Article

Evaluation of Moisture Deficit Index in Dry Land in Iraq

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Abstract

This investigation has been conducted to study the magnitude of water deficiency in the arid land in Iraq, the moisture deficit index (MDI) has been evaluated for 4 dry land stations (Sulaimaniya, Mousl, Baghdad and Bassra). The results in general show that the moisture index values were negative at Sulaimaniya and Mousl it ranges from -56.0 to -73.0. It was -28.0 in Jan. in Sulaimaniya. The above range -56.0 to -73.0 indicates that the available moisture is enough for sowing and subsequently for the establishment of the crop but not necessarily for optimal growth if there was full crop canopy. Crops do grow in Sulaimaniya and Mousl.However, Moisture Deficit Index range from -80.0 to -94.0 in Baghdad and Bassra. For all the crops such as Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum ), broad beans (Vici faba) and other winter crops must experience moisture stress and unless they receive irrigation, they may not grow and produce yields in Baghdad and Bassra. However, in Sulaimaniya and Mousl the available moisture is enough to grow crops and produce yields. Key word: Moisture ・ Deficit Index. Dry land ・ Available water ・ Crop production ・ Iraq

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... Basic understanding of moisture indices in arid and semiarid regions is essential for proper land management of these lands, in which it is characterized by a severe lack of available water. This has unfavorable effect on their quality and production (Abdulla, 2008). There is a long history of evaluating the moisture conditions through the ratio of precipitation over temperature or evapotranspiration (De Martonne, 1926;Thornthwaite, 1948;UNESCO, 1979;UNEP, 1992). ...
... and Dhar, 1975). The index can be applied for climate classification, hydrological characterization for water management, environmental studies, and agricultural planning to define land use and agricultural practices (Dourado-Neto et al., 2010). In several studies of climate change and water resources, the Thornthwaite moisture index has been used.Abdulla (2008)investigated the magnitude of water deficiency in the arid land in Iraq using the moisture deficit index (MDI). The results in general showed that the moisture index values were negative at Sulaimaniya and Mousl stations ranging from −56 to −73. Moisture deficit index ranges from −80 to −94 in Baghdad and Bassra stations. Grundstein (200 ...
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... Many previous studies have used aridity indices in different regions, as they measure the degree to which a region's climate lacks effective and life-promoting moisture [7]. Spatial and temporal variations of several indices were analyzed for Bahrain [8], Bangladesh [9], Turkey [10][11][12][13], Greece [7], Romania [14][15][16][17], Ethiopia [18,19], Iran [20][21][22], Pakistan [23], IP [24][25][26], Iraq [27,28], Extremadura in southwestern Spain [29], Serbia [30][31][32], India [33,34], the Middle East and North Africa [35], Calabria in Southern Italy [36] and southeastern Europe [37]. However, these studies were conducted over historical periods and do not project potential shifts under future climate change scenarios. ...
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The assessment of aridity conditions is a key factor for water management and the implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies in agroforestry systems. Towards this aim three aridity indices were computed for the Iberian Peninsula (IP): the De Martonne Index (DMI), the Pinna Combinative Index (PCI), and the Erinç Aridity Index (EAI). These three indices were first computed for the baseline period 1961‒1990, using a gridded observational data (E-OBS), and, subsequently, for the periods 2011‒2040 (short-range) and 2041‒2070 (medium-range) using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) experiments generated by the EURO-CORDEX project. Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were analyzed, an intermediate anthropogenic radiative forcing scenario (RCP4.5) and a fossil-intensive emission scenario (RCP8.5). Overall, the three indices disclose a strengthening of aridity and dry conditions in central and southern Iberia until 2070, mainly under RCP8.5. Strong(weak) statistically significant correlations were found between these indices and the total mean precipitation (mean temperature) along with projected significant decreasing(increasing) trends for precipitation(temperature). The prevalence of years with arid conditions (above 70% for 2041‒2070 under both RCPs) are projected to have major impacts in some regions, such as southern Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Comunidad de Madrid, Andalucía, Región de Murcia, Comunidad Valenciana, and certain regions within the Aragón province. The projected increase in both the intensity and persistence of aridity conditions in a broader southern half of Iberia will exacerbate the exposure and vulnerability of this region to climate change, while the risk of multi-level desertification should be thoroughly integrated into regional and national water management and planning.
... Globally, human demands for water have increased and are predicted to grow further in the coming decades (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). This is driving, for example, groundwater over-pumping for irrigation and domestic supply which is being exacerbated by global climate change (Abdulla, 2008;Al-Ansari and Knutsson, 2011;Ibraimo and Munguambe, 2007;Zakaria et al., 2013). The Intergovernmental ...
... He claimed that De Martonne index is more appropriate for that region. In addition, Abdulla (2008) assessed the Thornthwaite moisture index for four stations (Sulaimaniya, Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra) in Iraq's dry land. He found that the values of moisture deficit index were negatives for all stations. ...
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