Salle 2005). ...
... Its other hosts include Coleoptera Curculionidae and Buprestidae La Salle 1994;Noyes 2019). Kim et al. (2004) recorded one species as an invasive pest inducing galls on coral trees (Erythrina spp.: Fabaceae). In total 89 species are reported worldwide (Noyes 2019) including 25 species from India. ...
... However, several species in Aprostocetus Westwood, Epichrysocharis Girault, Leprosa Kim & La Salle, Leptocybe Fisher & La Salle, Moona Kim & La Salle, Oncastichus LaSalle, Quadrastichodella Girault, Selitrichodes Girault etc. are known to be phytophagous. They induce galls mainly on leaves, twigs, flower buds and seeds of Eucalyptus and a few other Myrtaceae (Bouček 1988;Headrick et al. 1995;Kim et al. 2004Kim et al. , 2005, Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) , leaf buds and cones of Pinus massoniana (Pinaceae) (Li et al. 2014), leaves and twigs of several species of Erythrina (Fabaceae) (Kim et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2014) and Madhuca longifolia (Sapotaceae) (Kumar & Singh 2018). The majority of the gall inducing species of Opheliminae are found in two genera-Ophelimus Haliday and Australsecodes Girault (La Salle 2005). ...
... However, several species in Aprostocetus Westwood, Epichrysocharis Girault, Leprosa Kim & La Salle, Leptocybe Fisher & La Salle, Moona Kim & La Salle, Oncastichus LaSalle, Quadrastichodella Girault, Selitrichodes Girault etc. are known to be phytophagous. They induce galls mainly on leaves, twigs, flower buds and seeds of Eucalyptus and a few other Myrtaceae (Bouček 1988;Headrick et al. 1995;Kim et al. 2004Kim et al. , 2005, Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) , leaf buds and cones of Pinus massoniana (Pinaceae) (Li et al. 2014), leaves and twigs of several species of Erythrina (Fabaceae) (Kim et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2014) and Madhuca longifolia (Sapotaceae) (Kumar & Singh 2018). The majority of the gall inducing species of Opheliminae are found in two genera-Ophelimus Haliday and Australsecodes Girault (La Salle 2005). ...
... Its other hosts include Coleoptera Curculionidae and Buprestidae La Salle 1994;Noyes 2019). Kim et al. (2004) recorded one species as an invasive pest inducing galls on coral trees (Erythrina spp.: Fabaceae). In total 89 species are reported worldwide (Noyes 2019) including 25 species from India. ...
Article
Five species of eulophids were reared from the leaf vein galls of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (Sapotaceae), which is a multipurpose tree in the tropical forests of India. Surveys from 2015 to 2018 in the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand revealed that M. longifolia were heavily galled. Rearing of galls during 2015–16 resulted in emergence of only one species of Selitrichodes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), but in subsequent rearings during 2017 to 2018 additional 4 eulophid species were found to be associated with these galls. Two species belonged to genus Aprostocetus Westwood, one to genus Quadrastichus Girault and one to Chrysonotomyia Ashmead. All five species—Selitrichodes madhucae Singh & Kaneria sp. nov., Aprostocetus madhucae Singh sp. nov., A. dehradunensis Singh sp. nov., Quadrastichus manmohani Singh sp. nov. and Chrysonotomyia madhucae Singh sp. nov. are new to science and described from both female and male specimens. Some observations on their biology are also given.
... Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim is a gall-inducing wasp (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) which was not known until year 2000, when it became a serious invasive pest [1]. This tiny wasp (1-3 mm in body length) exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size and color ( Figure 1A): males being smaller, white and brown; the females larger, orange and brown [1]. ...
... Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim is a gall-inducing wasp (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) which was not known until year 2000, when it became a serious invasive pest [1]. This tiny wasp (1-3 mm in body length) exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size and color ( Figure 1A): males being smaller, white and brown; the females larger, orange and brown [1]. Quadrastichus erythrinae induces galls ( Figure 1B) on new flushes of leaves, young stems and petioles of species of Erythrina that the infested trees wither and die. ...
... Quadrastichus erythrinae has been reported in many tropical and subtropical nations ( Table 1). The species was described based on specimens reared from the malformations (hereafter, galls) on E. fusca Lour. in Singapore [1]. Furthermore, the insects extracted from the leaf galls on E. variegata in Mauritius in 2003 and on another unidentified species of Erythrina in Réunion in 2000 and 2003 were also examined in the same article. ...
Article
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The Erythrina gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive insect that induces galls on coral trees (species of Erythrina, Fabaceae) in urban and suburban landscapes. Weakening and death of the tree were both observed after the infestation by this insect, wherein feeding and consequent draining of nutrients by a large population of Q. erythrinae could be playing a key role. In this article, we consolidate and summarize the information on the distribution, invasion route, ecology, infestation level, and management of Q. erythrinae populations in the last two decades and analyze the challenges in their management.
... The pest induces galls on the newly growth sections of hosts and, consequently, causes severe damage. A heavy infestation of Q. erythrinae causes the curling of leaves and shoots and, eventually, the death of a plant (Kim et al., 2004;Yang et al., 2004). Outbreaks of this pest species have occurred in Pacific and Asian countries since 2000, and it has already spread to southern USA and Latin America (Kim et al., 2004;Yang et al., 2004;Huang et al., 2005;Faizal et al., 2006;Gerlach and Madl, 2007;Uechi et al., 2007;Howard et al., 2008;Kanai et al., 2008;Wu et al., 2008;Yao and Yin, 2009;Jacob and Devasahayam, 2010;Lit et al., 2010;Das and Talukdar, 2011;Narayana and Dhanya, 2014;Palacios-Torres et al., 2017;Medianero and Zachrisson, 2019). ...
... A heavy infestation of Q. erythrinae causes the curling of leaves and shoots and, eventually, the death of a plant (Kim et al., 2004;Yang et al., 2004). Outbreaks of this pest species have occurred in Pacific and Asian countries since 2000, and it has already spread to southern USA and Latin America (Kim et al., 2004;Yang et al., 2004;Huang et al., 2005;Faizal et al., 2006;Gerlach and Madl, 2007;Uechi et al., 2007;Howard et al., 2008;Kanai et al., 2008;Wu et al., 2008;Yao and Yin, 2009;Jacob and Devasahayam, 2010;Lit et al., 2010;Das and Talukdar, 2011;Narayana and Dhanya, 2014;Palacios-Torres et al., 2017;Medianero and Zachrisson, 2019). Control measures for Q. erythrinae, particularly those involving chemical control (Xu et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2011) and biological control (Kaufman et al., 2020), have been successfully applied to suppressed this pest population. ...
Article
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Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim induces galls on coral trees (Erythrina spp.), which became an aggressive invasive pest since year 2000. Its African origin was hypothesized but remains supported only by indirect and limited evidence. In this study, molecular phylogeny and DNA haplotype were used to determine the origin of the erythrina gall wasp Q. erythrinae based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of taxa from Mauritius, and Hawaii. A total of 90 COI and 94 ITS2 sequences were generated from five Quadrastichus species, including Q. erythrinae and four African congeners. Three COI haplotypes and one ITS2 haplotype were detected from 66 taxa of Q. erythrinae. Taxa from most localities were observed to have an identical COI haplotype (haplotype a); the outliers with other haplotype compositions were the taxa from Indonesia (haplotype a and c) and Tanzania (haplotype n). The moelecualr phylogeny suggested that the Tanzanian taxa of Q. erythrinae is more primitive than the other taxa. This finding supported the hypothesis that Q. erythrinae, which is an invasive pest in many countries and regions, has an African origin.
... Gaster shorter than female. Genitalia elongate, with digitus about 0.4 length of the long, exerted aedagus (Kim et al., 2004). ...
... This includes the Eulophidae, the largest and most diverse chalcidoid family including over 4,300 species in 332 genera (Noyes 2019;Rasplus et al. 2020). The diversity of gall inducing eulophids is highest in the Australian Opheliminae and the cosmopolitan Tetrastichinae, the latter is a large and diverse subfamily with 15 genera recorded as phytophagous species (Kim et al. 2004(Kim et al. , 2005Mendel et al. 2004;LaSalle 2005;Kim and LaSalle 2008;Rasplus et al. 2011;Fisher et al. 2014). Overall, knowledge of the specific biology of gall associated tetrastichines is minimal but falls into three categories: parasitoid of gall inducer, inquiline, or gall inducer. ...
Article
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A new genus of a Neotropical gall inducing tetrastichine eulophid on Araceae is described and confirmed using Ultraconserved Elements (UCE) phylogenomic data. Arastichus Gates, Hanson, Jansen-González & Zhang, gen. nov. , includes two new species and one species transferred from Aprostocetus Westwood: A. capipunctata Gates, Hanson, Jansen-González & Zhang, sp. nov. , A. gallicola (Ferrière), comb. nov. , and A. gibernau , Gates, Hanson, Jansen-González & Zhang, sp. nov.
... As galls are formed on the newly emerging leaves, there is a severe reduction in the number and size of leaves besides complete cessation of growth. Inside the leaf galls there is usually only one wasp per cell, whereas in the swollen tissues of shoots, twigs and petioles, more than five individuals are present [47] . Affected trees appear to be scrawny with malformed and crinkled shoots, suffer severe defoliation and ultimately die [48] . ...
Article
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Invasive insect pest are one of the major and most rapidly growing threats to agricultural biodiversity, forestry, human and animal health, etc. resulting in huge economic losses. Incidence of invasive insect pests such as Woolly apple aphid; Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (J.E. Smith) has been noticed. The invasion of the pests in new areas sometimes lead to the outbreak of the pest due to lack of natural enemies. Therefore, exploration should be made in the areas of origin of the pests or efforts should be made to search some effective natural enemies in the invaded area so that the pest population could be curtailed with in Economic Threshold Level. These invasive insect pests can be minimized with the use of biological control agents or their natural enemies and quarantine set up need to be upgraded as this could result in the globalization of pests.
Chapter
Parasitic hymenopterans are most predominant among arthropod community members centered upon gall inducers and their host plants. They frequently play an important role as biotic mortality factors operating on gall midge populations. To evaluate their impact on gall midges, this Chapter treats necessary information as to their taxonomic status and various behavioral and ecological traits such as parasitic strategiesParasitic strategies, host ranges, and interaction with host gall midges. We also emphasize necessity of expressing the abundance of parasitoids as population numbers instead of percentage parasitism.
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Aprostocetus smilax Gates & Zhang, sp. nov., is described from stem and leaf galls on Smilax havanensis Jacq. in southern Florida, USA. It is the third species of Aprostocetus Westwood known to induce plant galls. Two parasitoids of A. smilax are also described: Phylloxeroxenus smilax Gates & Zhang sp. nov. and Sycophila smilax Gates & Zhang, sp. nov. We conclude that A. smilax is the true gall inducer on Smilax L., and thus the host records of Diastrophus smilacis Ashmead and its inquiline Periclistus smilacis Ashmead, both from Smilax, are erroneous.
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The North American members of the eulophid subfamily Tetrastichinae are reviewed in light of systematic advances which have occurred in other geographic realms. Forty-two genera are recognized as valid, with the largest of these, Aprostocetus , having four subgenera in the study area. Thirteen new genera are described: Apterastichus, Careostrix, Chytrolestes, Comastichus, Cucarastichus, Dapsilothrix, Eriastichus, Exalarius, Exastichus, Hadrotrichodes, Mesofrons, Oxypracetus, Styotrichia ; the new subgenus Quercastichus is described in the genus Aprostocetus . Five new generic synonymies are made. With Aprostocetus Westwood, 1833: Exurus Philippi, 1873, Omphalomopsis Girault, 1917, Paromphaloidomyiia Girault, 1917, and Prothymus Girault, 1917. With Pentastichus Ashmead, 1894: Hypertetrastichus Moser, 1965. Six previously described genera are newly recorded from North America: Aceratoneuromyia, Anaprostocetus, Henryana, Kocourekia, Lisseurytomella and Pentastichus . Two hundred and twelve species of North American Tetrastichinae are currently recognized as valid. Eighty new combinations are proposed from North America, and three from the Neotropical Region. The majority of these species are being moved from the genus Tetrastichus , which had previously held most of the North American Tetrastichinae species. Eighteen new species are described: Aprostocetus (Quercastichus) burksi, Apterastichus oculatus, Careostrix yoshimotoi, Chytrolestes alibaba, Comastichus zopheros, Cucarastichus texanus, Dapsilothrix jeanae, Eriastichus cigdemae, E. masneri, E. nakos, Exalarius huachucensis, Exastichus odontos, Hadrotrichodes waukheon, Kostjukovius grahami, Mesofrons villosus, Oxypracetus opacus, Styotrichia bicolor, S. quadrata . One new specific synonymy is made. With Aprostocetus (Quercastichus) pattersonae (Fullaway, 1912): Tetrastichus spilopteris Burks, 1943. A lectotype is designated for Tetrastichus pattersonae Fullaway. Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus) mymaridis (Girault) is removed from synonymy with Tetrastichus polynemae Ashmead and considered as valid. Twelve previously described species are newly recorded from North America: Aceratoneuromyia fimbriata Graham, Anaprostocetus acuminatus (Ratzeburg), Aprostocetus antiguensis (Crawford), A. leucone (Walker), A. pygmaeus (Zetterstedt), A. strobilanae (Ratzeburg), A. longicauda (Thomson), A. terebrans (Erdös), Henryana magnifica Yoshimoto, Kocourekia debilis (Ratzeburg), Lisseurytomella flava (Ashmead), Tamarixia leucaenae Bouček.
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Cirrospilus ambiguus and Quadrastichus liriomyzae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are newly described, both reared from Liriomyza trifolii in Taiwan C. ambiguus is known from Taiwan, India, Tanzania and South Africa, and Q. liriomyzae from Taiwan. These species are potential biological control agents against L. trifolii.
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A new genus of tetrastichine eulophid, Oncastichus LaSalle, is described to contain a single new species, Oncastichus goughi Headrick and LaSalle. This species is native to Australia, and is a gall former on the Geraldton waxflower, Chamelaucium uncinatum. Oncastichus goughi was accidentally introduced into California where it causes economic damage to the Californian horticultural industry. This is the first example of a tetrastichine Eulophidae becoming an economically important introduced pest species.
Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenop-tera): A Biosystematic Revision of Genera of Fourteen Families, with a Reclassification of Species
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Bouc ˇek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenop-tera): A Biosystematic Revision of Genera of Fourteen Families, with a Reclassification of Species. CAB In-ternational, Wallingford, U.K. 832 pp
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Flock, R. A. 1957. Biological notes on a new chalcid-fly from seed-like Eucalyptus galls in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 33: 153–155
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Gough, N. 1988. Gall forming wasps on Geraldton wax. News Bulletin, Entomological Society of Queensland 15(10): 131–132