Development of a Nitric Oxide-Releasing Analogue of the Muscle Relaxant Guaifenesin for Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Myogenesis
McColl-Lockwood Laboratory, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA. Molecular Pharmaceutics
(Impact Factor: 4.38).
05/2009; 6(3):895-904. DOI: 10.1021/mp800226z
Nitric oxide (NO) mediates activation of satellite precursor cells to enter the cell cycle. This provides new precursor cells for skeletal muscle growth and muscle repair from injury or disease. Targeting a new drug that specifically delivers NO to muscle has the potential to promote normal function and treat neuromuscular disease, and would also help to avoid side effects of NO from other treatment modalities. In this research, we examined the effectiveness of the NO donor, iosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, in promoting satellite cell activation assayed by muscle cell DNA synthesis in normal adult mice. The work led to the development of guaifenesin dinitrate (GDN) as a new NO donor for delivering nitric oxide to muscle. The results revealed that there was a strong increase in muscle satellite cell activation and proliferation, demonstrated by a significant 38% rise in DNA synthesis after a single transdermal treatment with the new compound for 24 h. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that the markers of satellite cell myogenesis, expression of myf5, myogenin, and follistatin, were increased after 24 h oral administration of the compound in adult mice. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of NO-based treatments aimed at promoting muscle regeneration in normal tissue. The potential use of such treatment for conditions such as muscle atrophy in disuse and aging, and for the promotion of muscle tissue repair as required after injury or in neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, is highlighted.
Available from: Maritza Kruger
- "Recently, most research on factors that could accelerate muscle regeneration has focused on stem cell therapy   , satellite cell function    or manipulation of inflammation using complex experimental approaches  . The role of macrophages in the inflammatory response has received much attention  . "
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ABSTRACT: Acute skeletal muscle damage results in fiber disruption, oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated cell-specific contributions to the regeneration process after contusion-induced damage (rat gastrocnemius muscle) with or without chronic grape seed-derived proanthocyanidolic oligomer (PCO) administration. In this placebo-controlled study, male Wistar rats were subjected to PCO administration for 2 weeks, after which they were subjected to a standardised contusion injury. Supplementation was continued after injury. Immune and satellite cell responses were assessed, as well as oxygen radical absorption capacity and muscle regeneration. PCO administration resulted in a rapid satellite cell response with an earlier peak in activation (Pax7(+), CD56(+), at 4 h post-contusion) vs. placebo groups (PLA) (P<.001: CD56(+) on Day 5 and Pax7(+) on Day 7). Specific immune-cell responses in PLA followed expected time courses (neutrophil elevation on Day 1; sustained macrophage elevation from Days 3 to 5). PCO dramatically decreased neutrophil elevation to nonsignificant, while macrophage responses were normal in extent, but significantly earlier (peak between Days 1 and 3) and completely resolved by Day 5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, increased significantly only in PCO (Day 3). Muscle fiber regeneration (MHC(f) content and central nuclei) started earlier and was complete by Day 14 in PCO, but not in PLA. Thus, responses by three crucial cell types involved in muscle recovery were affected by in vivo administration of a specific purified polyphenol in magnitude (neutrophil), time course (macrophages), or time course and activation state (satellite cell), explaining faster effective regeneration in the presence of proanthocyanidolic oligomers.
Available from: Michael A Rudnicki
- "NO seems to augment active HGF by triggering its release from the ECM through metalloproteinases . Furthermore, increased levels of NO promotes regeneration of normal and dystrophic muscle [70,71]. The delivery of pharmaceutical compounds to increase NO signaling in diseased skeletal muscle is feasible and candidate drugs are currently being investigated . "
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ABSTRACT: Cellular commitment during vertebrate embryogenesis is controlled by an interplay of intrinsic regulators and morphogenetic signals. These mechanisms recruit a subset of cells in the developing organism to become the ancestors of skeletal muscle. Signals that control progression through the myogenic lineage converge on a battery of hierarchically organized transcription factors which modulate the cells to either remain in a primitive state or allow their commitment and differentiation into skeletal muscle fibers. A small population of cells will retain a largely unspecified state throughout development. Such stem cells, in conjunction with more committed myogenic progenitors, form a heterogeneous population that colonizes adult skeletal muscle as satellite cells. The satellite cell pool is responsible for the remarkable regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Similar to their counterparts during embryonic development, satellite cells are capable of self-renewal and can give rise to myogenic progeny. Impaired satellite cell homeostasis has been associated with numerous muscular disorders. Due to intense research efforts in the past two decades, the complex biology of muscle stem cells has now revealed some of its secrets and new avenues for the development of therapeutic molecules have emerged. In the present review we focus on the extrinsic mechanisms that control self-renewal, specification and differentiation of satellite cells and their significance for the development of biologic drugs.
Available from: Silvia Brunelli
- "IBU, ibuprofen; ISDN, isosorbide dinitrate; STD, standard diet. et al., 2005; Marques et al., 2005; Voisin et al., 2005; Hnia et al., 2008; Benabdellah et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009). Similar considerations apply to therapies aimed at controlling inflammation. "
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ABSTRACT: Current therapies for muscular dystrophy are based on corticosteroids. Significant side effects associated with these therapies have prompted several studies aimed at identifying possible alternative strategies. As inflammation and defects of nitric oxide (NO) generation are key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophies, we have studied the effects of combining the NO donor isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen.
alpha-Sarcoglycan-null mice were treated for up to 8 months with ISDN (30 mg.kg(-1)) plus ibuprofen (50 mg.kg(-1)) administered daily in the diet. Effects of ISDN and ibuprofen alone were assessed in parallel. Drug effects on animal motility and muscle function, muscle damage, inflammatory infiltrates and cytokine levels, as well as muscle regeneration including assessment of endogenous stem cell pool, were measured at selected time points.
Combination of ibuprofen and ISDN stimulated regeneration capacity, of myogenic precursor cells, reduced muscle necrotic damage and inflammation. Muscle function in terms of free voluntary movement and resistance to exercise was maintained throughout the time window analysed. The effects of ISDN and ibuprofen administered separately were transient and significantly lower than those induced by their combination.
Co-administration of NO and ibuprofen provided synergistic beneficial effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy, leading to an effective therapy. Our results open the possibility of immediate clinical testing of a combination of ISDN and ibuprofen in dystrophic patients, as both components are approved for use in humans, with a good safety profile.
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