Article

The Question of Participation: Toward Authentic Public Participation in Public Administration

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Abstract

How can the processes of public participation be improved? This study uses interviews and focus-group discussions to look for some answers. The results suggest that improving public participation requires changes in citizen and administrator roles and relationships and in administrative processes. Specifically, we need to move away from static and reactive processes toward more dynamic and deliberative processes. The article suggests some practical steps to achieve these changes.

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... Public management scholars often use terms such as public or citizen participation (Callahan, 2007;King, Feltey, & Susel, 1998;Langton, 1978;Wang, 2001). Wang (2001, p. 302) characterizes public participation as "citizen involvement in making service delivery and management decision". ...
... Public participation has important benefits for governance outside of government because democratic values are realized by participatory mechanisms (Berner, 2003;Thomas, 1995). According to King et al. (1998), local governments may adopt different strategies to encourage the participation of the people to improve their satisfaction about the services at the local level. André, Martin, and Lanmafankpotin (2012) contend that the participation of the people is the process by which people participate on a voluntary basis or mandatory and act alone or in groups with the aim to influence the decision to impact to the entire community. ...
... Along the line, citizen participation in government decision-making helps to improve policy in terms of performance, decision legitimacy, citizen response and trust in the government (E. Berman & Wang, 2000;King et al., 1998;Walters, Aydelotte, & Miller, 2000). Inheriting such knowledge with citizen participation is the government's efforts to involve citizens in administrative decisions, making and management processes. ...
Article
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The ultimate goal to building a New Rural Development (NRD) (similar to Saemaul Undong Movement in Korea) is to sustainably improve the material and spiritual life of the people. Our study investigates how citizen participation may influence effectiveness of the NRD program and citizen satisfaction in implementing the NRD in Nha Be District in the period of 2016-2020. Our work adopts a questionnaire-based survey designed to gather data from 780 participants using random cluster sampling technique. Our findings reveal that citizen participation significantly affects citizen satisfaction via the mediating role of the NRD program effectiveness but not directly between citizen participation and citizen satisfaction. Finally, our study offers theoretical contributions and policy implications for decision makers and NRD program managers.
... Public management scholars often use terms such as public or citizen participation (Callahan, 2007;King, Feltey, & Susel, 1998;Langton, 1978;Wang, 2001). Wang (2001, p. 302) characterizes public participation as "citizen involvement in making service delivery and management decision". ...
... Public participation has important benefits for governance outside of government because democratic values are realized by participatory mechanisms (Berner, 2003;Thomas, 1995). According to King et al. (1998), local governments may adopt different strategies to encourage the participation of the people to improve their satisfaction about the services at the local level. André, Martin, and Lanmafankpotin (2012) contend that the participation of the people is the process by which people participate on a voluntary basis or mandatory and act alone or in groups with the aim to influence the decision to impact to the entire community. ...
... Along the line, citizen participation in government decision-making helps to improve policy in terms of performance, decision legitimacy, citizen response and trust in the government (E. Berman & Wang, 2000;King et al., 1998;Walters, Aydelotte, & Miller, 2000). Inheriting such knowledge with citizen participation is the government's efforts to involve citizens in administrative decisions, making and management processes. ...
Article
The ultimate goal to building a New Rural Development (NRD) (similar to Saemaul undong in Korea) is to sustainably improve the material and spiritual life of the people. Our study investigates how citizen participation may influence effectiveness of the NRD program and citizen satisfaction in implementing the NRD in Nha Be District in the period of 2016-2020. Our work adopts a questionnaire-based survey designed to gather data from 780 participants using random cluster sampling technique. Our findings reveal that citizen participation significantly affects citizen satisfaction via the mediating role of the NRD program effectiveness but not directly between citizen participation and citizen satisfaction. Finally, our study offers theoretical contributions and policy implications for decision makers and NRD program managers.
... In research on citizens taking responsibility (see Arnstein, 1969;King et al., 1998) a crucial element is the real power of citizens to affect the outcome, participating without power often just frustrates citizens (Arnstein, 1969;King et al. 1998). In this case the outcome as to what constitutes an acceptable public space and how it should be maintained was based on a political decision. ...
... In research on citizens taking responsibility (see Arnstein, 1969;King et al., 1998) a crucial element is the real power of citizens to affect the outcome, participating without power often just frustrates citizens (Arnstein, 1969;King et al. 1998). In this case the outcome as to what constitutes an acceptable public space and how it should be maintained was based on a political decision. ...
... • The self-referential feedback loop: A self-referential feedback loop can exist as long as the actual outcome is in line with expectations, but even if it is not, outcomes can be denied or framed to better fit prior expectations. The municipal authority expected passive citizens and the municipal efforts at coercion, as several studies show (Arnstein, 1969;King et al., 1998), would have likely achieved just that. In this case citizens were never considered to be a valuable source of information let alone giving citizens avenues for real participation or influence. ...
Article
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An important ability of institutions is their capacity to recognize new external knowledge so that they can revitalize outdated routines and stay clear of institutional lock in. However not much is known about what determines the absorptive capacity of institutions. By analyzing mental models of agents within an institution through Group Model Building. We contribute to literature on absorptive capacity and show how institutions could potentially increase absorptive capacity at the micro agent-level while circumventing problems of institutional lock-in. The experiment shows that Group Model Building provides an avenue for reflecting on the internal logic of the institution. It is able to show the limited applicability of the internal logic in producing a desired outcome for certain messy problems. Although the agents acknowledged the shortcomings of the internal logic, they also accepted them and found dealing with them too complex. The article also reflects on how the experiment can be made more effective for future endeavors.
... On the public servant side, some of the most recurrent ones are the lack of resources, time, and skills to implement and monitor the participation (Simonofski, 2019). On the citizen side, one can note the perceived uselessness of participation and the difficulty to fit participation in an already busy daily schedule (King et al., 1998). ...
... Citizen participation is not a new concept (Arnstein, 1969), and barriers to participation have been studied several decades ago (King et al., 1998). However, they are still relevant today, and citizen participation does not reach its full potential. ...
... To address this barrier, we 1 propose to target children aged 12 to 14. Educating children to participation is recommended in the literature (King et al., 1998) and matches the requirements of the upcoming reform of education in Wallonia. As a response to both this call from the literature and this practical context, we have developed a workshop aiming at educating children to the participatory smart city concept. ...
Thesis
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A smart city is a city that provides innovative solutions, in collaboration with its citizens and with the support of technology, to solve the challenges of its territory. Citizens are expected to be involved in decision-making processes of smart cities with the aim that their needs and ideas are integrated. This participation, full of promises, is however also littered with barriers. While these barriers have been impeding citizen participation for decades, the technologies, prominent in the smart city paradigm, provide new opportunities to alleviate them. The objective of this thesis is to explore how technology can be used to address three barriers experienced on the citizen side. First, in order to alleviate the lack of awareness around participation in smart cities, a workshop methodology is proposed to introduce the participatory smart city to 12-14-year-old children. Second, to reduce the difficulty of accessing usable data needed to understand the topic of participation, recommendations are provided to lead the development of Open Government Data portals tailored to citizens. Third, as current participation methods are subjected to entry barriers, the potential of public displays to serve as a participation method is unpacked, as they are exempt from this limitation.
... Interest shown on DCP in PA is a result of various factors (King et al., 1998), including transparency, accountability, and collaboration which would increase the citizen trust in return. Yet regarding DCP in PA, citizens and administrators are required to have a transformation in their mindsets. ...
... Thus the authors need to look at assumptions and presuppositions of current theories in relation to DCP at first. DCP in traditionally framed administrative and political context is hard, even in administrative structures that foster active citizenship like US (King et al., 1998). Among causes, the mindset shaped by traditional PA theory comes at front. ...
... For example; in a study by AbouAssi et al. (2013) investigating citizen participation in Lebanon public administration, the instruments such as survey, interview and data archival were used, and the archival data were analyzed with content analysis. King et al. (1998) investigated how to make citizen participation work effectively for both administrators and citizens by using a variety of qualitative tools including interviews and focus group studies. ...
Chapter
Governments are expected to introduce public policies to empower citizens to engage in government business for various reasons including trust building. This chapter presents enablers/barriers before direct citizen participation (DCP) in Turkey by employing interviews conducted with higher public administrators at the ministerial level. The results reveal that DCP is mostly used for informing and consultation purposes rather than fostering a citizen deliberation. The main barriers before DCP are found as centralized bureaucratic structure, lack of administrators' awareness for DCP, and a lack of participation culture. The authors argue that DCP could be fostered where public officials are curious rather than institutionalized.
... Defined as engagement and involvement in public affairs and social activities, public participation has been widely documented as a necessary means to enhance governance performance, illustrated by proponents of new public administration (Andrews and Brewer 2013;King et al. 1998;Michels 2011;Mizrahi et al. 2009Mizrahi et al. , 2010Putnam 2000). Public participation can incorporate knowledge and values, helping articulate demands and elicit preferences (Beeri et al. 2019), which, in turn, make it easier for governments to meet citizens' needs. ...
... Public participation refers to the deep and continuous engagement of the citizenry in the administrative processes, where all involved are likely to have an impact on the situation (King et al. 1998). In this study, it is defined as individual involvement in administrative functions and village/community activities. ...
... Public participation enhances the perceived quality of family planning services, which in turn decreases son preference, revealing that participating citizens, as consumers of government services, develop a better understanding of the inherent complexities in public issues and a greater appreciation of an administrator's job (Kathlene and Martin 1991). Our findings are consistent with those of previous studies showing that public participation is the cornerstone of good governance (Enserink and Koppenjan 2007), and effective public participation can substantively improve governance performance (King et al. 1998;Yang and Pandey 2011), especially in areas that straddle the boundaries between public and private. This study also demonstrates that engaging in civic autonomous organizations exerts a more pronounced effect on the perceived quality of family planning services than participating in social organizations, although social organizations are better at bringing together people with divergent backgrounds (Uslaner and Conley 2003). ...
Article
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The study investigates the impact of public participation on governance performance in a risk society. A trust-based participatory paradigm is proposed as a viable framework. Using data from a 2018 survey of family planning services in Hubei, China, this study develops hypotheses drawn from causal mechanisms of participatory governance. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach is employed to disentangle the direct effect of public participation on governance performance from its indirect effect through trust. Moderated multiple regressions (MMR) are conducted to identify the moderating effect of risk perception. The results indicate that public participation is associated with higher perceived quality of family planning services and decreases son preference through the serial mediation effects of trust and perceived quality. Risk perception of gender imbalance magnifies the positive effect of civic autonomy on perceived quality. This paper extends previous research on the governance of gender imbalance and contributes to the literature on the relationship between public participation, trust, risk perception, and governance performance in authoritarian countries.
... For these or similar reasons, many public administration scholars insist that the field can no longer afford to unquestioningly accept the philosophical or ontological assumptions of Liberal political theory (see, for example, Box, 2008Box, , 2009Candler & Ventriss, 2006;Catlaw, 2007Catlaw, , 2008Denhardt, 1981;Dryzek, 1990;Farmer, 2005;Forester, 1989;Fox & Miller, 1995;Jun, 2002;King et al., 1998;King & Zanetti, 2005;Love, 2008;McSwite, 1997;Sørensen & Torfing, 2005;Stivers, 2008;Stout, 2010a;Thayer, 1973Thayer, /1981Zanetti, 1997). ...
... These ideas are also quite similar to the political and administrative philosophies of Hannah Arendt and Mary Parker Follett (Stivers, 2002(Stivers, , 2008Stout, 2010a;Stout & Love, 2015a;Stout & Staton, 2011), or what has been called the Collaborative Tradition of public administration (Stout, 2009(Stout, , 2013. Governance practices for collaboration with citizens (Vigoda, 2002) include citizen governance (Box, 1998), deliberative democracy and participatory policy making (Ansell, 2011;deLeon, 1992;Dryzek, 1990;Fischer, 2003;Forester, 1999;Fox & Miller, 1995), public engagement (Ansell & Gash, 2008;Fung, 2004;Innes & Booher, 2004;King et al., 1998;Nabatchi & Leighninger, 2015), coproduction in implementation (Sharp, 1980;Souza & Neto, 2019;Whitaker, 1980), participatory action research (Bartels, 2012;Cook & Wagenaar, 2012;Vandenbussche et al., 2020), and collaborative network governance (Keast et al., 2004). These varied practices assume people's capacity to work together in self-governance. ...
Article
Over the last decade, a growing number of public administration theorists have taken up the question of how ontology—assumptions about the nature of existence—shapes our understanding of governance. This substantially updated primer, originally published in Public Administration Review, introduces the essay, provides a basic explanation of ontology, describes the fundamental debates in philosophies of ontology, and discusses why ontology is important to social and political theory and therefore public administration theory and practice. Using an ideal-type approach grounded in differing ontological assumptions, a Governance Typology is provided to support analysis of differing public administration theories. An integrative approach to governance is offered that is grounded in relational process ontology—a foundation that may support a viable synthesis of the other four primary ideal-types. The essay concludes with a call for personal reflection on the part of scholars and practitioners regarding their own ontological commitments and an invitation to collaborative inquiry.
... Bryson suggests to involve people which have "information that cannot be gained otherwise" [2], to ensure that the determined stakeholders are the most relevant for the specific domain. The second method is a snow-ball technique that is based on King et al. [10]. Each identified stakeholder gets contacted and asked to lists other potential stakeholders. ...
... Prior the stakeholder analysis, the method assumes that stakeholders have been identified. Furthermore, snow-ball technique by King et al. [10] is not feasible for ADF stakeholders, because no interviews are viable with government institutions or criminals. ...
Conference Paper
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New technologies and features emerging in modern vehicles are widening the attack surface for malicious tampering. As a result, security incidents including vehicles are on the rise. Automotive digital forensics investigations allow resolving such security incidents. This paper presents a stakeholder-based reference model for automotive digital forensics. It is essential to focus on stakeholders to provide the best possible automotive digital forensics investigation for them. We identified twelve distinct stakeholders relevant to automotive digital forensics and assigned them to the vehicle life-cycle's relevant phases. Furthermore, the stakeholders' questions for forensics investigations and their resources get analyzed. We created a Venn diagram to highlight differences and similarities between the stakeholders.
... Indeed, the managerial literature indicates that when there is shared responsibility, citizens will most likely cooperate with the government (Vigoda-Gadot and Mizrahi 2014). Numerous studies have found that citizens maintain that participation in decision-making and transparency are extremely important in their relations with public officials (Irvin, Renée, and Stansbury 2004;King, Feltey, and O'Neill 1998;Vigoda-Gadot and Mizrahi 2014;Wang and Van Wart 2007). These factors strengthen accountability and public responsibility, and hence, democratic legitimacy in peaceful and turbulent times (Mizrahi and Minchuk 2018;Rawls 1971). ...
... In this regard, prior expectations have a strong and consistent influence on future expectations (Hjortskov 2018). Public management research underscores that participation in decision-making is a vital mechanism (Irvin, Renée, and Stansbury 2004;King, Feltey, and O'Neill 1998). Thus, we expect that less participation will result in greater alienation from public sector organizations. ...
Article
Institutional emergency management has become an integral part of public management practice and research. This paper investigates the factors related to people’s willingness to contribute to institutional emergency preparedness. We explore the relationships between this willingness and people’s perceptions about the likelihood of government handling emergencies effectively, the risks of emergencies, and their relationship with public sector organizations. Using a dataset collected in Israel at two points in time before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, we demonstrate that people’s willingness to contribute to institutional emergency preparedness is strongly anchored in their evaluations of the public sector’s responsiveness and fairness.
... As the symbol of deliberative democracy, public participation is widely employed into contemporary governance (Fung, 2006;Webler et al., 2001). Despite its popularity, most techniques used in participation are inadequate, especially the public hearing, which is always associated with low attendance and low satisfaction (King et al., 1998). Several dilemmas militate against the practice and development of public participation (Rowe & Watermeyer, 2018). ...
... Many researchers criticize those participations without substantial impact on decision-making as rhetoric (Conrad et al., 2011;Bawole, 2013). It is suggested factors of an authentic participation include constructive feedback on proposal and follow-up communication (King et al., 1998;Manowong & Ogunlana, 2008); meanwhile, participants may reciprocate negatively if they are consulted but ignored (Corgnet & Hernán-González, 2013). ...
Article
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Although public hearings have been introduced into Chinese land expropriation as an important democratic supervision and conflict resolution mechanism for more than 15 years, there is a dearth of research into its qualities. Taking the farmers’ satisfaction with the public hearings as the critical quality indicator, this article analyzes the dilemma of this special institution in Chinese land expropriation. Process tracing is employed to analyze the design defect of the public hearing institution. Farmers’ satisfactions with the public hearings are measured by a questionnaire, and the factors are examined by a structural equation model based on the theories of expectancy disconfirmation and procedural fairness. It is concluded that the distorted procedure and the inconsiderate arrangement affect farmers’ perceived procedural fairness and decrease their satisfaction with hearings. In order to solve the dilemma of public participation in land expropriation, the relevant authorities should start from the source of affecting farmers’ satisfaction.
... The top-down planning system in Jordan hinders the implementation of youth empowerment policies at the local level. This study joins other research in demonstrating how government bureaucracy and centralisation is inimical to public participation in policymaking (Moynihan, 2003;Wang, 2001;King et al., 1998). In terms of public accountability, there is a lack of transparency in the engagement process that has prevented the meaningful involvement of young people in spatial planning. ...
... Therefore, what is needed are "local/city/regional governance structures that possess genuine power and autonomy to decide priorities, allocate resources and demonstrate leadership" (Syrett, 2011, p.6, cited in Coca-Stefaniak andBagaeen, 2014, p.64). The centralised institutional approach has weakened the capacities of local government and left them under the supervision and support of central government funds and consultancy (Alnsour and Meaton, 2009;King et al., 1998). For Healey (2006b) and Rondinelli and Nellis (1986), reforming the administrative systems involves the redistribution of power, which typically resides in the hands of central government, to the lower levels of administration and management of local authorities (e.g. ...
Thesis
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By 2050, it is estimated that 84% of the population in the Global South will be living in urban areas. As a country of the Global South, Jordan has experienced dramatic growth of urban areas over the past decades. Cities in Jordan contain 83% of the population, of which, it is estimated, 24% are in the age group 15–24. Youth input, effort and experience in the planning process are recognised by academic research and international aid donors as a significant element in catalysing positive social and economic change and ensuring sustainable development across the Global South. Consequently, this research aims to investigate whether young groups’ vision and aspirations for, and perspectives on the city of Amman were translated into strategies or projects in urban policy. In doing so, it aims to explore the wide range of institutional challenges and opportunities that either hinder or encourage youth participation in policymaking. To achieve this aim, this study followed the inductive–deductive cycle of knowledge. This research starts with a critical literature review of theories in planning, governance, youth participation and spatial planning in Jordan. Healey’s systemic institutional design for collaborative planning was employed to critically analyse the planning system (hard infrastructure) and planning practice (soft infrastructure) within the chosen case study of Amman 2025. Amman 2025 is a significant and unique strategic spatial planning project in Jordan designed to encourage public participation in the policymaking process regarding urban development in Amman. New primary data were collected through extensive qualitative research in the form of semi-structured interviews and focus groups to cover the period from the start of Amman 2025, in 2006, to the conducting of data collection in 2015. With the research objectives in mind, a thematic analysis was conducted to identify salient themes in order to address the research aims. The findings of this study show that youth participation in Jordan is neither inherent in the legal, political and administrative framework of the planning system nor in the embedded institutional settings within the planning practice of Jordan. Most importantly, cultural imperialism in Jordan weakens young people’s chances of being considered for any decision-making roles relevant to planning activities. Enhancing youth participation in spatial planning in Jordan requires the institutional capacity of urban governance to be built up to enable a more collaborative planning practice, in addition to applying principles of good governance in the planning system.
... This has laid the foundation for the development of new participatory approaches and communication processes for analysis and decision-making over the internet (Evans-Cowley, 2010;Campbell and Kwak, 2011). King et al. (1998) state that through these participatory approaches, actors have the opportunity to involve themselves in decision-making processes. They receive responsibilities for improving conditions in their environment (Arnstein, 1969;Fiorino, 1990). ...
Article
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For designing qualitative interfaces for Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS), the user and use case should be clearly defined. However, PPGIS users may differ significantly, e.g. regarding their cultural background, IT-literacy, or interests. Studies examining varying user types and their impact on PPGIS usability are, however, lacking. In this paper, we analyse the user spectrum through conducting a usability study with 73 participants located in Colombia, Uganda and Austria. We combined a qualitative survey (conducted in all three countries) with an eye-tracking based survey (conducted only in Austria). Most of the usability issues arose due to inexperience in using interactive maps or applications other than social media. Based on the findings, we explored which user context information had an impact on which usability problem. With this, we designed an adaptation gradient that can be used for future research on developing adaptive PPGIS interfaces.
... Participatory democratic theory is further distinguished by its educative value. Indeed, in many ways, these benefits can be thought of as the defining feature of participatory democracy (Fung, 2004;King, Feltey, & Susel, 1998;Pateman, 1970;Vigoda, 2002). This position is distinct from epistemic participatory theories which solely understand participation as a means of knowledge transfer from citizens to bureaucrats, or as a means of restraining excessive centralised power over public decisions (see Dean, 2016). ...
Article
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This article introduces this special issue on Participatory Democracy and Inequality, identifying both the primary claims made by the modern iteration of participatory democracy, as well as the main challenges faced by participatory democrats, by drawing on a range of literature, both empirical and theoretical. Despite these challenges, it finds cause for optimism, based on the trajectory of recent research on participatory democracy, and suggests there might be a number of potential means of addressing the problems raised by democratic inequality.
... As another independent variable, peoples' opportunity cost may also work on their participatory behavior. People's availability in terms of time and money influences their decision to participate [19,28,55,56]. This time and money play a role not only as actual costs, but also as a perceived cost of participation; thus, it negatively influences participation decisions [53]. ...
... 'Pseudo' participation is considered when participation purposes are to inform citizens about decisions and manipulate their opinions. 'Genuine' participation occurs when citizens' opinions are involved in the administrative decision process and affect the situation (King et al., 1998;Sanoff, 2000). ...
Article
The cynicism about government has induced administration reforms in both developed and transitional countries. However, the reform outcomes are not similar across countries and depend on the administrative context. In this paper, we employ the cultural-based administration approach to investigate the role of trust in citizen participation and the linking between participation and transparency in Vietnam. Using aggregated data at the district level from the Public Administration Performance Index in Vietnam in 2018–19 and considering the two-way association issue, we find that transparency is not always indicative of participation and trust is shown to be an important determinant of public participation. Furthermore, in addition to normative factors such as education levels and the proportion of rural citizens, trust plays a significant role in explaining the inverse relationship between participation and transparency. Our results contribute one more empirical evidence to the scarce literature that embeds the administration culture analysing administrative reform outcomes in transitional countries.
... Thus, failing to explore how and why citizens act in public and private spheres could impede a better understanding of authentic citizen participation and the dynamics of citizengovernment relationships. Authentic citizen participation refers to a collaborative, trust-based deliberation process involving citizens from issue identification to decision making (King et al., 1998), while the dynamics of citizen-government relationships involve the interactions between citizens and the government and the value created by the government to the citizens (Smith & Huntsman, 1997). In the case of PEBs, knowing how and why citizens perform PEBs in public and private spheres could help the government better understand citizens' attitudes towards environmental policies and design a collaborative deliberation process involving citizens in environmental governance. ...
Article
Prior public administration research emphasises the importance of environmental protection and sustainability, but most studies have focused on governmental actions and public employees’ pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs). Little is known about why and how citizens perform PEBs in their public or private spheres. To fill the research gap, we draw from related literature and develop a conceptual model explaining how citizens’ perceptions of public values, government, and the environment impact citizens’ PEBs in public and private spheres. By analysing a Taiwan Social Change Survey data, we find that the willingness to sacrifice for the environment shows a significant mediating effect on the relationships between citizens’ PEBs and most public values, government, and environmental determinants. The results also demonstrate how citizens’ PEBs in the public sphere differ from those in the private sphere. Implications for theory and practice are addressed.
... First, NPS tells government to serve citizens, not customers, as it envisions citizens debating issues to find common ground (Cooper, 1991;Frederickson, 1997;King et al., 1998;Stivers, 2008). Griffiths et al. (2009: 7) find, for example, a growth in what they call "assertive citizens," who demand a say about the services they receive. ...
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This paper examines existing management concepts and practices that make up three contemporary approaches to public policy and public administration. We attempt to understand whether municipal public administrators and public administration graduate students validate these perspectives in “reality” versus “ideally.” Addressing the extent to which practicing public administrators and students identify with theoretical frameworks, which one(s) they deem most prominent, and how closely their preferred frameworks correspond to what they see in practice, we offer an exploratory analysis of results from 176 respondents through descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). We hypothesize significant differences with respect to 1) what is preferred and what is perceived in the workplace, 2) group membership (administrator, graduate student, or undergraduate student), and 3) gender (female or male). This research will help public administration educators bridge the gap between theory and practice and narrow the distance between the “is” and the “ought.”
... Thus, based on the context elaborated above, community involvement, and participation to support the success of public service delivery is crucial (Nabatchi et al., 2017). In other words, the vision of Makassar (Baker et al., 2005;King et al., 1998;Nownes, 2007;Wang, 2001 ...
Article
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The implementation of smart city in urban areas in Indonesia can have implications for improving urban governance (urban strategies) or limited to jargon and has no bearing on the process of planning and implementing public policies and services. To investigate this, this study focused on Citizen Reporting System (CRS), which is one of the main pillars crucial in designing and implementing smart cities. The study had several objectives including determining the extent of public knowledge on the use of CRS, which was proposed in four leading applications of Makassar smart city programmes; Smart RT / RW application, Call Centre 112, Home care and Qlue; and identified factors that support and inhibit the development of citizen reporting system to develop recommendations for improvement of CRS, which will in turn have a positive impact on the implementation of smart city programmes in Makassar and Indonesia in general. The study used a sequential mixed method, specifically sequential explanatory strategies. The phases entailed conducting a survey to collect and analyse quantitative data; followed by conducting in-depth interviews to explore specific issues and obtaining in-depth information. The results showed that people's knowledge and information about the smarty city programmes is still very low, a problem that hampers the use of these services by the community. Besides, another finding was that that the frequency of accessing internet and social media, and the will to actively participate in helping the government and reporting problems or issues in their neighbourhood by people in Makassar is sufficiently high. Thus, based on study results, the local government has an Copyright © 2021, JKAP, ISSN 0852-9213 (Print), ISSN 277-693. (Online) 113 important asset it can use to develop a citizen reporting system, which is one of the key factors in the successful implementation of smart city programmes.
... As described by King, Feltey and Susel (1998), a needs analysis should be done, and the opinions of the practitioners and stakeholders should be taken into consideration before major decisions are enacted that concern the whole system. The total number of instructors employed in the SFLs is 4259, while the number holding graduate degrees is 1473. ...
Article
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In 2018, a legislative change -law number 2547- resulted in the adoption of the title "instructor", replacing "lecturers, specialists, translators, and education planners" for positions at the different departments of universities. This law also led to an adjustment in the instructor recruitment requirements. Correspondingly, the English language teaching instructors must have completed a master's degree to be hired to work at School of Foreign Languages (SFLs). This paper aims to uncover the opinions and suggestions of School of Foreign Language administrators about this change. This study shows that administrators approach the new requirement unenthusiastically due to the possible problems in hiring instructors. As an alternative criterion to a master's degree in ELT, administrators consider certification, teaching experience and graduate degrees in non-ELT programs. The results suggest that instructors be provided with professional development opportunities that merges theory into practice.
... M ultiple obstacles challenge public participation in planning, including recruitment and engagement, as well as providing the public meaningful power in a fair and inclusive way (Brown, 2012;King et al., 1998;Koch, 2013;Laurian, 2004;Michels & De Graaf, 2010;Silver et al., 2010). Indeed, both researchers and practitioners of public participation have been preoccupied by outreach, empowerment, inclusion, and public representation (Fung, 2006). ...
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings The current focus on power relationships in planning processes emphasizes socioeconomic characteristics of the general public, whose participation is often portrayed as one-time, idiosyncratic, nonprofessional, and relatively powerless. To shift attention to the understudied repeated participation in the general public, we distinguish serial participation as a distinct participation pattern by focusing on an underexplored group, referred to as natural joiners or usual suspects. Our analysis focuses on Jerusalem and draws on interviews with serial participators (N = 13) who participated in at least three different planning processes and with city planners (N = 19). Becoming a serial participator emerged as an evolutionary process, during which knowledge gained triggered transitional learning, manifested by a broader perspective on planning and a transition toward locality-oriented participation. Serial participators’ influence varies; it can extend beyond specific planning outcomes to the process itself and the discourse among city planners. Although it does not mitigate imbalanced power relations within the public, serial participation contributes to more balanced power relations between ordinary citizens and paid participants in planning. Takeaway for practice Serial participators can provide planners with valuable historical perspective, local knowledge, and participation recommendations while serving as intermediaries to the local community capable of mobilizing others and activating civic networks. Planners can nurture serial participation by encouraging repeated involvement of individuals engaged in additional community spheres or passionate “anecdotal” participants. Seeking influence and not recognition, serial participators may not always fully cooperate. Planners should invest in long-term relationships that allow for reconciling inevitable disagreements.
... From the perspective of the decision-makers, the quality of the decisions can be enhanced as different stakeholder's knowledge and experience can be taken into account. Conflicts can be prevented or resolved with a well-organized participatory process (King et al. 1998), and commitment on decisions can increase. From the community point of view, participation has a community-building element as community members can connect to each other and become more motivated to acquire information and discuss these questions within the community (Király et al. 2016). ...
Article
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As deliberative and participatory practices play a greater role in political decision-making of democratic political systems in many parts of the world, political parties must adapt to demands of an increasingly more cognitively mobilized citizenry. While there is a growing body of literature about the functioning of such procedures in different social and political contexts, little is known about politicians' reasons behind introducing them. Based on qualitative data collected among Hungarian politicians, this paper brings evidence to empirically assess why local politicians introduced Participatory Budgeting in Budapest, Hungary. Our findings suggest that politicians accept theoretical arguments for promoting citizens' participation, newly elected local politicians expect to increase their party's local embeddedness by creating new contact opportunities and emphasize that the introduction of Participatory Budgeting is a ground for experimentation. The article ends with a discussion about arguments that are put forth in the literature on European Participatory Budgeting but missing from the views of politicians, and concludes by highlighting the risks of institutionalizing Participatory Budgeting.
... orporated into the governmental and corporate decision-making. It is a two-way communication and interaction, with the overall goal of better decisions that are supported by the public. Bradbury et al. (1999) argued that public participation should be viewed as a dialogue or a communicative act in which fair and competent processes are emphasized. King et. al. (1998) adds that making decisions in public administration without public participation is ineffective. ...
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Social participation is most often perceived as a means of external cooperation between public authorities and citizens. It should be based on a common and consensual identification of problem issues and their resolution in a meaningful way through the exchange and justification of reasons, mutual education, and training and acquisition of civic competencies. The basis of social participation in the local dimension is the use of citizens' rights. The active attitude of citizens is an important guarantor in building a civic commune in which residents are not the object but the subject of public policy. Therefore, social participation favors building relations between self-government and citizens based on the principle of partnership and participation in local decision-making processes. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the activity and involvement of local administration in creating appropriate conditions for the active participation of citizens in the field of social participation. In order to achieve this goal, surveys were conducted among the inhabitants of four cities with poviat status in Podkarpackie Province, Poland, namely, Rzeszów, Krosno, Przemyśl, and Tarnobrzeg. The research has shown that the local community of Podkarpackie cities rarely uses the various forms of social participation offered to them by the local administration. This is why the administration's activities should focus on making residents aware of the benefits of participation. Providing residents with relevant information on the principles, forms, or methods of participation may prejudge the quality of life in a given local government and the course of its development.
... Stakeholders are often actively engaged in local policy planning processes of energy matters or sustainability measures in general. This approach forms the basis of collaborative environmental decision-making, and throughout the years, many methods have been developed (King et al., 1998;Randolph and Bauer, 1999). Applications mostly revolve around governmental initiatives and high-level policy planning with a focus on citizen inclusion, but many ECs are initiated by private partners (e.g., business park managers) and involve stakeholders other than citizens (e.g., neighboring educational institutions or companies that want to share energy). ...
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Energy communities (ECs) are considered an important element of the current energy transition. Most studies have focused on how to specifically engage citizens in such communities. In this paper, the emphasis is on the objectives of other stakeholders. Only by taking all motivations and interests into account can a successful project be established. In our study, relevant stakeholders, their objectives for joining an EC and the importance of each of these objectives were determined in a participatory manner through four Flemish pilot cases. The results provide an overview of general and context-specific elements that need to be taken into account when designing an EC as well as when setting up policy initiatives to stimulate large-scale EC roll-out. For potential members, financial incentives are the main drivers of participation but often not the decisive objectives. Their decision to join is influenced by a variable combination of social, economic, technical and environmental motivations. Local governments mainly want an EC to bring social and environmental advantages, and the local distribution system operator (DSO) only supports ECs when they can bring added value to their main grid and society as a whole and can help avoid major grid investments.
... The mapping process should therefore be encompassed as one of the project stages that can be re-oriented according to collaboratively built objectives and not seen as a task to be fulfilled before the project starts. A skilled facilitator can help bring coherence to the somewhat chaotic mapping process to develop the most comprehensive map(s) possible and find the all important common ground between stakeholders (King et al., 1998;Reed, 2008). For instance, the process of positioning each stakeholder on the graph template demanded discussion and a fair time to reach agreement that had to be constructed with parsimony, so that all parties involved kept feeling represented by the results. ...
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Transdisciplinary projects are fundamental to a more effective and just conservation, but their application and coherent framing present challenges, since their nature is to bring together different epistemological backgrounds and world views. This paper identifies the possibilities offered by stakeholder mapping as a tool for generating common understandings in transdisciplinary conservation research projects. Lessons are drawn from experiential learning through the case of jaguar conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Stakeholder mapping proved to be an essential diagnostic tool that generated an overview of the material context of human-jaguar interactions in the BAF to stakeholders engaged in the project. The process and overview drew attention to gaps in stakeholder knowledge that need to be addressed to enhance conviviality between humans and jaguars in fragmented landscapes. Recognizing these knowledge gaps assists in the production of methodologies that can effectively encompass different social groups, and increase all parties' perceptions of the legitimacy of conservation activities. We argue that, due to its
... Citizen participation can take different forms (right to information, consultation, or decision-making procedures), can use different channels (face-to-face or digital) and can ultimately pursue multiple purposes. Some assume that citizen participation improves the quality of public decisions (King et al., 1998;Schachter, 1995;Thomas, 1995). Others are of the opinion that participation strengthens trust in public institutions, improves cohesion, and promotes social capital (Nabatchi, 2010;Roberts, 1997). ...
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This chapter analyses the attitudes and perspectives of public managers on citizen participation processes in Madrid, Oslo, and Melbourne. A standardized questionnaire adapted to the three cities and in-depth interviews were used to conclude that the potential beneficial effects of citizen participation become more debatable at the moment of practical implementation. Despite the political-institutional differences between the three cities, all show the insufficiency of resources, weakness of cross-sectoral and multilevel coordination instruments, and a predominance of the interests of the stronger social groups over collective interests.
... Citizen participation can take different forms (right to information, consultation, or decision-making procedures), can use different channels (face-to-face or digital) and can ultimately pursue multiple purposes. Some assume that citizen participation improves the quality of public decisions (King et al., 1998;Schachter, 1995;Thomas, 1995). Others are of the opinion that participation strengthens trust in public institutions, improves cohesion, and promotes social capital (Nabatchi, 2010;Roberts, 1997). ...
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Most cities have introduced digital participatory tools. They, however, introduce these tools in different ways and for different reasons. This chapter investigates the impact of the e-participating strategies of Madrid, Melbourne, and Oslo upon local activist participation and influence in urban development. Data gathered from a survey of local activists in the three cities, shows that they often combine different participatory channels: formal and informal and digital and analogue. The data also unveils differences in the ways these actors participate, a variation that cannot be understood in the light of city e-participation strategy. The authors argue that institutionalized practices and a culture of citizen participation are more important. The data furthermore indicates that activists that combine many different participatory channels believe they have more impact on urban development than those using few channels. The study therefore reveals that the introduction of many participatory channels tends to create super participants, which is further accentuated by the introduction of digital participation tools.
... Citizen participation can take different forms (right to information, consultation, or decision-making procedures), can use different channels (face-to-face or digital) and can ultimately pursue multiple purposes. Some assume that citizen participation improves the quality of public decisions (King et al., 1998;Schachter, 1995;Thomas, 1995). Others are of the opinion that participation strengthens trust in public institutions, improves cohesion, and promotes social capital (Nabatchi, 2010;Roberts, 1997). ...
Chapter
The rivers and their floodplains are integrated systems. The biodiversity of the Lower Danube River (LDR), in terms of species and habitats, is strongly linked with its hydro-geomorphic-diversity and the natural regions it passes. Human activities, directly and indirectly, are the primary cause which has induced changes in hydrologic regime, longitudinal and lateral connectivity, floodplain geomorphology and function, biodiversity of the river waters and riparian zone. During the twentieth century, particularly after World War II, the LDR has undergone alteration of physical habitat, significant landscape changes, and ecological loss as a result of hydropower damming works and their associated water reservoirs, floodplain embankment, wetlands drainage, chemical pollution, eutrophication, and invasion of exotic species. The extensive embankments and drainage work along LDR in Romania converted about 80% of the annual flooded zone of the floodplain area primarily into agricultural region, obviating its essential connection with the river. Few areas, including reed marshes, meadows, floodplain forests, large shallow lakes, fluvial islands, and the braided section of the river named “the Small Island of Brăila”, have been preserved in natural regime in order to preserve valuable samples of biodiversity, hydro-morpho dynamic processes, and particular fluvial landforms. Most of them are ecotonal areas that have an increased and extremely dynamic biodiversity. This increased turnover of species is exacerbated by anthropogenic factors, which sometimes they can negatively influence certain species of fauna, such as sturgeons, modifying their habitats for reproduction, feeding and resting. After the 1990s, due to the change of the political system in Romania and following integrated programs of the Danube Riparian States, some areas of the engineered floodplain are subject to ecological restoration and integrated management in order to provide convenient ways of reconciliation between nature and human society for a sustainable development. The currently Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites network designed along the LDR provides the national and international legal framework of protection and conservation of wildlife and its habitats. The objectives of this chapter are to present a review of: (1) human interventions from the last century that lead to alteration, degradation, and irreversible losses of habitats along the LDR valley, (2) restoration projects of former floodplain areas, and (3) biodiversity protection and conservation actions carried out over the area in the last decades.
Article
We present three studies that examine the relationship between perceptions about public personnel management and social resilience during a crisis among frontline public healthcare servants who battled the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on theories of public personnel management, crisis management, trust, and resilience, we suggest a model and hypotheses that may extend our knowledge about perceived social resilience, both internal (organizational) and external (communal and national). We tested our model with the results of an online survey conducted in early 2021 among 437 healthcare employees from the Ministry of Health ( n 1 = 87), hospitals ( n 2 = 200), and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs; n 3 = 150) across Israel. The findings generally support direct and indirect relationships between perceptions of good public personnel management, defined as healthcare system resilience, participation in decision-making and information sharing, and group-level organizational citizenship behavior, and perceived national and community resilience, and trust. Implications, extensions, and recommendations for future theoretical and empirical studies are discussed along with practical proposals.
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The charrette is a participatory design tool for urban planners in which community members and experts deliberate over 4–7 days in design feedback loops, culminating in an actionable design plan. This in-depth proactive collaboration is in stark contrast to the typical public participation process, in which public hearings are often overrun by unrepresentative neighborhood opposition. Aiming towards a consensus between planners and residents, the charrette could be understood as a deliberative democratic forum that should result in greater community satisfaction with both the process and final design. However, while the charrette has had substantial use in the field it has not been the subject of much research that could back up this view. To test how democratic the charrette is, I conduct a content analysis comparing the public hearing comments regarding a charrette and non-charrette development proposal on the same property with similar designs. The proposals’ matching characteristics isolate the effect of the charrette. Results show the charrette proposal saw a greater proportion of approving comments than the non-charrette proposal, especially when comparing speakers who did and did not participate in the charrette. Most comments for both proposals were still in opposition, however, even as the charrette proposal garnered high approval at the charrette itself. This calls into question the quality of the charrette’s deliberation as well as the relationship between the charrette and the public hearing.
Book
This book critically examines the public participation processes in urban planning and development by evaluating the operations of planning advisory committees through two meta-criteria of fairness and effectiveness. Traditional models of public participation in planning have long been criticized for separating planners from the public. This book proposes a novel conceptual model to address the gaps in existing practices in order to encourage greater public involvement in planning decisions and policymaking. It assesses the application of the evaluative framework for planning advisory committees as a new approach to public participation evaluation in urban planning. With a case study focused on the planning advisory committees in Inner City area of Canberra, Australia, the book offers a conceptual framework for evaluating fairness and effectiveness of the public participation processes that can also be extended to other countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, Scandinavian Countries, the European Union, and some Asian countries such as India. Offering valuable insights on how operational processes of planning advisory committees can be re-configured, this book will be a useful guide for students and academics of planning and public policy analysis, as well as the planning professionals in both developed and developing countries.
Article
Citizen participation is a complicated piece of the urban development puzzle as it is prone to conflicts and manipulation. However, new, partly unsanctioned methods of citizen participation have appeared in recent years, opening new forms of engagement for citizens. At the same time, technology is increasingly being used to change the relationship between institutions, experts and citizens. However, the impact of such technologies in citizen engagement has not been systematically measured. Using residential streets in Vienna as a case study, this paper explores the impact of web technologies in the engagement of citizens. Three data collection methods were used: an online survey, expert interviews, and automated data collection. The results show that web-based maps can inform and inspire citizens, however, they will more likely only sustain current patterns of engagement. Further, collaborating with citizen initiatives proved to have a significant impact on the adoption and usage of online tools. This speaks strongly for co-creation approaches, where citizen organizations are included from an early stage in the development of the tools.
Article
This article presents the results of research conducted to observe the impact of digital tools on citizen engagement. Parklets (temporary constructions in public space) in Vienna were selected for the research as a case study. The following digital tools for city-making were developed to carry out the experiment: basic information, a parklet potential map, a design tool, and a form to request the necessary permits. The tools were advertised among citizens' organizations and through social media channels. Three methods were used to collect data: automated data collection, a survey, and expert interviews. The results show that technology has limitations in motivating citizens to build parklets. While the tools could inform people about the possibilities in the city, other aspects, such as previous engagement, play an essential role in the perception of new tools and their potential adoption.
Article
Neste trabalho apresenta-se os resultados sobre a institucionalização de práticas orientadas para promover a participação pública, accountability e transparência na gestão municipal. Está baseado num quadro teórico que explora abordagem da reforma administrativa visando ampliar a democratização da administração pública. Considera-se que em tempos de descentralização e maior participação da sociedade na gestão pública, faz-se necessário a compreensão sobre como essas práticas estão sendo implementadas em países como Moçambique, haja vista a crescente disseminação desses conceitos nas últimas décadas no mundo inteiro. Baseia-se na abordagem qualitativa e sustenta-se no estudo de caso interpretativo com caráter exploratório. Seu objeto foi a estratégia de reforma administrativa moçambicana e implementação de suas concepções no Município da cidade Xai-Xai. Como resultado, constatou-se a tendência positiva na aplicação de novas práticas de gestão, entretanto, verificam-se ainda vários problemas estruturais e constrangimentos organizacionais que comprometem a criação de um serviço público mais accountable no nível municipal.
Article
While collaborative planning has gained popularity in addressing conflicts of interest in urban renewal, the development of information communication technologies has provided creative tools in participatory planning. To accommodate the needs of participatory e-planning, we designed a digital collaborative platform composed of four modules to establish a framework for all stakeholders to participate in the urban renewal process in China. By taking a village as a case study (hereafter referred to as village X), this research introduces the application of a digital platform in the renewal of an old village facilitated by a third party. Although the application of e-planning participation in the renewal of X village has been effective, its further application has encountered challenges, such as willingness, the capacity of the residents, and credibility, due to the lack of an institutionalized arrangement. Compared with the West, China has a long way to go in promoting public participation in urban renewal through institutional arrangements. Educating the public and deepening the understanding of local governments in the necessity of public participation should be the future task of urban planners in China. The limitations and further applications of digital platforms are also discussed.
Article
The social work profession is a practice-based profession that promotes social justice and advocacy for marginalised individuals. In spite of the fact that the policy practice is considered as crucial component of social work practice, the real participation of social workers in policy practice seems very less. It has a potentially significant influence on social work profession, both as a field of study and an area of practice. History is filled with an evidence showing that the policy practice paved the way for the development of social work profession as people used different social work skills to campaign for the formalisation of the social work profession. Social workers have been held up as exercising substantial power to influence policy being policy implementers (Schorr, A. L. (1985) ‘Professional practice as policy’, Social Service Review, 59(2), pp. 178–96; Scott, W. R. and Davis, G. F. (2007) Organisations and Organising: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives, Upper Saddle River, Pearson Prentice Hall). Social workers having practice experience make them excellent advocates because they understand clearly the challenges confronted by their clients, including clients’ presenting problems, holistic environmental factors, and client strengths that can be drawn on so as to assist them. This article throws light on linkages between social work and social policy, policy practice in social work and role of social worker as a change agent in policy practice.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on participatory mapping as an e-governance tool to facilitate public participation. Public participation is a key component of democratic governance, and there is a growing reliance on digital government tools such as the internet and social networking sites and geographic information systems (GIS). This chapter focuses on public engagement using information and communication technology, namely participatory mapping, known by a variety of terms such as participatory GIS (PGIS), public participation GIS (PPGIS), and voluntary GIS. While the analysis involves use of participatory mapping related to environmental issues, the chapter brings together seminal work from various fields of citizen engagement and participatory mapping. The idea is to create one common narrative for scholars and practitioners, bringing together various terminologies, practices, and studies in participatory mapping in the environmental arena that offers a beginner's frame of reference.
Chapter
Lakes and wetlands within large river floodplains represent some of the most endangered ecosystems at global scale. In this framework, raising awareness and promoting involvement of stakeholders can substantially contribute to the protection and sustainable capitalization of the lakes along the Lower Danube Floodplain. The present chapter aims to analyse the stakeholders’ interests and participation in the sustainable use of the lakes in the Lower Danube Floodplain, the Drobeta-Turnu Severin-Bechet sector, by using an online survey conducted from August to October 2020. The questionnaire received responses from 47 Romanian stakeholders. The different approaches used during the survey aim at better understanding the degree of knowledge and participation in the sustainable capitalization of the lakes and could help in making future decisions. The analysis of the answers shows the following main aspects: 34% of the respondents consider themselves highly informed about the state and management of lakes in the Danube Floodplain, while the most widespread manner of gaining knowledge is represented by personal theoretical documentation (44.7%); there is a significant agreement on the negative dynamics of the floodplain lakes over the last two decades, with 78.7% of the respondents agreeing or fully agreeing on this issue; 57.4% of the involved stakeholders consider the declining state of the lakes as a consequence of human activities, while 31.9% of them attribute it to a mosaic of natural and anthropogenic triggering factors. The answers given in connection with the issues addressed provide both relevance to the case study and the potential for generalization for floodplains of large rivers. In this sense, assessing stakeholders’ involvement can contribute to the sustainable use of lakes by paying attention to the increasing involvement of public institutions with decision making power in the sustainable use of floodplain lakes.
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Participatory budgeting is fast becoming a popular form of public participation. Public managers play an important role in organizing and implementing participatory budgeting. Their role perceptions affect whether they use their discretion to limit or increase residents' say in participatory processes. However, we know little about public managers' role perceptions in participatory budgeting. In this study, we develop a typology of public managers' role perceptions in participatory budgeting using a Q-methodological analysis of public managers in 7 municipal participatory budgeting projects in Belgium. We find evidence for four distinct perspectives: a managerial, citizen-centered, technocratic, and skeptical perspective.
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Çalışmanın ilk bölümünde, yeni kamu hizmetinin ortaya çıkmasını ve gelişmesini sağlayan kamu yönetimi teorisyeni Robert B. Denhardt’ın kısa biyografisi anlatılmıştır. Daha sonra, 1900’lerden 1990’lı yıllara kadar ortaya çıkan farklı paradigmalar nedeniyle kamu yönetimi disiplinin odak noktasının (focus) ve konumunun (locus) nasıl değiştiği kısaca anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, yeni kamu hizmeti yaklaşımından önce ortaya çıkan geleneksel kamu yönetimi ve yeni kamu işletmeciliği yaklaşımlarının dayandıkları ana prensipler, temel amaçları ve teorik altyapıları kısaca değerlendirilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, geleneksel kamu yönetimi ve yeni kamu işletmeciliği yaklaşımlarının avantajlarını ve dezavantajlarını göz önüne alarak yeni bir model ortaya koyan ve bu çalışmanın asıl araştırma konusu olan yeni kamu hizmeti yaklaşımı anlatılmıştır. Özellikle yeni kamu işletmeciliği yaklaşımın eleştirisi üzerinde oluşturulan bu yaklaşımın düşünce temelleri, teorik ve kavramsal çerçevesi ve kamu yönetimine uygulanabilirliği ayrıntılı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise önceki bölümlerde yapılan tartışmalar ve değerlendirmeler özetlenmektedir.
Article
In the last decade, research in the field of smart cities has expanded from purely technological aspects to include the areas of management development, urban planning and social sciences. In general, the discussion focuses on how the use of technology contributes to the development of the city, urban space and improving the quality of decisions [1] . The article offers a tool to enrich the urban development management system. It is argued that by developing appropriate scales, subjective views and perceptions of the citizen can be objectivized and, therefore, are very useful for managers and politicians. In this paper, the development process is carried out in several stages, using inductive and deductive methods. Following focus groups and interviewing representatives of the city authorities, a survey was conducted with the participation of almost a thousand city inhabitants from all Kazakhstan regions. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 24 and AMOS 20 tools. The study proposes a scale that includes statements structured in five identified dimensions: willingness to interact, expectation of improvements, willingness to use, concern about efficiency, concern about abuse. As the methodology is disclosed, important theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, the need for information flow management in the interests of participants in the implementation of Smart City is justified.
Article
Debates on urban redevelopment policy have emerged and been evolving in China, raising theoretical and practical concerns. Prior researchers have realized that the proactive behavior of government officials can influence satisfaction in urban redevelopment policymaking. However, the internal mechanism is still unclear. Employing the policy implementation process theory, this paper develops a theoretical model to explore how the proactive behavior of government officials affects citizen satisfaction. An analysis of a survey of Chinese citizens participating in public affairs shows that the government officials’ proactive behavior matters for citizen satisfaction by promoting proactive participation and dampening passive participation. The results also highlight the moderating role of public trust and government officials’ responsiveness in the relationship between citizen behavior and satisfaction. Based on our findings, practical interventions aiming at improving participation and citizen satisfaction should be taking active and affirmative measures from regulation to interaction, improve the public trust and establish timely and effective response mechanisms.
Article
This study identifies the impacts of different citizen satisfaction signals (positive/negative) on managers’ agreement to use various participation channels. Citizen satisfaction with public service quality plays an essential role in managers’ accountability expectations. Accordingly, it is crucial to examine how public managers use participation mechanisms, reacting to citizen satisfaction signals on public service quality. The results confirm a negativity bias: Managers are more reactive to citizens’ negative signals than a positive signal in their service quality evaluations. However, the negative signal’s effect does not reach the participation tools, where the degree of their decision-making is highly delegated to citizens.
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the important role of professionals in designing and communicating effective policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of trust in the COVID-19 national public health policy among public health professionals in Israel and its correlates during the first wave of the pandemic. Methods: A purposive sampling of public health professionals in Israel, through professional and academic public health networks (N = 112). The survey was distributed online during May 2020. Level of trust was measured by the mean of 18 related statements using a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 means not at all and 5 means to a very high extent, and grouped as low and high trust by median (2.75). Results: A moderate level of trust in policy was found among professionals (Mean: 2.84, 95% Cl: [2.70, 2.98]). The level of trust among public health physicians was somewhat lower than among researchers and other health professionals (Mean: 2.66 vs. 2.81 and 2.96, respectively, p = 0.286), with a higher proportion expressing low trust (70% vs. 51% and 38%, respectively, p < 0.05). Participants with a low compared to high level of trust in policy were less supportive of the use of Israel Security Agency tools for contact tracing (Mean = 2.21 vs. 3.17, p < 0.01), and reported lower levels of trust in the Ministry of Health (Mean = 2.52 vs. 3.91, p < 0.01). A strong positive correlation was found between the level of trust in policy and the level of trust in the Ministry of Health (rs = 0.782, p < 0.01). Most professionals (77%) rated their involvement in decision making as low or not at all, and they reported a lower level of trust in policy than those with high involvement (Mean = 2.76 vs. 3.12, p < 0.05). Regarding trust in the ability of agencies to deal with the COVID-19 crisis, respondents reported high levels of trust in the Association of Public Health Physicians (80%) and in hospitals (79%), but very low levels of trust in the Minister of Health (5%). Conclusions: This study shows that Israeli public health professionals exhibited moderate levels of trust in COVID-19 national public health policy and varied levels of trust in government agencies during the first wave of COVID-19. The level of trust in policy was lower among most of the participants who were not involved in decision making. The level of trust found is worrisome and should be monitored, because it may harm cooperation, professional response, and public trust. Professionals' trust in policy-making during early stages of emergencies is important, and preemptive measures should be considered, such as involving professionals in the decision-making process, maintaining transparency of the process, and basing policy on scientific and epidemiological evidence.
Chapter
In this chapter, we view co-creation of brand value of public services as an integral part of co-production of such services. Specifically, brand value is created through the interactions that take place at different stages of service delivery. We present two cases of social programs in Bangladesh, one delivered by the government and another by the non-profit. We show the layers of interactions that took place between the services and the service users and how they have possibly co-created brand value. The key focus in our framework is the intermediary actors and their interactions, to link the service producer to the service users. We argue that the chain of social relationships that develop and if existing expand through the process is the embodiment of the brand.
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A Conferência Internacional “Comunidades e Redes para a Inovação Territorial”, organizada pelo Programa Integrado CeNTER e pelo Departamento de Ciências Sociais, Políticas e do Território da Universidade de Aveiro, à qual se associou a V Conferência de Planeamento Regional e Urbano constituiu-se como um espaço de discussão com a comunidade académica e científica, e com os atores e decisores regionais. Entre os dias 23 e 25 de novembro de 2020, em formato digital e de acesso livre, diversos painéis, mesas redondas, workshops e keynotes contribuíram para uma melhor compreensão das dinâmicas entre os diversos atores promotores de desenvolvimento regional, bem como das melhores práticas e políticas que tornam as regiões mais sustentáveis e justas. Durante estes três dias foram vários os debates em torno de doze temas centrais e agregadores: modelos de inovação de base territorial; coesão territorial e políticas públicas; estratégias e políticas de competitividade; inovar no território com redes e comunidades; gestão do conhecimento e inovação empresarial; mediação digital no contexto de inovação de base territorial; avaliação do impacto do uso das tecnologias digitais na promoção da inovação de base territorial; (in)sustentabilidade dos territórios; bem-estar, qualidade de vida e capital humano; turismo em territórios de baixa densidade: cidades e democracia de proximidade; universidade, território e estratégias de inovação. Destas sessões resultaram 19 artigos científicos. São esses que compõem este livro. Todos eles nos trazem discussões teóricas ou experiências práticas associadas a processos de inovação territorial. Todos eles promovem conhecimento, aprendizagem e um espírito crítico. Todos eles merecem uma leitura atenta.
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We use responses to a large-scale national survey designed to oversample political activists to investigate the extent to which participant publics are representative of the public as a whole. Building upon the finding that while voters differ from nonvoters in their demographic attributes, their attitudes as measured by responses to survey questions are not distinctive, we consider a variety of political acts beyond voting that citizens can use to multiply their political input and to communicate more precise messages to policymakers. In addition, we consider not only respondents' demographic characteristics and policy attitudes but also their circumstances of economic deprivation and dependence upon government programs. Although activists are representative of the public at large in terms of their attitudes, they differ substantially in their demographic attributes, economic needs, and the government benefits they receive. Furthermore, in terms of the issues that animate participation, groups differentiated along these lines bring very different policy concerns to their activity.
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General managers are expected to strive for organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Depending on their emphasis on efficiency and effectiveness, they produce four basic approaches to public sector general management: the directive approach, the reactive approach, the generative approach, and the adaptive approach. This paper explores the generative approach, in particular its use of public deliberation as an alternative way to establish public policy and set bureau direction. Two case studies help distill the basic elements of public deliberation. The first case documents the use of public deliberation in significantly reducing a school district budget. The second case illustrates how public deliberation aided in crafting state educational policy. Although it is risky and expensive, public deliberation in these two cases illustrates how opening up policy-making to stakeholder participation can be highly successful. The paper concludes with implications for public management theory and practice.
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Information is a source of power in the planning process. This article begins by assessing five perspectives of the planner's use of information: those of the technician, the incremental pragmatist, the liberal advocate, the structuralist, and the “progressive.” Then several types of misinformation (inevitable or unnecessary, ad hoc or systematic) are distinguished in a reformulation of bounded rationality in planning, and practical responses by planning staff are identified. The role and ethics of planners acting as sources of misinformation are considered. In practice planners work in the face of power manifest as the social and political (mis)-man-agement of citizens' knowledge, consent, trust, and attention. Seeking to enable planners to anticipate and counteract sources of misinformation threatening public serving, democratic planning processes, the article clarifies a practical and politically sensitive form of “progressive” planning practice.
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Conflicts over the siting of risky facilities are increasingly common and often lead to political gridlock. Community opposition to projects that involve localized costs and diffuse benefits, especially when experts judge the risk to be minimal or the facility essential, is typically characterized as the NIMBY syndrome (for not in my backyard). Yet the behavioral dynamics of the NIMBY response have not been studied systematically. This paper considers several formulations of the NIMBY construct, and uses a content analysis of public testimony in nuclear waste repository hearings to test key propositions related to it. Public opposition to a high-level waste repository was found to be nearly unanimous, but many of the characteristics associated with the NIMBY response were not present. The public was moderately well informed about technical aspects of nuclear waste disposal, was not inordinately emotive in its testimony, and exhibited concern for potential environmental, economic, and other impacts that extended beyond the local area. We discuss the implications of these findings for conceptualization of the NIMBY syndrome and for public policy responses to it.
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The Clinton scandals. The Rise of militia and patriot groups. The proliferation of?trash? TV. Record U.S. trade deficits. Isolated events, or is there some connecting thread? Susan Tolchin says it's anger?mainstream, inclusive, legitimate public anger?and it's not going to vanish until we as a polity acknowledge it and harness its power. How to tap into this pervasive political anger and release its creative energy without being swept away by its force is the dilemma of the 1990s for government leaders and citizens alike. The second edition of this acclaimed volume has been completed revised and updated to account for the ways in which recent events have contributed to the history, causes, and consequences of anger in American politics today. The book embraces positive solutions to problems we are all entitled to be angry about: economic uncertainty, cultural divisiveness, political disintegration, and a world changing faster than our ability to assimilate. Tolchin's solutions incorporate a renewed sense of community, enhanced political access, and responsive rather than reactive government.
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Habermas outlines three aspects of advanced capitalist societies: the economic system, the administrative system, and the legitimation system. The economic system consists of the market-regulated systems of production and consumption within the private sector and the support of military and space-travel in the public sector. The administrative system consists primarily of the state apparatus as it regulates the economic and social order. Finally, the legitimation system becomes necessary to support the other two stystems when their logical support is no longer self-evident. When flaws in the political system are revealed, advanced capitalism must contend with what Habermas calls a "legitimation crisis," in which the legitimizing system does not succeed in keeping an acceptible amount of loyalty from the populace.
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How can good listening help public administrators be more responsive to the public? In public administration, responsibility is lauded as the essence of bureaucratic professionalism while responsiveness tends to connote inappropriate political bias. Yet too much reliance on administrators' sense of responsibility threatens democratic accountability and puts too much faith in bureaucratic expertise. This article argues that practicing responsiveness by developing the ability to listen skillfully reduces the tension between administrative effectiveness and democratic accountability. The experience of listening involves openness, respect for difference, and reflexivity. Developing the capacity to listen well promotes accountability by helping administrators to hear neglected voices and engage in reciprocal communication with the public; it promotes effectiveness by deepening our understanding of complex situations and facilitating imaginative approaches.
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Despite an increase of citizen participation at local levels during the 1960s-70s, a growing literature indicates that these efforts are having only a limited impact. This article describes a novel form of citizen participation which as been developed by the Center for New Democratic Processes over the last decade. These "Citizens Panels" are modeled after the jury system and are similar to a process which has been developed independently by a team of West German social scientists. It is the belief of the authors that this process can overcome many of the deficiencies of other approaches to participation. Six criteria are suggested for a successful method of participation. These are applied to a project run throughout Minnesota in 1984, where 60 randomly selected individuals examined the impact of agriculture on water quality and made recommendations to project sponsors, including several state agencies. Although the project met some criteria better than others, the authors conclude that Citizens Panels have high potential for a variety of uses.
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Can the work of policy analysts and program evaluators be made more relevant to the citizenry? Peter deLeon believes it is possible to reduce the isolation of analysts, who often produce assessments and recommendations that seem out of touch with the needs and wants of the public they serve. He calls for a "participatory policy analysis" that would open the process to greater input and involvement in situations where such an approach is feasible. While admitting that such democratization is more difficult in practice than in concept, deLeon notes that the legitimacy of the policy analyst's endeavor is what is at stake.
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This paper presents a theory of citizen cynicism concerning government and, based on a national survey, examines the extent of cynicism and the extent to which public officials can reduce the level of cynicism by adapting better communication strategies, improving public participation in decision-making, and enhancing government's reputation for efficiency and effectiveness.
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Journal of Democracy 6.1 (1995) 65-78 As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone." You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually "civic" (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. "Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition," he observed, "are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types -- religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America." Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful "network capitalism" of East Asia. Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible "industrial districts" based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs -- these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity...
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The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens' power in determining the plan and/or program.
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The importance of public consultation and participation in local planning is acknowledged by the planning profession in the United States, yet anthropological research on the practice of planning in western North Dakota boomtowns during the 1980s reveals that the institutional procedures and formal apparatus of planning work to enforce dominant bureaucratic forms of organization, ideology, and discourse in ways that marginalize other ones. Although efforts and mechanisms to involve residents in planning were in place, local voices were accorded less authority when they used local conventions of negotiation and rhetoric. This paper argues for greater cultural sensitivity in matters of power and communication in planning practice.
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The legitimacy of policy making at the regional level, as with policy making at more conventional levels of government, depends on the quality of representation. Citizen appointments and voluntary committees bypass the expense of the electoral process, but lack value when restricted to token advisory roles in potential conflict with other, “financially articulate” interests. Experience shows that lay citizen representatives can make sound decisions on the technical issues that typify regional problems, when information is properly shared. Regional entities must demonstrate the will to establish their legitimacy.
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Even though a citizen participation component is included in nearly every major local government planning and policy initiative, most citizen participation techniques have been judged to be less than adequate tools for informing policy makers about the people's will. Recently, having planners or policy analysts work closely with long-standing citizen panels composed of a randomly selected sample of community members has been proposed as one appropriate response to many of the inadequacies of traditional techniques. In this article, staff from a municipal government policy analysis unit describe and critique a yearlong citizen panel project focused on developing a transportation master plan in a university community. They argue that panels can overcome many of the limitations to effective citizen participation. The authors also suggest that panels can work well, but only if policy analysts assume more pro-active and advocacy roles than those routinely found in local government. Full the list of publications citing this article (n=216), please see my google scholar citation page, http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=sM8NoacAAAAJ
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This article examines the case for a participatory policy analysis. An idea advanced mainly by democratic and postpositivist theorists is increasingly becoming a practical concern. Criticizing conventional conceptions of science and expertise, theorists advocating participatory democracy argue that the conventional model of professionalism based on a practitioner-client hierarchy must give way to a more collaborative method of inquiry. While such arguments have largely remained in the domain of utopian speculation, recent experiences with a number of wicked policy problems have begun to suggest the viability, if not the necessity, of participatory research methods. Through two case illustrations of a wicked problem, the so-called Nimby Syndrome, the essay seek to demonstrate that collaborative citizen-expert inquiry may well hold the key to solving a specific category of contemporary policy problems. The article concludes with some observations on the possibilities of bringing participatory research more fully into mainstream policy science.
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Coping with the practical problems of bureaucracy is hampered by the limited self-conception and the constricted mindsets of mainstream public administration thinking. Modernist public administration theory, although valuable and capable of producing ever more remarkable results, is limiting as an explanatory and catalytic force in resolving fundamental problems about the nature, size, scope, and functioning of public bureaucracy and in transforming public bureaucracy into a more positive force. This original study specifies a reflexive language paradigm for public administration thinking and shows how a postmodern perspective permits a revolution in the character of thinking about public bureaucracy. The author considers imagination, deconstruction, deterritorialization, and alterity. Farmer's work emphasizes the need for an expansion in the character and scope of public administration's disciplinary concerns and shows clearly how the study and practice of public administration can be reinvigorated. David John Farmer is Professor of Political Science and Public Administration at Virginia Commonwealth University.
Introduction: Can a High Modern Project Find Happiness in a Postmodern Era
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Wamsley, G. L., and J. F. Wolf (1996). "Introduction: Can a High Modern Project Find Happiness in a Postmodern Era?" In G. L. Wamsley and J. F. Wolf, eds., Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1-37.
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Government Is Us: Public Administration in an Anti-government Era
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The Semiotic Way of Knowing and Public Administration
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The Institutional Legacy of Community Governance
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Overcoming NIMBY: Using Citizen Participation Effectively
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An Ethic of Citizenship for Public Administration
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Cooper, T. L. (1991). An Ethic of Citizenship for Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Public Participation in Public Decisions
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Assessing Community Interest and Gathering Community Support
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Citizen Panels: A New Approach to Citizen ParticipationThe Democratization of the Policy Sciences
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Refounding Public Administra-tion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 246-273The Listening Bureaucrat: Responsiveness in Public Administration
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Wamsley, R. N. Bacher, C. T. Goodsell, P. S. Kronenberg, J. A. Rohr, C. M. Stivers, 0. F. White, and J. F. Wolf, Refounding Public Administra-tion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 246-273. (1994). "The Listening Bureaucrat: Responsiveness in Public Administration." PublicAdministration Review 54(4): 364-369.
Responsibility as Paradox: A Critique ofRational Discourse on Government
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Harmon, M. M. (1995). Responsibility as Paradox: A Critique ofRational Discourse on Government. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
org/sici?sici=0033-3352%28199203%2F04%2952%3A2%3C125%3ATDOTPS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T The Recovery of Civism in Public Administration H
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Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-3352%28199203%2F04%2952%3A2%3C125%3ATDOTPS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T The Recovery of Civism in Public Administration H. George Frederickson Public Administration Review, Vol. 42, No. 6. (Nov.-Dec., 1982), pp. 501-508.
The Public? Role in the Policy Process: A View from State and Local Policy MakersCitizens and Politics: A Viewfrom Main Street America
Kettering Foundation (1989). The Public? Role in the Policy Process: A View from State and Local Policy Makers. Dayton, OH: Kettering Foundation. (1991). "Citizens and Politics: A Viewfrom Main Street America." Report prepared for the Kettering Foundation by the Hanvood Group.
Implementing Citiun Participation thank Shannon O'Donnell Wolf and Brenda Cox for their assistance in the research. We are also grateful to our reviewers for their contributions. in a Bureaucratic Society
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Kweit, M. G., and R. W. Kweit (1981). Implementing Citiun Participation thank Shannon O'Donnell Wolf and Brenda Cox for their assistance in the research. We are also grateful to our reviewers for their contributions. in a Bureaucratic Society. New York: Praeger. (1987). "Citizen Participation: Enduring Issues for the Next Century." National Civic Review 76: 19 1 -198.
You have printed the following article: The Question of Participation: Toward Authentic Public Participation in Public Administration Cheryl Simrell King
You have printed the following article: The Question of Participation: Toward Authentic Public Participation in Public Administration Cheryl Simrell King; Kathryn M. Feltey; Bridget O'Neill Susel Public Administration Review, Vol. 58, No. 4. (Jul.-Aug., 1998), pp. 317-326.
org/sici?sici=0033-3352%28199703%2F04%2957%3A2%3C124%3APDAAAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X The Listening Bureaucrat: Responsiveness in Public Administration Camilla Stivers Public Administration Review
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Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-3352%28199703%2F04%2957%3A2%3C124%3APDAAAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X The Listening Bureaucrat: Responsiveness in Public Administration Camilla Stivers Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 4. (Jul.-Aug., 1994), pp. 364-369.
The Democratization of the Policy Sciences Peter deLeon
The Democratization of the Policy Sciences Peter deLeon Public Administration Review, Vol. 52, No. 2. (Mar. -Apr., 1992), pp. 125-129.
Kay Lehman Schlozman
Citizen Activity: Who Participates? What Do They Say? Sidney Verba; Kay Lehman Schlozman; Henry Brady; Norman H. Nie The American Political Science Review, Vol. 87, No. 2. (Jun., 1993), pp. 303-318.
Refounding Public Administration
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Wamsley, G. L., R. N. Bacher, C. T. Goodsell, P. S. Kronenberg, J. A. Rohr, C. M. Stivers, 0. F. White, and J. F. Wolf, (1990). Refounding Public Administration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.