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MAKING THE BEST CASE FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED SCHOLARSHIP IN PROMOTION AND TENURE REVIEW

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Abstract

Our experience suggests that even those faculty with the belief that a participatory community based approach to research is appropriate and relevant to their work may fi nd the process daunting, given the pressures of academic institutions on faculty to publish and obtain grant money.

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... Although we may face formidable obstacles to changing power imbalances (for example, funding mandates and norms that support the superior validity of "expert knowledge"), as Foucault (1980) reminds us, power is inherently unstable and therefore able to be challenged. Seifer and colleagues noted the importance of centers in the academy which support community-engaged scholarship; interdisciplinary values; and community coinvestigators (Calleson, Siefer, & Maurana 2002;Seifer, 2008). ...
... Many universities are considering community-engaged scholarship criteria now for tenure and promotion (see www.ccph.info/), as well as urging junior faculty to join existing CBPR teams as a way to jump-start their careers (Seifer, 2008). ...
... Seifer argued that, for capacity to be built, community-defined concerns should direct the trajectory of research. She also contended that refining a research question or confirming its validity with community partners adheres to the rigor needed to conduct effective community research (25). ...
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We conducted a 2-phase systematic review of the literature to examine the nature and outcomes of health research using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach with AI communities to assess both the value and the impact of CBPR, identify gaps in knowledge, and guide recommendations for AI research agendas. Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched the peer-reviewed literature published from 1995 to 2016 and identified and reviewed 42 unique intervention studies. We identified and catalogued key study characteristics, and using the Reliability-Tested Guidelines for Assessing Participatory Research Projects, we quantified adherence to participatory research principles across its four domains. Finally, we examined any association between community participation score and health outcomes. The majority of studies (76.7%) used an observational study design with diabetes, cancer, substance abuse, and tobacco being the most common topics. Half of the articles reported an increase in knowledge as the primary outcome. Our findings suggest that a CBPR orientation yields improved community outcomes. However, we could not conclude that community participation was directly associated with an improvement in health outcomes.
... • Consideration of major models of engaged scholarship, especially social justice and university social responsibility approaches (Appe, et al., 2017). • Reviewing policies and practices developed at other institutions for evaluating engaged teaching, scholarship, and service (Campus Compact, 2018;Engagement Scholarship Consortium, 2018;Jordan, 2007;Seifer, 2008). ...
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This guide argues that engaged scholarship, in which academics and other professional researchers collaborate with community members and organizations, should be the preferred approach for researchers who are committed to environmental justice. This is because environmental justice not only requires us to share environmental burdens and benefits more equitably, but also demands that we democratize control over environmental knowledge and decision making to include historically marginalized communities. The means and ends of engaged scholarship can best help researchers fulfill this dual commitment to the democratic process and equitable environmental outcomes. The guide is intended for academic scholars, other professional researchers, and their community partners interested in collaborating on this kind of work. The first part of the guide defines and describes the development of EJ and engaged scholarship, showing why they are well-suited to one another. In the process, it offers a brief summary of the major literature on both topics. Part two offers a brief review of some of the characteristic research methods of engaged scholarship on EJ, such as community mapping, environmental exposure monitoring, photovoice and participatory video, storytelling and community arts, and more. Part three summarizes the challenges that university-community partners face in their work together and how they can address them. It also discusses potential difficulties of conducting this kind of research in academic institutions that have yet to fully embrace engaged scholarship. This part draws on solutions developed by practitioners and suggests areas for further transformation of academia to make it more hospitable to engaged work. The final part lists useful resources on environmental justice and engaged scholarship and a list of references.
... White senior faculty and administrator allies can counter comments on a personal level and can encourage peer support with other minority faculty. Structurally, the existence of the Centers on diversity and community-based participatory Research have proven to support minority faculty who might otherwise experience the detrimental effects of discriminatory practices and comments 30 ; these centers provide a counterinfluence to the cultural conflict between the university's norms of objectivity and the minority culture's reliance on contextualization for learning. 26,28 A recent study of diversity within three universities uncovered the link between diversity and excellence and posited that incorporating discourse on privilege represents the highest stage of a university's capacity to create an environment conducive for minority faculty. ...
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Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003-2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. The SARG was based at UNM's School of Medicine's Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM's Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.
Chapter
This chapter presents a case study that demonstrates how an oral history project was able to uncover local, vernacular and indigenous knowledges and get them more effectively applied within a local planning context. The university facilitated the co-production of knowledge through two specific activities that created a community knowledge asset from which ongoing relationships could be negotiated safely and confidently. Community participation was encouraged through documentation of oral history, shared food from diverse cultures, information sharing and media promotion, and critical reflection by linking storytelling and planning. The university affected the roles of broker and mediator to demystify the confusion and complexity in the public domain that often surrounds knowledge generation, through an interdisciplinary approach as collaborator, mediator and provider of independent critical analysis. The collaboration between researchers, practitioners and local communities can generate a set of new and different perspectives to create new knowledge. This engaged research had an intentional public purpose. Its outcomes offered both direct and indirect benefits on participants and opened up a better understanding of how sources and forms of knowledge relate to one another.
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Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR.
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Community-based research in public health focuses on social, structural, and physical environmental inequities through active involvement of community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. Partners contribute their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and to integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved. This review provides a synthesis of key principles of community-based research, examines its place within the context of different scientific paradigms, discusses rationales for its use, and explores major challenges and facilitating factors and their implications for conducting effective community-based research aimed at improving the public's health.
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Context: As faculty at health professionals schools have become increasingly engaged with their communities in partnerships to improve health, new questions have arisen about faculty rewards for such activities. To sustain the community work of their faculty, institutions need to reconceptualize faculty rewards, promotion, and tenure that are relevant to community activities. Historical perspective: Scholarship has evolved since the 17th century from a focus on character-building to the practical needs of the nation to an emphasis on research. In 1990, Boyer proposed four interrelated dimensions of scholarship: (1) discovery; (2) integration;(3) application; and (4) teaching. The challenge became the development of criteria and innovative and creative ways to assess community scholarship. Current models for community scholarship: This paper reviews four evidence-based models to document and evaluate scholarly activities that are applicable to community scholarship. Proposed model for community scholarship: We propose a new model for community scholarship that focuses on both processes and outcomes, crosses the boundaries of teaching, research, and service, and reshapes and integrates them through community partnership. We hope this model will generate national discussion about community scholarship and provide thought-provoking information that will move the idea of community scholarship to its next stage of development.
Article
Since Ernest Boyer's landmark 1990 report, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, leaders in higher education, including academic medicine, have advocated that faculty members apply their expertise in new and creative ways in partnership with communities. Such community engagement can take many forms, including community-based teaching, research, clinical care, and service. There continues to be a gap, however, between the rhetoric of this idea and the reality of how promotion and tenure actually work in health professions schools. The Commission on Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Health Professions was established in October 2003 with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to take a leadership role in creating a more supportive culture and reward system for community-engaged faculty in the nation's health professions schools. The authors prepared this article to inform the commission's deliberations and to stimulate discussion among educators in the health professions. The authors define the work that faculty engage in with communities, consider whether all work by faculty in community-based settings is actually scholarship, and propose a framework for documenting and assessing community-engaged scholarship for promotion and tenure decisions. They conclude with recommendations for change in academic health centers and health professions schools.
Promotion, tenure, and the engaged scholar: Keeping the scholarship of engagement in the review process
  • S Gelmon
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Gelmon, S., & Agre-Kippenhan, S. (2002, Jan.). Promotion, tenure, and the engaged scholar: Keeping the scholarship of engagement in the review process. AAHE Bulletin, pp. 7-11.
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Jordan, C. (Ed.). (2007). Community-engaged scholarship review, promotion and tenure package. Seattle, WA: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, Community-Engaged Scholarship for Health Collaborative, Peer Review Workgroup.
Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate
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Glassick, C. E., Huber, M. T., & Maeroff, G. I. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.