RE: The effect of the late 2000s financial crisis on suicides in Spain: An interrupted time-series analysis

1 Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK.
The European Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.59). 06/2013; 23(5). DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckt083
Source: PubMed


The current financial crisis is having a major impact on European economies, especially that of Spain. Past evidence suggests that adverse macro-economic conditions exacerbate mental illness, but evidence from the current crisis is limited. This study analyses the association between the financial crisis and suicide rates in Spain.
An interrupted time-series analysis of national suicides data between 2005 and 2010 was used to establish whether there has been any deviation in the underlying trend in suicide rates associated with the financial crisis. Segmented regression with a seasonally adjusted quasi-Poisson model was used for the analysis. Stratified analyses were performed to establish whether the effect of the crisis on suicides varied by region, sex and age group.
The mean monthly suicide rate in Spain during the study period was 0.61 per 100 000 with an underlying trend of a 0.3% decrease per month. We found an 8.0% increase in the suicide rate above this underlying trend since the financial crisis (95% CI: 1.009-1.156; P = 0.03); this was robust to sensitivity analysis. A control analysis showed no change in deaths from accidental falls associated with the crisis. Stratified analyses suggested that the association between the crisis and suicide rates is greatest in the Mediterranean and Northern areas, in males and amongst those of working age.
The financial crisis in Spain has been associated with a relative increase in suicides. Males and those of working age may be at particular risk of suicide associated with the crisis and may benefit from targeted interventions.

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Available from: James Lopez Bernal, Aug 08, 2014
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    • "The impact of the crisis on different aspects of health (mental health in particular) and on high-risk sectors of the Spanish population (such as immigrants) has already been well documented (Agudelo-Suárez et al., 2013;Barbaglia et al., 2015;Bartoll et al., 2014;Gili et al., 2013;Robert et al., 2014). As in other European countries (De Vogli et al., 2013), the economic crisis has already been associated with a relative increase in suicides (López-Bernal et al., 2013;Miret et al., 2014), as well as with a widening in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality (Maynou et al., 2014). Local studies confirm a dramatic increase in infant and child poverty and malnutrition since the beginning of the economic crisis determined by the worsening of family living conditions and basic services restrictions (Rajmil et al., 2013). "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Annals of Human Biology
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    • "In Spain, Galicia is one of the Spanish provinces with persistently higher suicide rates, only exceeded by the neighbouring region of Asturias (Lopez Bernal et al. 2013 "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has shown an association between unemployment and suicide, but the mediating factors in this relationship are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of unemployment and economic recession on suicide rates in the Spanish region of Galicia between 1975 and 2012 Method. We analysed age-standardised suicide rates in men and women and in four age groups: less than 25 years, 25-45 years, 45-65 years and more than 65 years and performed a joinpoint analysis to determine trend changes throughout 1975-2012 period. Also we analysed the association between suicide, recession and unemployment by means of a temporal trend model with a Generalised Additive Model. Suicide rates increased from 145 suicides in 1975 to a high in 1993, with 377 deaths by suicide, representing 1.38% of all causes of death, and thereafter they tend to decrease to 335 suicides in 2012. Joinpoint analyses revealed that suicide rates changed differently across sex and age groups. For men, the annual percentage of change (APC) between 1975 and 1988 (CI 95% 1986-1994) was 5.45 (CI 95% = 3.5, -7.2) but from 1988 the APC became negative [-0.66 (CI 95% = -1.3, -0.1)]. For women, APC between 1974 and 1990 (CI 95% 1986-1992) was 4.86 (CI 95% = 3.2, -6.4) and -1.46 subsequently (CI 95% = -2.2, -0.5). Women aged 24 years or less showed stable suicide rates while men from 45-65 years showed two incidence peaks. When we studied the independent correlation between unemployment, recession and suicide, we found a significant association between unemployment and suicide, but not between recession and suicide for both sexes together and for men while for women there was no significant correlation between suicide and unemployment or recession. Finally, when we studied the effect of the interaction between unemployment and recession on suicide we found economic recession and unemployment interacted with regards to suicide rates (F = 5.902; df = 4.167; p = 0.00098) and after adjusting by sex, the effect was confirmed among men (F = 4.827; df = 2.823; p = 0.0087), but not among women (F = 0.001; df = 1.000; p = 0.979). Although suicide rates in Galicia are gradually decreasing in the last decades, there are important sex and age differences. Unemployment was related with suicide during economic recession periods according to our results.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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    • "Savižudybių gausėjimas buvo siejamas su nedarbo didėjimu, ypač šalyse, prieš krizę pasižymėjusiose žemu nedarbo lygiu. Ekonominės krizės įtaka savižudybių rodikliams atsispindi ir kitų autorių tyrimuose (Pompili ir kt., 2014; Lopez ir kt., 2013). Klasikinės sociologinės savižudybių teorijos autorius É. Durkheim (1897–2002) visuomenės pokyčių įtaką savižudybių skaičiaus svyravimams aiškina tuo, kad kiekvieno visuomenės nario gerovei svarbu, kad jo norai ir troškimai turėtų ribas, nes tuomet individo tikslų patenkinimas tampa įmanomas , o tai leidžia gyvenime matyti prasmę ir tam tikrą tvarką. "

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