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TELEVISION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE, PROGRAMME PRODUCTION AND AUDIENCE A Report for the European Audiovisual Observatory

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Grigory Libergal March 2003The analyses expressed in this report are the authors ’ own opinion and cannot in any way be considered as representing the point of view of the European Audiovisual Observatory, its members and the Council of Europe.
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... The country has a wealth of media outlets and a range of opinions that are expressed in broadcast, print and internet outlets. The economic stability of the Russian media, in particular television, increased steadily as the Russian economy improved under Putin (Kachkaeva, Kiriya & Libergal, 2006). Yet, in some ways it would appear that the contemporary Russian media has more to do with the Soviet media than any Western model (Oates, 2007). ...
... state-owned Russian Television and Radio (RTR). There has been steady growth in the television sphere, with the number of channels that half of the Russian nation could receive increased from five in 2004 to nine in 2006 (Kachkaeva, Kiriya and Libergal, 2006). Self-censorship is endemic in the journalism industry, with only a few examples of confrontation with the Kremlin 'line' on sensitive subjects such as Chechnya. ...
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When considering the rhetoric about the political potential of Web 2.0, it would appear that Russia is still mired in Web 0.0. Unlike some evidence from the West or even other post-Soviet states such as Ukraine, the internet does not provide a balance to the biased traditional media in Russia. What particular factors have led to a relative lack of political importance of the internet in Russia? Why is there little political discussion and debate on the Russian Web to make up for the lack of a lively political discourse in the traditional mass media? This paper discusses how the Russian case provides evidence for the notion that national media norms tend to overwhelm international models about the democratising potential of the internet. Without resorting to an elaborate censorship strategy as in China, the Russian government has been effective at maintaining an authoritative voice via the broadcast media while marginalising political news and discussion online. In addition, evidence from a recent study of Russian blogs by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford has found compelling reasons for why the internet isn't playing a role in Russian political life. The Russian case illuminates how national media norms can neutralise much of the democratizing potential of the internet, highlighting the need for the comparative study of the internet within national contexts.
... As mobile is essentially non-regulated while fixed is (see Section 3.2), 'Western' regulatory notions with technology neutrality do not apply; also demand for mobile was almost always higher than supply during the period of this research. Regulator has also a role in the TV sector and the media (Aksartova et al., 2003). As an example, the regulator in 2010 issued a call for tender for the development and delivery of a software and hardware system that monitors electronic publications of online media, including those made on forums; this move follows a decision by Russia's Supreme Court in June 2010, according to which online media must remove or edit any illegal comments made by readers only after Roskomnadzor has detected violations and appealed to editorial staff. ...
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This paper analyses and reviews the rapid transformation of Russian telecommunications and internet operators over the past 20 years, from small town phone service suppliers, to top-10 ranking amongst global players, on its way to adopt electronic finance. The methodology chosen is dynamic eco-systems analysis of the past 20 years’ evolution, to identify disruptive strategy changes and to assess their weight compared with a regulation-based process in countries or regions having achieved a high economic impact of their telecommunications sector. The comparative analysis identifies what Russia has done in a distinctively different way to major telecommunications and internet countries, or not at all. Such a study has implications on both the entrepreneurial approach and the regulatory approach in telecommunications and related industries.
... Regulator has also a role in the TV sector and the media [14]. As an example, the regulator in 2010 issued a call for tender for the development and delivery of a software and hardware system that monitors electronic publications of online media, including those made on forums; this move follows a decision by Russia's Supreme Court in June 2010, according to which online media must remove or edit any illegal comments made by readers only after Roskomnadzor has detected violations and appealed to editorial staff. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes and reviews the rapid transformation of Russian telecommunications and Internet operators over the past 20 years, from small town phone service suppliers, to top-5 global players. The approach taken is a dynamic eco-systems oriented analysis of the past 20 years evolution, to identify disruptive strategy changes , and to assess their weight compared to a regulation based process in countries or regions having achieved a high economic impact of their telecommunications sector. The identification of the key disruptive changes allows studying stages in the evolution. In turn, the strategy dynamics driving the key players is mapped out. The comparative analysis identifies what Russia has done in a distinctively different way to major telecommunications and Internet countries, or not at all. On that basis, perspectives for the Russian telecommunications and Internet eco-system are elaborated. Such a study has implications on both the entrepreneurial approach and the regulatory approach in telecommunications and related industries.
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