Translational Mini-Review Series on Immunology of Vascular Disease: Inflammation, infections and Toll-like receptors in cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular Research Unit, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.04). 04/2009; 156(3):386-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03886.x
Source: PubMed


Cardiovascular disease, in which atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause, is currently the largest cause of death in the world. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of arterial lesions over a period of several decades at sites of endothelial cell dysfunction. These lesions are composed of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes (CD4(+)). As the lesions progress some can become unstable and prone to disruption, resulting in thrombus formation and possibly a myocardial infarction or stroke depending upon the location. Although the exact triggers for plaque disruption remain unknown, much recent evidence has shown a link between the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke and a recent respiratory tract infection. Interestingly, many reports have also shown a link between a family of pattern recognition receptors, the Toll-like receptors, and the progression of atherosclerosis, suggesting that infections may play a role in both the progression of atherosclerosis and in inducing the more severe complications associated with the disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Ian Sabroe
  • Source
    • "In this regard, growing evidence shows that socioeconomic conditions during childhood confer risk for inflammatory disease in later life (e.g. atherosclerosis; Libby, 2002; Libby and Ridker, 2004; Ward et al., 2009), with circulating levels of inflammatory markers in mid-life adults predicting risk for a range of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease, cancer, osteoarthritis , and dementia (Chung et al., 2009). Thus, our findings raise the possibility that socioeconomic conditions during early childhood have a lasting impact on levels of systemic inflammation, which may contribute to the increase in inflammatory disease risk known to accompany a history of poorer childhood socioeconomic circumstances. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is proposed that socioeconomic conditions in early childhood effect immune programming, with poorer conditions resulting in adult phenotypes that are prone to inflammation. Recent evidence supports this possibility, showing an inverse association of childhood SES with adult markers of systemic inflammation. In this study, we further investigate this association, extending prior studies to include an examination of multiple indices of SES across distinct periods of childhood. Subjects were 112 men and women, 40-60 years of age (88.6% Caucasian). Childhood SES was indexed by a composite of three indicators of parental wealth (parental home and vehicle ownership, and number of bedrooms per child in the family home) averaged across 2 year periods of childhood between 1 and 18 years old. Higher adult serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 were associated with lower SES in early childhood (years 1-2) (β=-.05, p<.05), associations that were independent of adult age, personal income, educational attainment, gender, race, body mass index, and physical activity. These associations support recent suggestions that the early environment may program immune phenotypes that contribute to disease risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
  • Hammer · J.L · III · W.R. Hole
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The need for accurate positioning in naval tactics is discussed with reference to relative and geographical positioning, large area battles, the Navy Tactical Data System and the Link systems, attack scenarios, mine warfare, Q -routes, and mine hunting and neutralizations. It is concluded that the evolution of modern naval warfare has led away from the careful and assiduous application of navigation and positioning information. The ease of obtaining a `fix' and the imperatives of tactical threats have relegated this aspect to a lesser role. It is further argued that the trends toward over-the-horizon targeting/battles and strict emission controls, coupled with the more traditional tactics in antisubmarine warfare and mine warfare, continue to require good geographic positioning as a matter of paramount importance
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 1988
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evolutions in time of charge distributions in thick dielectric insulators such as those used in high-voltage DC insulation are investigated. The pressure wave propagation (PWP) method has been applied to low-density, high-density, and cross-linked polyethylene under electric stress. It is shown that the impurities contained in carbon-loaded polyethylene electrodes play a very significant role in the development of a space charge distribution within the insulator. It is suggested that, by studying the evolution of the charge distributions, it is possible to determine whether a stabilization occurs and how much time is required to reach this stabilization, depending on the temperature and the applied voltage. Consequently, such a measurement made on samples having the same structure as the cables will help in defining tests and standard procedures for equipment evaluation
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1988
Show more