Article

A Low Cost Nutritious Food "Tempeh"- A Review

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  • Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology
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Abstract

2 Abstract: A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a popular fermented food in Indonesia which is rich in nutrients and active substances. Recently, the consumption of Tempeh has been increasing rapidly, not only in Indonesia but also in the United States and Europe. Although Tempeh is not likely to be exported, the product is consumed and produced in many countries. This paper reviews the significance of soybea n fermentation in tempeh on the vitamins, amino acids, Nutritional quality, functional and physico-chemical properties.

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... Tempeh is usually made of soybeans fermented with Rhizopus spp., but it can be made using various nuts, grains, and beans (Karyadi & Lukito, 1996). Tempeh has been known as a source of significant amounts of protein, Vitamin B12, and bioactive compounds (Babu et al., 2009;Nout & Kiers, 2005). Compared to tofu and soy, tempeh has been less studied ( Figure 1) but there is growing research interest of tempeh ( Figure 2). ...
... Previous review papers have not been able to completely deduct the potential benefits of tempeh due to limitations in the number and scope of published research (Babu et al., 2009;Karyadi & Lukito, 1996;Nout & Kiers, 2005, Owens et al. 2015. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively and systematically review the health-promoting, affordability, sustainability, production, food safety, and processing aspects' evidence of tempeh and tempeh fermentation. ...
... Although the dehulling step was historically done by hands or feet (Fung & Crozier-Dodson, 2008), these methods have been eliminated in a hygienic tempeh production system and replaced with mechanical dehulling . The washing step is sometimes skipped in the production process as tempeh fermentation can be successful using soybeans dried directly from the boiled soak water (Babu et al., 2009;Nout & Kiers, 2005). ...
Article
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Tempeh is a fermented food made of mainly soybeans and is a nutritious, affordable, and sustainable functional source of protein. Globally, tempeh is a widely accepted fermented product. Although there is a growing body of literature on tempeh, most research has focused on unfermented soybeans, thus the impact of tempeh fermentation on biological properties of soybeans has been largely left scattered. The objective of this review is to summarize the literature of tempeh fermentation over the past 60 years. A search of articles on tempeh published from 1960 to 2020 was performed using the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCOhost FSTA database, and Google Scholar. References from identified articles were reviewed for additional sources. In total, 321 papers were selected for this review, of which 64 papers were related to the health benefits of tempeh. This review concluded that sufficient evidence exists in the literature supporting tempeh fermentation as a low‐cost, health‐promoting, and sustainable food processing technology to produce protein‐rich foods using various beans, legumes, and grains. This comprehensive review suggests further studies are needed on tempeh fermentation and its impact on human health; research and standardization of nonsoy tempeh; assessment of food safety‐improving modification in tempeh production system; and initiatives supporting the sourcing of local ingredients in tempeh production.
... One of the foods with high nutritional value is tempeh, which is a valuable fermented food unknown in Turkey. Tempeh made from different raw materials is a very valuable alternative food for vegan/vegetarians due to its rich nutritional composition (Babu, Bhakyaraj, & Vidhyalakshmi, 2009). Tempeh is generally consumed in the form of roasting, fogging and oil frying, which is a valuable food in terms of B 6 (pyridoxine) and K vitamins. ...
... It also contains protein and all essential amino acids. Therefore, this is a very useful food for vegan/vegetarians (Babu et al., 2009;Nout & Kiers, 2005). ...
... When these periods were exceeded, a structure suitable for sensory consumption could not be provided. Thus, tempehs were produced from the raw materials by R. oligosporus (Babu et al., 2009;Nout & Kiers, 2005). On the other hand, fermentation times were also determined based on the maturation period of the tempehs. ...
Conference Paper
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Tempeh is a fermented food by fermentation using soybean. The main objective of this study was to produce an alternative product to soybean tempeh which is suitable for Turkish taste from different raw materials. For this purpose, soybean (control), chickpea, red and green lentils, white and black beans, broad beans were selected as raw materials for producing tempeh by Rhizopus oligosporus. The sensory evaluation of the cooked tempehs was performed by 13 panelists who were selected from the members of Department of Food Engineering at Akdeniz University. The results indicated that the most delicious and preferred tempeh was made from chickpeas. Additionally, it was also detected that the tempehs made from black bean and red lentil, which were least preferred by panelists, were not suitable for consumption due to their difficulty in production, taste, smell, and scattered structure Texture profile analysis was performed by pressing the tempeh samples twice in succession under the printing plate attached to the texture analyzer. The results indicated that the chickpea white bean, red lentil, and broad bean tempehs showed harder structure that soybean tempeh while the black bean and green lentil tempehs indicated softer structure than soybean tempeh. Nevertheless, the minimum (480.7) and maximum (3476.9) fragility values were measured in tempehs produced from green lentil and white bean. On the other hand, the adhesiveness values of the tempehs ranged from -40.88 to -7.36. The springiness values were between 0.18 and 0.44. This study was supported by Tubitak.
... Tempeh is a mould-fermented product prepared from fermented soy beans and is consumed mostly in Indonesia ( Babu et al. 2009). Tempeh possesses some unique characteristics, including its flavor, sliceable meat-like texture, and nutritional properties (Astuti et al. 2000;Nout and Kiers 2005). ...
... Initially, husk-free, soaked and pressed soybeans are inoculated with R. oligosporus and fermented for 1-2 days. During the fermentation process, the white mycelia of R. oligosporus invade and cover the substrate mass to bind the soy bean (Shurtleff and Aoyagi 1979;Steinkraus 1995;Nout and Kiers 2005;Babu et al. 2009;Shah and Patel 2017). Tempeh provides many health benefits, in particular for heart diseases, strokes, osteoporosis, cancer and digestive disorders, loss of excess weight), as it contains essential fatty acids, numerous vitamins, fiber and minerals. ...
Article
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Fungi are an understudied, biotechnologically valuable group of organisms. Due to the immense range of habitats that fungi inhabit, and the consequent need to compete against a diverse array of other fungi, bacteria, and animals, fungi have developed numerous survival mechanisms. The unique attributes of fungi thus herald great promise for their application in biotechnology and industry. Moreover, fungi can be grown with relative ease, making production at scale viable. The search for fungal biodiversity, and the construction of a living fungi collection, both have incredible economic potential in locating organisms with novel industrial uses that will lead to novel products. This manuscript reviews fifty ways in which fungi can potentially be utilized as biotechnology. We provide notes and examples for each potential exploitation and give examples from our own work and the work of other notable researchers. We also provide a flow chart that can be used to convince funding bodies of the importance of fungi for biotechnological research and as potential products. Fungi have provided the world with penicillin, lovastatin, and other globally significant medicines, and they remain an untapped resource with enormous industrial potential. Keywords Biocontrol · Biodiversity · Biotechnology · Food · Fungi · Mushrooms
... The fungal fermentation leads to an enhancement of nutritional value and digestibility, because free amino acids and other water-soluble solids are increased [3,4]. Additionally, tempeh is high in probiotics, vitamins, and minerals [5]. Therefore, it can be a nutritious addition to the diet. ...
... In Europe, the USA, and other industrialized countries, the interest for tempeh is increasing, resulting from a growing interest in health, nutrition, and vegetarianism. As soybeans contain all of the eight (or ten) essential amino acids [5], tempeh is commonly used as a vegetarian source of protein. Triggered by the high nutrient value, also, a lot of studies focused on the use of tempeh and tempeh-like products with respect to malnutrition in Third World Countries [6][7][8]. ...
Article
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Tempeh is a common food in Indonesia, produced by fungal fermentation of soybeans using Rhizopus sp., as well as Aspergillus oryzae, for inoculation. Analogously, for economic reasons, mixtures of maize and soybeans are used for the production of so-called tempeh-like products. For maize, a contamination with the mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) has been frequently reported. ZEN is a mycotoxin which is known to be metabolized by Rhizopus and Aspergillus species. Consequently, this study focused on the ZEN transformation during tempeh fermentation. Five fungal strains of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus, isolated from fresh Indonesian tempeh and authentic Indonesian inocula, were utilized for tempeh manufacturing from a maize/soybean mixture (30:70) at laboratory-scale. Furthermore, comparable tempeh-like products obtained from Indonesian markets were analyzed. Results from the HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that ZEN is intensely transformed into its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), ZEN-14-sulfate, α-ZEL-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside, and ZEN-16-glucoside in tempeh production. α-ZEL, being significantly more toxic than ZEN, was the main metabolite in most of the Rhizopus incubations, while in Aspergillus oryzae fermentations ZEN-14-sulfate was predominantly formed. Additionally, two of the 14 authentic samples were contaminated with ZEN, α-ZEL and ZEN-14-sulfate, and in two further samples, ZEN and α-ZEL, were determined. Consequently, tempeh fermentation of ZEN-contaminated maize/soybean mixture may lead to toxification of the food item by formation of the reductive ZEN metabolite, α-ZEL, under model as well as authentic conditions.
... Mukhoyaroh (2015) (Bintari, et al., 2008). Menurut Babu, et al., (2009) (Dwinaningsih, 2010). Semakin lama waktu fermentasi yang dilakukan maka terjadi peningkatan aktivitas sintesis protein yang berasal dari enzim mikroba serta adanya penyusunan ulang senyawa yang disertai adanya degradasi senyawa lain (Hu, et al., 2010). ...
... Senyawa antibiotik tersebut bermanfaat untuk menghambat serta memperkecil peradangan (Roubus-van den Hill, et al., 2010). Terdapat penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa orang Indonesia yang mengonsumsi tempe secara rutin akan terhindar dari penyakit disentri dan gangguan pencernaan (Babu, et al., 2009 (Budijanto, et al., 2011). Banyaknya manfaat dari kandungan asam amino, peptide dan protein seharusnya mampu dikembangkan dengan baik pada era saat ini. ...
Article
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Tempe merupakan salah satu produk olahan fermentasi yang umumnya berbahan dasar kacang kedelai. Di Indonesia, terdapat bahan baku selain kedelai yang digunakan untuk membuat tempe. Bermacam jenis tanaman yang memiliki kandungan protein tidak kalah dengan kedelai juga tumbuh di Indonesia. Bahan tersebut diharapkan mampu untuk dijadikan alternatif bahan baku tempe, mengingat produktivitas kedelai yang semakin menurun tiap tahunnya. Proses pembuatan tempe non-kedelai dilakukan dengan memodifikasi proses pembuatan tempe pada umumnya. Terdapat 12 macam jenis bahan yang dapat digunakan dalam pembuatan tempe non-kedelai yang dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yaitu Fabeaceae, Amaranthaceae dan Gramineas. Pada metode pembuatan tempe non-kedelai terdapat perbedaan perlakuan dari proses pembuatan tempe kedelai. Perbedaan tersebut pada lama waktu perendaman, perebusan/pengukusan serta fermentasi. Potensi kandungan protein pada tempe non-kedelai dipengaruhi oleh prosentase jumlah inokulum yang ditambahkan, penggunaan inokulum tempe serta lamanya waktu fermentasi. Protein yang terkandung pada tempe non-kedelai memiliki banyak manfaat seperti penghasil rasa umami, mencegah diare serta sebagai sumber isolat protein DOI : https://doi.org/10.33005/jtp.v14i2.2457
... These beans were compactly packed in sterilized Petri plates inoculated with the species of Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizopus oligosporus, and Rhizopus formosaensis in triplicates and incubated at 31 0 C for 48 hrs and at high humidity. In addition to oxygen, the mould grows better in high humidity levels (75-78%) (Babu et al., 2009). The inoculums used were 48 hr old; it was grown on 10 ml potato dextrose medium. ...
... This might be due to utilization of sucrose by the moulds for their growth. Recent reports suggest that tempeh contains a wealth of nutrients that are tied to an impressive array of health benefits, including decreased risk of heart disease and strokes, osteoporosis, cancer and digestive disorders, losing excess weight in addition to easing some of the symptoms of menopause (Babu et al., 2009). ...
... Its shelf life is also very short, just 48 h, which restricts the utilization of tempeh [1]. It is fortunate since the tempeh is a good source of vitamin B complexes, folic acid, protein, iron and zinc which are important for red blood cell formation [2]. Therefore, to increase the availability of tempeh for a longer period, a method is needed to increase the shelf life of tempeh and one of the examples is by extracting the tempeh. ...
... Tempeh can be stored fresh at room temperature for only two days while low temperature storage lasts one week [4]. 2 One way to extend the shelf life of tempeh is to process it into tempeh milk powder. Tempe milk powder is not only intended for children, but also for adults. ...
Article
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One of the soybean products that people like was tempeh. Tempeh could not be stored for a long time and smells unpleasant, so it was less preferred by children, so tempeh milk powder was made with the aim to determine the effect of varieties and flavour on the quality of tempeh milk powder. The research method used was a completely randomized design factorial pattern with 3 replications. The first factors were the six soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Grobogan, Agromulyo, Burangrang, Kepak Hijau and import variety), the second factor was various flavourings, 4 levels (cocoa paste, strawberry paste, cocoa powder and vanilla paste). This activity is held from January until December 2015. Soybeans were harvested in Soppeng and Jeneponto Districts, South Sulawesi and then taken to the Post-Harvest Laboratory Assessment Institutes for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) of South Sulawesi for processing soybean to became of tempeh milk powder. The results showed that there was significant interaction between soybean varieties and flavour added of the yield, moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate and organoleptic test (colour, aroma, texture and taste of tempeh milk powder. The best milk powder of tempeh was treatment interaction of Grobogan variety and strawberry flavouring with a yield of 86.31%, moisture 10.10%, ash 0.58%, protein 3.01%, fat 0.0% and carbohydrates 86.31 %.
... One source of fiber-rich food is tempeh, a popular fermented food in Indonesia. As a soy product, tempeh is known for being rich in isoflavones, vitamin B-12, protein, calcium, folic acid, and easily digested due to simpler protein form after fermentation process (Babu et al., 2009). Studies revealed that Indonesian tempeh contains a consortium of microbes. ...
... A study by Boler et al. (2011) revealed soluble maize fiber could enhance Bifidobacterium production in healthy males. Tempeh is rich of soluble fibers (Babu et al., 2009), therefore this property might contribute to the effect of tempeh consumption in enhancing Bifidobacterium significantly. ...
Article
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It has been known that human gut microbiota modulates host health and the composition is affected by lifestyle, including the availability of dietary fiber. Tempeh, a kind of traditional fermented food from Indonesia, is rich in soluble fibers and microbial consortia. A previous study showed that tempeh could enhance IgA production and modulate gut microbiota composition in rats. Meanwhile, in human, tempeh supplementation for 16 days has increased the number of Akkermansia muciniphila significantly. Many Indonesians consume tempeh on a daily basis, but the effect of tempeh consumption for a longer period of time in human remains to be investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tempeh consumption in human for longer term, especially its effect in modulating gut microbiota composition. A total of sixteen (16) healthy females participated in this study. For the first 7 days, they were not allowed to consume any soy product; followed by 28 days of 100 gram of tempeh (n=10), or 200 mL of soymilk (n=6) consumption. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that soymilk and tempeh supplementation generated different profiles. Twenty-eight days of tempeh supplementation seemed to improve metabolic health markers better than soymilk treatment; significantly enhancing the presence of Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila populations compared to those at the beginning of the study. (PDF) Tempeh consumption enhanced beneficial bacteria in the human gut. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328100975_Tempeh_consumption_enhanced_beneficial_bacteria_in_the_human_gut [accessed Nov 17 2018].
... The consumption of processed plant-based protein products can trace back to the ancient civilizations in countries such as China and India. Plant-based protein products such as tofu (Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2013), tempeh (Babu, Bhakyaraj, & Vidhyalakshmi, 2009), and seitan (Day, 2011) have been documented in these countries since ancient times. These traditional plant-based products are typically used as a protein alternative in Buddhist and vegetarian dishes. ...
... Tempeh is another meat alternative made from soybeans, which originated in Indonesia a few centuries ago (Babu et al., 2009). For tempeh preparation, soybeans are soaked, dehulled, and partly cooked first, and then well fermented by Rhizopus fungus to obtain a solid structure. ...
Article
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The topic of plant‐based meat alternatives (PBMAs) has been discussed for several decades, but it has only recently become one of the hottest topics in the food and research communities. With the purpose of investigating the current situation of scientific research on PBMA and determining future research opportunities, the driving forces for PBMA development, a brief history of its progression, key technologies required for production, and the resulting consumer attitudes are summarized. Environmental, human health, and animal welfare concerns are the main factors that have driven the development of PBMA. Although its history can trace back to ancient Asian civilizations, the first generation of PBMA originated in 1960s and a new generation of PBMA designed for carnivore was developed in recently years. Structuring methods such as extrusion and shear cell techniques have been widely studied, but improvements toward the overall appearance and flavor, biological and chemical safety control, as well as the selection of protein sources are also very important for PBMA production. The consumer acceptance of PBMA remains unsatisfactory but is continually improving. Based on those knowledge, future research opportunities include developing more effective strategies for consumer education, providing more scientific evidence for the health properties of PBMA, finding more suitable protein sources to improve the quality of the final products, improving the appearance and flavor, further examining and securing the chemical safety, exploring the structure formation mechanism during the extraction or shearing processes, and developing methods and standards for a quality evaluation of PBMA.
... Tempe, also well-known as "soybean cake", is widely consumed in Indonesia and all over the world for its distinguished taste and nutritional values [1][2][3][4]. In Indonesia, tempe has been one of the most consumed protein sources for hundreds of years and known to be more preferable than meat and poultry [5]. ...
Article
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Tempe is a fermented soybean food from Indonesia, made by inoculating Rhizopus spp. onto cooked and dehulled soybean. Tempe has been a part of Indonesian culture since the 16th century and is now produced globally as a highly nutritious plant-based food. Despite a longstanding history on the production of tempe, very few studies have been reported to understand the effect of raw material to the end product metabolite composition. In this research, we applied GC/MS-based metabolite profiling to investigate the effect of various possible factors that might affect the final product (environmental factors, raw materials, and starter cultures). Representative samples were tempe produced by Indonesian industries, Japanese industries as well as laboratory made tempe. The results showed that both environmental factors and raw materials (soybean, water, and starter culture) contributed to the tempe metabolite profile. Here we found the possibility that starter cultures might play a greater role to determine the metabolite profiles compared to other tested factors. This research might provide useful insights for the larger scale industries to maintain the quality of tempe for the benefit of the consumers.
... Tempeh, a native dish of Indonesia (Babu et al. 2009), is produced by fermenting boiled legume seeds of soybean, peanut and mung bean with Rhizopus oligosporus strains and is now being explored in the United States (Buckle 1988). The seed coat of the legume is removed before the fungal culture is added; this allows the fungus to have better access to nutrient-rich cotyledons. ...
Chapter
Employing live fungi or fungal enzymes for industrial applications is known as fungal white biotechnology. White fungal biotechnology, an essential technology, uses renewable sources for sustainable growth of population. Fungi or fungal enzymes have role in food and feed industries. Fungal white biotechnology brings down greenhouse emissions and is eco-friendly in nature. The applications of fungi as food (edible fungi) and fodder and using fungi in processing food (bread, cheese and other bakery products) and fermenting food (alcohols, beverages) are indispensable. Fungal white biotechnology enhances flavour in cheese, bread and beverages; protein quality and yield in SCPs; and stability and shelf life of the products with much efficacy. Though there are many advantages with white fungal biotechnology, tolerance to the extreme conditions during processing and enrichment of products is the major challenge observed with white fungal biotechnology. This chapter reviews the opportunities and challenges of fungal white biotechnology to meet food security.
... Tempe is made through the fermentation process of boiled seeds using certain fungi that can bind the seeds to resemble a cake. The most important tempe fungus is Rhizopus oligosporus, but some other fungi, such as Rhizopus oryzae and Mucor spp, may also have an important role in taste, texture and nutritional value [13]. Some traditional tempe producers in Indonesia use tempe starter derived from Waru leaves (Hibiscus tiliaceus leaves). ...
Article
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Jack bean is one of the potential legumes as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides in tempe fermentation due to its high protein content and amino acids composition. A traditional inoculum for tempe fermentation is usar from Hibiscus tiliaceus leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum tempe fermentation time inoculated using usar on the formation of ACE-inhibitory peptides. The study applied the prolonged tempe fermentation (120 h) at room temperature (+30°C). The change of pH, soluble protein, protease activity, and ACE-inhibitory activity during tempe fermentation were determined using standard methods. There were significant differences (α=0.05) in pH, proteolytic activity, soluble protein content, and ACE-inhibitory activity during tempe fermentation. The highest protease activity was produced at 96 h of fermentation while the highest soluble protein content was produced at 120 h of fermentation with the value of 12.71 unit/g and 3.65 mg/mL, respectively. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity was reached at 72 h of fermentation (53.89 %). Conclusion: The optimum fermentation time of the formation of ACE-inhibitory peptide was at 72 h of fermentation.
... Despite its high protein content, overripe tempeh contains high fiber [9]. Too much fiber consumption during infancy is unbeneficial as it may cause satiety before the calorie and nutritional needs can be fulfilled [10]. ...
Conference Paper
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Children malnutrition in Indonesia, which is mainly caused by inadequate protein intake and poverty, called for low cost high protein source. Formulation of rice porridge, major choice (39%) of weaning food type based on initial survey, using overripe tempeh extract as protein source was done to fulfill infant protein requirement with acceptable sensory properties. Chopping increased efficiency of protein extraction by more than 4-fold and therefore extract from chopped overripe tempeh (CORTE) concentrate was selected for formulation. However, the bitter taste of CORTE hindered its usage as single source protein in the rice porridge formula. Formula series were derived from Design Expert software and screening was done based on calculation of energy, nutritional content, and price as formula responses. Screened formula were then further evaluated using hedonic sensory evaluation resulted in the selection of formula using 80% dry base, 9.30% isolate soy protein, 10.70% skim milk, which was cooked in 5 ml CORTE concentrate and 120 ml water. The selected formula was able to meet the national standard requirements, except for dietary fiber, has higher protein digestibility ratio compared to commercial weaning porridge, and was able to fulfill an acceptable portion of protein and indispensable amino acid requirements for infants.
... commonly using soybeans as a substrate. 1,2 Microorganisms that are commonly used in tempe fermentation is Rhizopus oligosporus. 3 Although the raw material of tempe is generally soybean, but other ingredients such as green beans, mung beans, seeds lamtoro and others can Utilization of rice bran tempe flour was intended to provide the added value to the product and to increase the nutritional value of the resulting chips. ...
Article
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Indonesia has a diversity of traditional food. One of them is tempe, a fermented food which is generally made from soybean. Currently, the diversity of tempe raw materials and tempe products are widely developed with the aim of increasing the nutritional content of tempe. Processing soybean into various foods is generally a simple process, like chips. Chip is one of the most popular snack food consumed by all ages. The effects of rice bran tempe flour addition as a fortification of wheat flour in the processing of simulated chips was determined. Rice bran tempe has been made through fermentation method using Rhizopus oligosporus culture. This study aims to determine the chemical properties and sensory tests of simulated chips with the addition of rice bran tempe flour. The simulated chips were formulated by supplementing rice bran tempe flour at different proportions (10%, 20%, and 30%) with 100% wheat flour as a control. Results have shown protein, fat and ash of the simulated chips to be increased, while carbohydrate content decreased corresponding to the increase in proportion of rice bran tempe flour. The result of hedonic test showed that the addition of 10% rice bran tempe flour is the most favourite compared with others. However, the consumer perception has stated that simulation chips product with added rice bran tempe flour has no resemblance to the commercial product as a whole product.
... Dietary fibres reduce the absorption of carbohydrates by providing an enclosure to the food, hindering the action of hydrolytic enzymes in the small intestine on food, and increasing the viscosity of food in the intestine [49]. This plays a vital role in reducing the GI of food thereby preventing the risk of diabetes type 2 [50]. Proanthocyanidins present in red rice provide protection against type 2 diabetes [51]. ...
Article
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Rice is a major cereal food crop and staple food in most of the developing countries. India stands second in the production of rice next to China. Though almost 40,000 varieties of rice are said to exist, at present, only a few varieties are cultivated extensively, milled and polished. Even if white rice is consumed by most people around the world, some specialty rice cultivars are also grown. These include the coloured and aromatic rice varieties. The nutritional profile of the specialty rice is high when compared to the white rice varieties. The coloured rice, which usually gets its colour due to the deposition of anthocyanin pigments in the bran layer of the grain, is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants. Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling industry is under-utilised, is rich in dietary fibre which finds application in the development of functional foods and various other value-added products. Thus, more focus on specialty rice and its by-products will not only save it from becoming extinct but also lead a step forward towards nutrition security of the country as they are abundant in vitamins, minerals and polyphenols.
... During the growth process of the fungus, the Rhizopus sp. secrete 4 to 5 anti-bacterial compounds that can inhibit bacterial growing [22]. Also, the acidification process (pH < 4.4) during the soybeans soaking can also inhibit bacterial growing [23]. ...
... Dietary fibres reduce the absorption of carbohydrates by providing an enclosure to the food, hindering the action of hydrolytic enzymes in the small intestine on food, and increasing the viscosity of food in the intestine [49]. This plays a vital role in reducing the GI of food thereby preventing the risk of diabetes type 2 [50]. Proanthocyanidins present in red rice provide protection against type 2 diabetes [51]. ...
... Fermentation commonly lasts around 24-48 h and yields the end product: tempeh cake. Babu et al. (2009) found that the desired fungal activity was reached in 24 h at 37°C and in 5 days at 25°C. During fermentation, two different processes take place. ...
Article
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Purpose Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian fermented soybean product, which plays an essential role in its culture and economy and forms an important non-meat protein source in the diet of its people. Nationally, there are around 80,000 small and medium tempeh producers consuming more than 1 million tonnes of soybeans annually. This raw material is however mostly imported from the USA, which might bring unintended environmental consequences. This paper evaluates the life cycle environmental performance of tempeh by comparing existing tempeh production alternatives in Indonesia, identifying impact hotspots and analysing parameter sensitivity for possible improvement. Methods A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted including 11 CML baseline impact categories for a case study of tempeh production in West Java. The study differentiated between two levels of technology, being conventional and hygienic tempeh production. The latter was characterised by the elimination of firewood, an increased energy and material intensity and higher product acceptance in certain market segments. Assuming that it best represents future practices, sensitivity analysis were further carried out on the hygienic tempeh production system. Results and discussion Minor differences in environmental impact exist between the conventional and hygienic production systems. For example, the global warming impact of 1 kg of either conventional or hygienic tempeh is between 0.9 and 1.0 kg CO2-eq. Where the soybean cultivation stage is the main contributor to the indicator results for land use and eutrophication, the transport stage is the main contributor to human toxicity, eco-toxicity, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, photochemical oxidation and acidification. Road transport within Indonesia was found to dominantly contribute to the total transport impact and to be a highly sensitive parameter, showing great variability due to changes in distance and assumed average load. This study also found that assumed average load from ecoinvent transport services may not reflect average transport conditions in Indonesia. Conclusions Hotspots of Indonesian tempeh are related to the transport of soybeans to the tempeh factory and their cultivation. This means that the processing of soybeans into tempeh at the factory only has a small contribution to total environmental impacts. Therefore, improvements aimed at environmental gains should focus mainly on the development of locally grown soybean or other beans and efficient modes of local transport, and to a lesser extent on the installation of wastewater treatment, increased use of renewable energy and increasing energy efficiency.
... One of the important outcomes of food fermentation is its enrichment with essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals; for example, idli (an Indian cake made from Rhizopus oligosporous fermented rice and black-gram) contains high levels of thiamine and riboflavin [1]. Similarly, natto (a sticky soybean dish) is popular amongst the Japanese for its vitamin K2 [2], as is the Nepalese dish of Gundruk (fermented mustard, radish, and cauliflower leaves), which has a high ascorbic acid and fiber content, and tempeh, a popular fermented food in Indonesia that is rich in nutrients and active substances [3], with both having a continued consumer appeal worldwide. The process of fermentation coaxes microorganisms into degrading anti-nutritive compounds, making food more edible and digestible, thus augmenting the bioavailability of its health-protecting nutrients. ...
Article
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The simplistic morphological characteristics of Carica papaya fruit or “pawpaw” should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but also due to its phytochemical properties and traditional health benefits. Papaya or formulations of fermented papaya promotion (FPP) display effective free radical scavenging abilities thought to be influenced by its phenolic, carotenoid, flavonoid, or amino acid profile. The antioxidant properties of FPP have been extensively reported in literature to potently target a broad spectrum of free radical-induced diseases ranging from neurological impairments, such as senile dementia, to systemic diseases, to its interference at the cellular level and the support of normal biological ageing processes. FPP has thus been extensively investigated for its ability to exert cellular protective effects and reduce oxidative stress via the mitigation of genetic damage, reduction of lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic inactivation in specific diseases. The focus of this review is to appraise the potential of oxidative stress reduction strategies of FPP and discuss its holistic approach in disease prevention and management, with a particular focus on diabetes and cancer. However, with the current lack of information surrounding its mechanism of action, this review wishes to set the stage and aspire researchers to more profoundly investigate molecular pathways related to how FPP can unequivocally contribute to wellness in an aging population.
... Once the fermentation has activated, the soybeans are packed into a compact and solid mass. The fermentation will later result in a product with a nutty flavour and a texture similar to a chewy mushroom 1 . ...
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Tempeh is an Indonesian traditional fermented soybean food that is well known for its nutritional value and health benefit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two commonly used packaging materials in tempeh production, namely banana leaf and polyethylene bag, on the antioxidant properties. Isoflavones, include daidzein and genistein, of tempeh fermented in banana leaf (TBL) and polyethylene bag (TP) were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assays, respectively. The changes of antioxidant properties of tempeh after different fermentation periods in both wrapping materials were observed, on day 0 (unfermented), day 1, day 2 and day 4. Total phenolic content, daidzein, genistein and the antioxidant activities were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in both TBL and TP as the fermentation progressed. A higher total phenolic content was found in TBL on day 1 and day 2 but TP exhibited the highest total phenolic content on day 4. Daidzein was the highest in TBL on day 2 but it was reduced on day 4 while genistein was the highest in TP on day 4. Antioxidant activities were positively (r = 0.272–0.969, p < 0.05) correlated to total phenolic content, daidzein and genistein. Although tempeh wrapped in banana leaf is a traditional way for tempeh packaging, it provided better antioxidant properties on day 1 and day 2, which is within the best period of tempeh consumption. Hence, the current findings provided useful information to manufacturer and consumer in selecting the suitable wrapping material for tempeh with optimal phytonutrients.
... The mould liberates water soluble oligosaccharides by enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides (Nout & Kiers, 2005). It can also hydrolyze the proteins and lipids which in its turn yield substrates for the bacteria to use (Babu, Bhakyaraj, & Vidhyalakshmi, 2009;Hering, Bisping, & Rehm, 1991;Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001). Skory et al. (Skory, Freer, & Bothast, 1998) showed that R. oryzae was able to produce L-lactic acid also under oxygen limiting conditions. ...
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Tempeh is a traditional, fungal fermented Indonesian product, usually made from soybeans. Tempeh is known to contain vitamin B12 which is essential for a healthy human diet. Therefore, tempeh is of particular interest for vegan diets since B12 is normally found only in animal derived products. The vitamin B12 in tempeh is associated with the presence of opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella pneumoniae. Levels of B12 in tempeh do not sustain the recommended daily intake though. In addition, the use of a food-grade bacterium instead of K. pneumoniae is preferred. Lupin can serve as alternative substrate for soybeans due to its similar protein content, resulting in ‘lupin tempeh’. In this study, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, a food-grade, vitamin B12 producing bacterium, was used in co-culture with Rhizopus oryzae to produce B12-enriched lupin tempeh. A significant increase of vitamin B12 content (up to 0.97 μg/100 g) was achieved by fermenting lupin using a mixed starter of R. oryzae and P. freudenreichii. Other parameters, such as texture and volatile organic compounds, were not affected by the bacterial co-inoculation. Therefore, these results are promising for in situ vitamin B12 fortification of lupin tempeh making it a sustainable protein source for a healthy human diet.
... Selama fermentasi kedelai menjadi tempe terjadi juga peningkatan daya cerna tempe. Peningkatan ini terjadi karena reduksi senyawa antrinutrisi tanin dan asam fitat dengan cara memproduksi asam yang dapat menghambat produksi bakteri patogen (Babu et al., 2009). Oleh karena itu tempe sering disebut sebagai superfood. ...
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p> Tempeh had been recognized worldwide as a superfood. In Pengkok Village, Kedawung Sub-district, Sragen Regency, there were several traditional tempeh producers which supply fresh tempeh around Kedawung Sub-district. Tempeh produced in this area was also used as raw material for brownies production. "BROWNIESTA" is a Small Medium Enterprise (SME) which produces brownies made from tempeh. The demand of tempeh brownies was high, but it was difficult for SME "BROWNIESTA" to fulfill the demand due to the lack number of ovens. In addition, packaging, labels and the quality of the products had been unstable due to limited understanding of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) concept in food production. This community service introduced appropriate technology for SME "BROWNIESTA" in the form of: 1) introduction of gas-fired ovens, 2) introduction of packaging and labels and 3) GMP training according to BPOM guidelines. Partners actively participated in providing materials for the introduced oven trials, providing materials and tools for evaluation of product sensory quality improvement and facilitating the implementation of GMP training. Based on the evaluation results, the sensory quality of brownies produced using the introduced oven had increased as indicated by its softer texture and smoother crust that is not caramelized. The product was also packaged properly with product information on the label attached to the packaging. Oven introduction also increased the production capacity up to 150%. SME “BROWNIESTA” implemented better food production practices after completing GMP training. Therefore, it could be concluded that the introduction of appropriate technology in SME "BROWNIESTA" increase the capacity and quality of the tempeh brownies products . </p
... Fermenting leguminous seeds has several advantages, including reducing non-nutritional factors, improving nutrient digestibility, reducing allergenicity, activating antioxidant activity, increasing the concentration of phenolic compounds, and decreasing the risk of chronic disease (Vital, 2018). Tempeh fermentation produces nutritious and healthy food products that are easy to digest (Nout and Kiers, 2005); it is known for being rich in fiber, isoflavones, vitamin B-12, protein, calcium, and folic acid, and can be easily digested due to the simpler form of protein following the fermentation process (Babu et al., 2009). Moreover, tempeh is useful for inhibiting the formation of the blood vessels of cancer cells and improving bone health, and is also antihypertensive and acts as an anti-bacterial agent and active antioxidant. ...
Article
Lamtoro tempeh is a traditional Indonesian fermented food made from lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala). In Pacitan, it is usually fermented using usar (a traditional tempeh inoculum made from senggani leaves). The fermentation process takes 42 hrs and during this period, there are changes in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the lamtoro seeds. To study these changes, samples were collected and tested for chemical characteristics (water content, ash content, dissolved protein, pH, and total acid titration) and microbiological characteristics (the number of fungi, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria) every 6 hrs during the 42 hrs fermentation. During fermentation, the water content increased significantly in the initial 6 hrs of fermentation and then tended to stabilize until the 42-hour. The ash content increased, while the dissolved protein content increased from the 0-hour to the 36-hour of fermentation but dropped at the 42-hour. The pH level of the lamtoro tempeh decreased from 0-hour until 30-hour and then increased until the end of the fermentation period. However, the level of total acid titration increased during the lamtoro tempeh fermentation. The growth of fungi, yeast and lactic acid bacteria initially declined but then gradually increased until the end of fermentation (42-hour). The fermentation time was found to affect both the number of microbes and the chemical characteristics of the lamtoro tempeh from the Pacitan area.
... The species complex is widely distributed in soil, dung, decomposing mushrooms, flowers, leaves, air, and so on and may occasionally arise as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. In daily cuisine, they are usually used to ferment foods such as grains, fruits, and legumes (Hu, Li, Li, & Gu, 2008;Igor, Ram on, & Igor, 2015); Among these, tempeh made from soybean in Indonesia and Malaysia may be the most well-known production (Dinesh Babu, Bhakyaraj, & Vildhyalakshmi, 2009). They can also produce fumaric acid (Peng et al., 2016;Wang, 2014;Ying, Jia, Yang, & Wan, 2015) and malic acid (He, Li, Fu, Xu, & Huang, 2008;Liu et al., 2015) on an industrial scale. ...
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To discover the differences and modes of saccharifying ability among Rhizopus arrhizus strains isolated from various habitats, we grew strains in glutinous rice media to monitor the production of glucose from starch using spectrophotometry at regular time intervals. The saccharifying capacity of R. arrhizus var. delemar was found to be weaker than that of var. arrhizus and var. tonkinensis. These data provide additional phenotypic support for recognization of this genetically distinct lineage (var. delemar) as a separate species. Clinical isolates were generally low in saccharifying abilities, while all strains from southwest China had an excellent diastatic power.
... Oncom is a traditional food Indonesia from Java West (Agustiningsih, 2002). Oncom is a source of nutrition potential for society, because with the fermentation process, then the structure chemical materials that were complex, will break down into compounds simpler ones so more easily digested and utilized by body (Koni et al., 2013;Hidanah and Widjaja, 2010;Babu et al., 2009). Waste are derivation by product of processing that still containing a lot nutrient (Putri and Setiawati, 2008). ...
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The purpose of this research was to determine the dietary effect of red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus) on performance and intestinal properties of broiler in different levels. The materials used for this research were 100 unsex broiler (20 days old) with Lohmann strain. Method was used in this experiment was Completely Randomize Design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment were as follows, T0: basal diet without additive, T1: basal diet + (0.25% red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and 0.25% black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus), P2: basal diet + (0.5% red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and 0.5% black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus), T3: basal diet + (0.5% red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and 0.25% black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus), and T4: basal diet + (0.75% red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and 0.5% black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus). The result showed that red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus) has significantly enhanced (p<0.05) on intestinal properties. It can be concluded that red oncom (Neurospora sitophila spp) and black oncom (Rhizopus oligosporus) in feed gives a positive result on the broiler intestinal properties.
... The general methods available for assay of B vitamins in food sources include microbiological assays, direct spectrophotometry, Inductive-coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, HPLC and Capillary electrophoresis [53], [54], [55], [56], [57]. The microbiological assays are simple, but tedious and time consuming. ...
... Secara umum tahap pembuatan tempe berbumbu sama dengan pembuatan tempe pada umumnya. Tahap pembuatan tempe yaitu tahap pengupasan, tahap perendaman, tahap pemasakan, tahap penirisan, tahap pendinginan, tahap inokulasi, tahap pengemasan, dan terakhir tahap inkubasi (Babu, Bhakyaraj, & Vidhyalakshmi, 2009). Modifikasi tahap pembuatan tempe dilakukan sebelum proses peragian yaitu penambahan bumbu yang sebelumnya telah dihaluskan pada kedelai. ...
... Fermentation of soybean improves digestibility by reducing antinutritional factors like tannin and phytase and preventing the growth of spoilage bacteria in food. Because it is an excellent source protein, rich in many nutrients and active substances, the consumption of tempeh has been rapidly increasing, not only in Indonesia but also in Eastern South Asia, North America, Europe and other areas [3,4]. ...
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PurposeOkara is a solid waste of soybean-processed foods; it is normally used as a low-priced product, such as fertiliser and feed. An alternative method for the convertion of okara to valorized products is required. Methods This research employed Rhizopus azygosporus with fast-growing property to ferment bean dregs using solid-state fermentation technology and examined the functional composition and the physiologically effective bioactivities for comparison with unfermented okara.ResultsRhizopus oligosporus BCRC 33956 and R. azygosporus BCRC31158 were cultivated on potato dextrose agar plates for 72 h after which they were used for comparison, and R. azygosporus exhibited approximately 1.3 times of growth rate than R. oligosporus. The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and crude polysaccharide in two days ferment accumulated to 696 mg/kg and 40.6%, respectively. During fermentation by R. azygosporus for 2 days, 74.6% genistin, a type of isoflavone glucoside, was depleted and 106.7 mg/L genistein was detected in the extracts. The results also showed that the proliferation of R. azygosporus enhanced several bioactivities in the okara fermentation. The relative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory effects in the extracts of unfermented and fermented okara were 74.9% and 132.3%, respectively, compared with those of 10 mM captopril. The antioxidant capacity, including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, was also significantly increased in okara accompany the growth of R. azygosporus. An animal study showed that GABA and functional characteristics and contents enriched by R. azygosporus in the okara fermentation were likely to have an obvious synergistic effect on the reduction of cortisol concentration in stimulated zebrafish, revealing the anti-stress function of fermented okara. Our work provides the process for development as a functional product, especially in anti-stress, which will further increase the value of okara and reduce waste, enabling sustainable consumption and production patterns.Graphical Abstract
... It was unsurprised because this group of fungi was used as the inoculum of tempeh. Rhizopus oligosporus was the main species being used in the preparation of tempeh, however other Rhizopus such as R. oryzae and R. formosaensis were also found from tempeh (Babu et al. 2009). This group of fungi can grow predominantly on the substrate with an abundant amount of carbon (Ferreira et al. 2012). ...
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Pangastuti A, Alfisah RK, Istiana NI, Sari SLA, Setyaningsih R, Susilowati A, Purwoko T. 2019. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community in over-fermented tempeh. Biodiversitas 20: 1106-1114. Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food which is made from soybeans through a fermentation process using Rhizopus as a starter culture. Tempeh is now considered as a functional food with many beneficial effects to human health beyond its nutritional value. The microbial community during the further fermentation process of tempeh give typical characteristic taste and flavor. Therefore the over-fermented tempeh is used as a flavoring in some dishes. Metagenomic analysis needed to know the involvement of microbial communities since most of the microbes involved in further fermentation process are unculturable. This research aimed to study the diversity of the microbial community in the over-fermented tempeh (72 hours) using the metagenomic analysis. Seventeen OTUs of fungi in over-fermented tempeh were detected. Among them, 9 OTUs had significant abundance: six species were identified as Tryblidiopsis sichuanensis, Candida sp.2_1., Kluyveromyces marxianus, Trichosporon asahii, Trichosporon gracile, and Trichosporon ovoides, one species was identified in the order level Mucorales, and two fungi species could not be determined. Species of the order Mucorales was the dominant species in over-fermented tempeh (72 hours) with a relative abundance of 62.46%, followed by Kluyveromyces marxianus with a relative abundance of 3698%. Meanwhile, 132 OTUs of the bacterial community was detected, the predominant 10 genera were Chryseobacterium, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas, in which Lactobacillus agilis, Lactococcus sp., and Klebsiella sp., were most abundant with relative abundance of 27%, 26.3%, and 13% respectively.
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One of the processes of wet area is the separation of soybean's skin using water as its media, with the cycle time is 45.59 minutes. The object of this research is the wet area on Tempe production in Indonesian Tempe House (ITH) at Bogor City to reducing the cycle time by designing soybean peel separator machine. This research was conducted using the reverse engineering method by performing an in-depth analysis of the tools used and developing the existing peel separator equipment based on user needs. Concept screening and concept scoring are done to select one of the best concepts of 48 possible concepts. The result of the selected concept of the soybean peel separator is the need for a propulsion motor as a replacement energy source for the operator's power and the mechanisms for separating skin and soybeans using water force from the bottom of the container. After that, the concept will be done by make a prototype and testing it in Rumah Tempe Indonesia with the result of cycle time is 70.77 minutes for all processes in a wet area, which means the cycle time is decreasing 39%.
Article
Tempe, a fermented soybean originally from Indonesia, is an excellent protein source with high nutritional quality. Differences in the production process and unique fermentation condition in different regions result in varieties of tempe. Despite its high cultural and economic values, there are very few studies on the characterization of tempe based on the differences of production process and geographical origin. Metabolomics is a powerful tool assessing food quality, food safety, and determination of origin and varietal differences. In this study, metabolomics is applied for the study of Indonesian tempe obtained from various regions and different production processes. Seventeen samples were collected from 6 different cities in Java Island, which were produced by local tempe crafters (traditional), semi-modern industry and modern industry. Untargeted metabolomics by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was implemented to discriminate various kinds of tempe and identify metabolites that are associated with these differences. Results showed that tempe produced in different places clustered together according to the cities and their production category. Sugars and amino acids groups were found to be primary compounds that contributed to this result. This is the first report that address the metabolic differences between different varieties of tempe from different regions and production processes. The knowledge from this study is important for future development of tempe production.
Chapter
The fermented beverages and foods either of plant or animal source play a vital role in the food of society in several parts of the world. The fermented of foods not only afford vital sources of nutrients but also have abundant potential in maintaining health and also preventing various diseases. The bacteria and yeasts are the major groups of microorganisms related to traditional fermented of the foods. Numerous diverse types of traditional fermented beverages and foods are formed at domestic level in the various countries. The advancement of fermentation technology provides value addition to waste food by their complete conversion into the different value-added products. The recent research suggests that the biological functions of fermented foods affect the health due to functional microbes involved during fermentation which provides several health-promoting benefits to the consumers. The emphasis of this chapter is to describe the fermentation technology and their potential to minimize the wastage of foods by conversion of value-added products and their benefits.
Article
p>Sesuai dengan amanat Undang-undang No. 20 Tahun 2014 tentang Standardisasi dan Penilaian Kesesuaian, pemerintah berkewajiban melakukan pembinaan kepada pelaku usaha, khusunya UMKM dalam hal penerapan standar. Salah satu industri pangan yang banyak terdapat di Indonesia adalah industri tempe kedelai, namun masih banyak produsen tempe yang belum dapat menerapkan SNI 3144:2015. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi penyimpangan mutu yang terjadi terhadap pemenuhan mutu tempe sesuai SNI 3144:2015 pada UMKM tempe, mengidentifikasi faktor penyebab terjadinya penyimpangan mutu tersebut dan upaya perbaikan yang perlu dilakukan agar tempe hasil produksi mampu memenuhi seluruh parameter SNI 3144:2015. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara melakukan identifikasi proses produksi untuk melihat variasi pembuatan tempe, melakukan pengujian mutu tempe sesuai SNI 3144:2015, melakukan evaluasi faktor penyebab penyimpangan mutu dan memberikan rekomendasi perbaikannya. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan adanya variasi pembuatan tempe yang berpengaruh terhadap pemenuhan mutu tempe yakni kadar air, kadar serat kasar, cemaran logam cadmium dan cemaran coliform. Upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk perbaikan mutu tempe adalah perlunya memperhatikan penggunaan bahan baku ragi, jenis peralatan yang digunakan, metode inokulasi dan lama fermentasi, kemasan serta kondisi hygiene proses produksi.</p
Conference Paper
Soybean for tempeh preparation is generally peeled by wet milling of cooked soybean seeds. This technique is time consuming and requires a lot of water. Instead, peeling can be done by dry milling prior to cooking to save processing time and water usage. This research aims to evaluate the characteristics of tempeh prepared from local Indonesian soybean as influenced by peeling techniques. The characteristics of peeled and unpeeled-soybean were also evaluated. Characterization of tempeh was done on proximate composition, textural properties, color, and organoleptic acceptances. The proximate characteristics of tempeh made from dry-peeled and wet-peeled soybean had no significant differences. Tempeh prepared by dry peeling had a softer texture (1.79 N) than that prepared by wet peeling (2.04 N). The color of tempeh with dry-peeled soybean was lighter than that with wet-peeled soybean, both its outer and inner part. Tempeh prepared by dry peeling had a better sensory acceptance in chewiness (4.3) than that by wet peeling (3.0), and no differences in taste, cohesiveness, aroma, and color. These results provide an alternative of a more environmentally friendly tempeh preparation with a dry peeling technique.
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Mocaf (modified cassava flour), rice flour, and corn flour were used as mixed flour to prepare pasta product. Various levels of tempeh flour (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15%) were incorporated to enrich nutritional content of the mixed flour, primarily protein. This current work aimed to understand the effect of tempeh flour addition on physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and whiteness level) and pasting properties of the mixed flour. The results showed that addition of tempeh flour did not exhibit significant impacts to moisture (9.17-10.18%), ash (0.74-0.91%), and fat content (4.68-5.65%) of the mixed flour. On the other hand, it produced significant effects on protein level, white degree and pasting properties at a significance level of 5%. In the absence of tempeh flour, protein level and whiteness level of the mixed flour reached 5.83% and 80.96%, respectively. Meanwhile, tempeh flour could increase protein content of 6.30-9.07% and alter whiteness level of 66.08-71.97%. In addition, the presence of tempeh flour was also found to improve viscosity in comparison with control. The protein level was higher as more tempeh flour was added, while whiteness level and viscosity appeared to decrease. Addition of 5% tempeh flour increased protein content to 6.88%, and the mixed flour has the best viscosity.
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Biotechnology has rapidly developed until now. The use of biotechnology was very extensive for human needs, including the food industry. Some biotechnological processes, both conventional modern, were inseparable from the use of microorganisms. A number of certain microorganisms were used in traditional food through fermentation such as yogurt, tape, cheese and salted vegetables. In addition, microorganisms also used in the DNA recombination process to produce high quality food products such as GMO (Genetically Modified Organism). Indonesia is a country with a majority of the Muslim population so that in the provision of food was very concerned about aspects of halal. Included in biotechnology foods that utilizing microorganism and have to pay attention of the halal critical point. In this case, needs to be considered so that every production process can be ensured to avoid contamination of non-halal materials
Chapter
Solid-state cultivation (SSC) involves the cultivation of microorganisms on moist solid particles surrounded by a continuous gas phase. Although SSC has been used for centuries in the production of traditional fermented foods, most biotechnological products are currently produced by submerged culture. However, SSC will become of increasing importance for processing solid residues in biorefineries, especially when filamentous fungi are involved. This chapter presents the basic design and operating principles of the four bioreactor types available for SSC processes: trays, packed beds, rotating (or stirred) drums, and forcefully aerated agitated bioreactors. Control of bed temperature is the main challenge, with the selection of an appropriate bioreactor depending on the specific growth rate of the process organism and also its tolerance of agitation. The bioreactors differ with respect to whether or not the substrate bed is agitated and whether or not the substrate bed is forcefully aerated, offering different combinations of conductive, convective, and evaporative cooling. The best tools for guiding the scale-up of SSC bioreactors are mathematical models that integrate growth kinetics with energy and water balances and which recognize and describe the gradients that occur across the bed during periods of static operation. Due to the complexity of the microscopic-scale phenomena involved in growth of the microorganism on the substrate particles, the kinetic equations used in these models are usually simple empirical equations, such as the logistic equation.
Chapter
A well-designed growth medium is one of the key elements of a successful microbial fermentation. In this chapter, the roles and sources of individual components of submerged and solid-state fermentation media are described. These components include C and N sources, water, minerals, growth factors, precursors, and antifoams. The use of low-value by-products and waste streams as fermentation substrates is also discussed. The design and optimization of fermentation media and considerations for scale-up are critical to the ultimate success of industrial fermentation processes.
Chapter
Plant proteins-based foods contribute a larger part of human diet and off-course the daily nutrients supply. Complete reliance on plants proteins sources like wheat are expected to anticipate detrimental effects in populations where such cereals are the staple crops and comprises a larger share of the total dietary energy supply. Beside the fact that a mixture of plant proteins derived from a variety of edible plants can serve as complete sources of amino acids to meet human physiological needs, a larger segment of global population still relies upon individual food crops as primary source of dietary energy. Such a situation calls for comprehensive evaluation of food processing techniques like fermentation that not merely improves seasoning quality of the plant produce but also enhance availability and supply of indispensable nutrients. Fermented foods are ubiquitously found in the diets of peoples from different cultures and traditions. Fermented plant foods are groups into cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds, tubers and fruits and vegetables. This chapter provides an overview of the fermented plant foods that may be classified as concentrated source of proteins and anticipate a major contribution to cost-effective delivery of a balanced amount of essential amino acids, dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins, and a wide range of non-nutrients bioactive compounds of human health significance. The chapter in hand, provides an insight to some traditional fermented plant protein products and comprehensively discusses role of fermentation in reducing the load of intrinsic toxicants, and in improving essential amino acids contents and their availability.
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The aims of this study were to determine the physico-chemical features of tempehs produced from different sources of legume (soybean (control), chickpea, lentils (red and green), and beans (white, black, and broad)) using Rhizopus oligosporus and to specify the best tempeh by sensory evaluation. Results showed that the lowest ash (0.53%) and moisture (44.88%), and the highest protein (47.11 mg/mL) levels were determined in chickpea tempeh, which contained slightly low phenolic compared to soybean tempeh while its sugar content was about 3.58-fold higher than that of soybean tempeh. Thus, the moisture content of white bean (55.20%) and red lentil (55.99%) tempehs was similar to soy tempeh (55.45%), and the ash contents of the remaining tempehs except for chickpea tempeh (0.53%) were approximately the same (1.20–1.91%). The color and texture profile values of chickpea tempeh showed similarity with that of soybean tempeh. Besides, while no phytic, acetic, fumaric, and iso-citric acids were detected in chickpea, red lentil and broad bean tempehs, acetic acid was detected in soybean, white bean, black bean, green lentil, and broad bean tempehs. Sensory evaluations indicated that the chickpea tempeh was superior to the other produced tempehs. Consequently, tempehs from different sources of legume were successfully produced. Keywords: Solid state fermentation, Nutritional quality, Organic acids, Texture profile, Sensory evaluation
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Breadfruit tempeh was prepared by fermenting African breadfruit seeds with Rhizopus oligosporus (NRRL 2710) and later used as filler to formulate breadfruit pie. Sensory evalution was carried out on this food product. During the fermentation process, physicochemical changes and proximate analysis of breadfruit tempeh were monitored at 12 hour interval until 60 hour. Crude fiber content decreased from 14% to 1.07% and carbohydrate content from 28.57% to 24.57%. The protein content increased from 7.86% to 10.94%, nitrogen content from 1.26% to 1.75%, ash content from 0.7% to 0.9%, lipid content from 5.60% to 8.60% and moisture content from 48.60% to 55.70% which later reduced to 53.80%. Reducing sugar was not detected. P H decreased from 6.55 to 5.71 while temperature increased from 29 o C to 45 o C and later declined to 39 o C. The fermenting breadfruit tempeh was harvested at 36hr and a portion of it was deep-fried, some oven dried and the remaining portion were steam-boiled and they were used as fillers in different combinations to formulate breadfruit pie. Oven-dried breadfruit tempeh plus meat pie fillers had the highest protein content of 28.88% while meat pie fillers had the least protein content of 13.42%. Deep-fried breadfruit tempeh mixed meat pie fillers was the preferred among all the filler used to formulate breadfruit pie. [N. Maduka, H. O. Njoku and N.N. Odu. The Production Of Tempeh-Like Food Product Using African Breadfruit Seeds (Terculia africana). Academia Arena, 2012;4(4):39-43] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6
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The aim of this study was to select fungal strains and alternative substrates to increase the production of bioactive compounds by solid-state bioprocessing using soybeans. Initially, from a total of 17 fungi strains, R. oligosporus NRRL 3267, R. oligosporus NRRL 2710, and R. arrhizus NRRL 2582 were pre-selected for presenting the greatest antioxidant activities during soybean fermentation. The three Rhizopus strains were cultured in soybeans supplemented with different cereal grains (brown rice, wheat, corn, and oat) aiming to achieve a higher antioxidant activity. Soybean supplementation with brown rice increased the concentration of phenolic compounds (0.697 to 6.447 mg GAE g-1) significantly compared with the only use of soybean (1.792 to 3.10 mg GAE g-1), using R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. The improved fungal-mediated biotransformation process (R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 with soybeans and brown rice) generated an isoflavone aglycone-rich product, containing different antioxidant compounds, such as trans-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The fermented substrate also showed great potential to inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme (anti-inflammatory activity) and against CaCo-2 tumor cells growth (antitumor activity). The resulting compound could serve as a value-added food and/or feed ingredient and a rich source of bioactive compounds.
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Strains of R. oligosporus produce an antibacterial compound especially active against some gram-positive microorganisms. The material can be extracted with water from soybeans fermented by R. oligosporus. It can also be recovered from culture broth by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The compound is fairly stable in its semi-purified state and may consist of four or five components. The antibacterial activity produced by a mold commonly used in an oriental food fermentation is considered significant for those people whose diets are often nutritionally inadequate. Conceivably ingestion of this material may confer disease resistance.
Tempeh-a fermented food from soybean
  • R Sharma
  • A K Sarbhoy
Sharma, R. and A.K. Sarbhoy, 1984. Tempeh-a fermented food from soybean. Current Science, 53: 325-326
Tempe and related foods
  • Food
  • Rworld J Applied
  • Dairy
  • Food
Food. Applied and rWorld J. Dairy & Food Sci., 4 (1): 22-27, 2009 26 4.KO Swan, D. and C.W. Hesseltine, 1979. Tempe and related foods. Economic Microbiology, 4: 115-140