We report human serum levels of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) categorized by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity from a statistically representative sampling of the U.S. population during 2003 and 2004. The serum levels are for several chemicals listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, in the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, or in both. Population data for each chemical are described by geometric means and percentiles and are categorized by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity. At the 90th and 95th percentile, the dioxin total toxic equivalency (TEQ), using the 2005 toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for all persons 12 years of age and older was 30.9 pg/g lipid (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.2-33.9 pg/g lipid) and 37.8 pg/g lipid (95% CI: 35.3-43.4 pg/g lipid), respectively. At both the 90th and 95th percentiles total TEQ increased significantly with increasing age. The population geometric mean (GM) for the total PCB concentration (sum of 35 congeners) for all persons 12 years of age and older was 0.820 ng/g whole-weight (95% CI: 0.782-0.863 ng/g whole-weight) and 134.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 128.9-140.0 ng/g lipid). The population 95th percentile for the total PCB concentration for all persons 12 years of age and older was 3.53 ng/g whole-weight (95% CI: 3.23-3.92 ng/g whole-weight) and 531 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 498-570 ng/g lipid). The concentrations of aldrin, endrin, gamma-HCH, and o,p'-DDT were <limit of detection for all strata in the U.S. population. Hexachlorobenzene was detected in 99.9% of the persons aged 12 years and older (GM: 15.2 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 14.5-15.9 ng/g lipid). beta-HCH was detected in 69.5% of the persons aged 12 years and older (75th percentile: 14.0 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 12.1-16.5 ng/g lipid). p,p'-DDT was detected in 73.8% of the persons aged 12 years and older (90th percentile: 11.9 ng/g lipid. 95% CI: 9.9-14.9 ng/g lipid). The DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE was detected in 99.7% of persons aged 12 years and older (GM: 238.4 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 194.6-292.2 ng/g lipid). Oxychlordane(GM: 9.4 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 8.7-10.1 ng/g lipid);transnonachlor (GM: 14.6 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 13.1-16.5 ng/g lipid); and heptachlor epoxide (90th percentile: 13.4 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 11.1-15.9 ng/g lipid) were detected in 82.9, 92.6, and 60% of persons aged 12 years and older, respectively. Mirexwas detected in 40.7% of persons aged 12 years and older (90th percentile: 8.3 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: <LOD-13.0 ng/g lipid). Dieldrin was detected in 87.2% of persons aged 12 years and older (95th percentile: 18.9 ng/g lipid, 95% CI: 15.8-24.5 ng/g lipid).
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"The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include a mixture of external and internal factors, including source, route and timing of exposure along with individual determinants such as uptake, metabolism and clearance (De Caprio et al., 2005; Gladen et al., 2003; James et al., 2002). Some authors have justified the higher concentrations of PCBs in men than in women on the basis of differences in diet, occupational exposures or metabolism (Bates et al., 2004; Glynn et al., 2003; Patterson et al., 2009; Porta et al., 2010; Schaeffer et al., 2006; Wolff et al., 2007). In our study we "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This manuscript presents the levels of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in the serum of 1880 individuals from a representative sample of the Spanish working population recruited between March 2009 and July 2010.
Three out of the six PCBs studied (180, 153 and 138) were quantified in more than 99% of participants. PCB 180 was the highest contributor, followed by PCBs 153 and 138, with relative abundances of 42.6%, 33.2% and 24.2%, respectively. In contrast, PCBs 28 and 52 were detected in only 1% of samples, whereas PCB 101 was detectable in 6% of samples.
The geometric mean (GM) for ΣPCBs138/153/180 was 135.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 121.3–151.2 ng/g lipid) and the 95th percentile was 482.2 ng/g lipid.
Men had higher PCB blood concentrations than women (GMs 138.9 and 129.9 ng/g lipid respectively). As expected, serum PCB levels increased with age and frequency of fish consumption, particularly in those participants younger than 30 years of age. The highest levels we found were for participants from the Basque Country, whereas the lowest concentrations were found for those from the Canary Islands.
The Spanish population studied herein had similar levels to those found previously in Greece and southern Italy, lower levels than those in France and central Europe, and higher PCB levels than those in the USA, Canada and New Zealand.
This paper provides the first baseline information regarding PCB exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. The results will allow us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, as well as monitor implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Spain.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Science of The Total Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult.
To identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors.
We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs.
Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (≤ 1.5). Each two standard deviation increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (β = 2.5; 95% CI: -0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (β = 4.1; CI: 0.8-7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic-behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable vs. non-detectable concentrations of PCB-178 (β = -3.0; CI: -6.3, 0.2), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = -3.3; CI: -6.1, -0.5), or PBDE-85 (β = 3.2; CI: -5.9, -0.5). Increasing perfluorooctane concentrations were also associated with less autistic behaviors (β = -2.0; CI: -4.4, 0.4).
Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. Perfluorooctane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Environmental Health Perspectives
"Confidence intervals at 95% and 90% probability are represented by thick and thin lines, respectively. however higher than in other sites from UK (Thomas et al., 2006), Italy (Amodio et al., 2012), New Zealand (Bates et al., 2004), Japan (Hanaoka et al., 2002; Tsukino et al., 2006), Korea (Kang et al., 2008; Park et al., 2007), Bolivia (Arrebola et al., 2012), U.S.A. (Patterson et al., 2009), Canada (Medehouenou et al., 2011), 82–290 ng/g lipid (Table 5). The populations from the Slovak and Czech studies show much higher PCB concentrations, 740–1900 ng/g lipid, than in Catalonia or Flix which is attributed to the effluents from a PCB factory in Michalovce (Slovakia) and to the intensive chemical industrial activity in the former Czechoslovakia (Cerná et al., 2008; Petrik et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental exposures need to be assessed for the understanding of the health risks of general population. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs) are significant for the exposomes of individuals living in locations receiving their emissions and have to be determined. The aims of the study are to identify the area of influence of past and present OC emissions from CAPs and to set quantitative body burden estimates. A CAP situated in a rural area was selected for study. The geographic distribution of the atmospheric emissions was monitored using olive tree leaves. Human biomonitoring was assessed by serum analysis from general population (n=1340). OC concentrations followed exponential decay functions with maxima in the immediate vicinity of the factory. The individuals living within 1km exhibited hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDT-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) concentrations that were 12, 1.3-1.9 and 3.9 times higher than in sites not influenced by the emissions from this factory. Individuals from municipalities situated 15-25km away from the CAP showed 1.5, 1.2-1.4 and 1.3 times higher serum HCB, PCB and DDT concentrations than in distant sites. The high serum concentrations of DDT and PCBs were observed even 23-31years and 9-17years after manufacture completion of these compounds, respectively. Our methodology provides a way for assessment of the influence of past and present atmospheric OCs emissions from CAPs into the exposome of individuals living in nearby areas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Environment international