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Abstract

Prior research often emphasized a stimulus-based or bottom-up view of product category repre- sentations. In contrast, we emphasize a more purposeful, top-down perspective and examine categories that consumers might construct in the service of salient (i.e., highly accessible) goals. Specifically, we investigate how the point of view imposed by salient consumer goals might af- fect category representations assessed by participants' similarity judgments of food products. A key factor in our study is that we examine both individual and situational sources of variability in goal salience. In addition, we also vary the surface-level, visual resemblance of the stimulus pairs of foods used in the study. The results suggest that personal goals (e.g., health) and situa- tional goals (e.g., convenience) act in conjunction and exert a systematic impact on category representations. Both types of goals, when salient, enhanced the perceived similarity of goal-ap- propriate products and reduced the similarity of product pairs when only one product was ideal for the particular goal. The similarity-enhancing effect was most pronounced when the surface resemblance between the products was low, and the similarity-diminishing effect was more ap- parent when surface resemblance was high. Implications are discussed for current theoretical assumptions regarding categorization in consumer research.

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... With reference specifically to retail, customers are faced with competing purchase decisions and goals as a result of their personal environment (Soman & Zhao, 2011). As well, goals may affect product category consideration sets (Ratneshwar et al.,2001). A case in point being that a consumer may save money by transacting with a competitor of the loyalty programme that they are affiliated with. ...
... As individuals can have confounding goals, and as humans are inherently complex, to help with the mental processing of such, research has found that the levels of importance and benefit, that an individual places upon their goals, regulates goal commitment. This then sets in place prioritisation for goal consumption or use (Gollwitzer, 1993;Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann & Moore, 2001). ...
... Internally desired states pertaining to outcomes (Orsingher et al., 2011); 3) Capable of shaping a retail customer's initial need recognition (Puccinelli et al., 2009) by influencing information processing (Huffman and Huston 1993) as a result of information search (Puccinelli et al., 2009). Consumer goals are applied as reference standards for evaluating product categories (Ratneshwar et al., 2001) during pre-, actual and post-purchase stages (Puccinelli et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
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Building upon extant research regarding goal intentions, implementation intentions and the self-regulation construct of action orientation, this thesis explored their collective application to a previously unresearched domain; that of customer loyalty programmes. This was done by introducing, and testing, how individuals are effected on their path to loyalty programme rewards achievement by factors, both in and out of their control. In doing so, the role of intentions, as a protagonist of loyalty programmes, was considered both academically and practically. Recommendations for future research and practice were made.
... Benefit appeal highlights more abstract or superordinate constructs. Benefit-based groupings are similar to thematic categories (Barsalou, 1983;Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moorem, 2001). In other words, benefits capture aspects of products that are higher on the "means-end" chain (Gutman, 1982). ...
... The moderating role of ad appeal type did not occur when the complementarity of bundled smart items was high. The current research findings extend the understanding of the goal theoretical approach (Barsalou, 1983;Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009;Ratneshwar, Pechmann, & Shocker, 1996;Ratneshwar et al., 2001) toward smart product adoption decisions. ...
... Thus, when the complementarity level of the bundled items is low, managers can use advertising as an effective marketing strategy to increase consumers' processing of the common consumption goal of the featured bundle. They could encourage consumers to imagine a new salient consumption goal of the smart product bundles (Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009;Ratneshwar, Pechmann, & Shocker, 1996;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Second, the nature of the high-technology market, such as connectivity and network effects, allows managers numerous combinations of bundling smart products. ...
Article
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Purpose: This study investigates how to successfully promote the smart product bundle by exploring (1) how consumers' adoption intention toward a smart product bundle differs by the complementarity level of the bundled items and (2) how the ad appeal type influences the effect of complementarity level on adoption intention via goal fluency. Research design, data and methodology: This study was a 2 (complementarity level: low vs. high) × 2 (ad appeal type: attribute vs. benefit) between-subjects experiment. The proposed hypotheses were verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and bootstrap analysis using PROCESS. Results: This research demonstrated that adoption intention toward smart products increases when the complementarity level of bundled smart items is high. Goal fluency underlies this relationship. Further, attribute versus benefit appeal type moderates the relationship between the complementarity level and goal fluency. Conclusions: Compared with the attribute appeal, benefit appeal leads to higher goal fluency when the complementarity level of the bundled items is low. However, there was no differential impact of appeal type on goal fluency when the complementarity level of bundled items is high. Finally, goal fluency mediated the interaction of complementarity level × ad appeal type on adoption intention.
... Combining two concepts requires relational reasoning: to understand two concepts together, a particular relationship between them needs to be established (Wilkenfeld & Ward, 2001;Wisniewski, 1996), such as finding a goal-derived category (Barsalou, 1982(Barsalou, , 1983(Barsalou, , 1985. By being prompted with a goal-derived relationship, people can then think of appropriate usage situations or salient goals, where the two different product attributes are meaningfully correlated (Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009;Gill & Dubé, 2007;Ratneshwar et al., 1996;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). The expected salient benefit of convergence product might be a common denominator of a base product and novel attributes. ...
... We adopt the goal-theoretic view on the convergence product purchase decision, particularly the presence or absence of a goal-derived category (Barsalou, 1982(Barsalou, , 1983) that serves as a "common denominator." For example, Ratneshwar et al. (2001) suggest that prompting "healthy breakfast substitutes" can connect different product categories such as yogurt, banana, and cereal bars. Psycholinguistic studies show that goalderived categories do not come to mind naturally, but instead, have to be prompted (Gentner & Kurtz, 2006;Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009). ...
... Across two studies in two different high technology convergence product categories (i.e., refrigerator, smartwatch), we show that adding a focal-goal dissimilar attribute to the base product may decrease consumers' purchase intention. Current research findings extend the understanding of the goal theoretic approach (Barsalou, 1982(Barsalou, , 1983Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009;Ratneshwar et al., 2001) toward a convergence-product purchase decision. ...
Article
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Adding novel attributes to the base product is the most widely used marketing strategy to develop convergence products, and numerous studies have confirmed the positive effect of adding novel attributes on product evaluations. However, adding new attributes to the base product may not always produce positive outcomes. Results of two studies using two product categories (refrigerator, smartwatch) show that focal-goal dissimilarity between the base product and added attributes reduces consumers' purchase intention via perceived benefit understanding. Further, rela-tional versus item-specific elaboration style moderates this relationship. Specifically, relational (vs. item-specific) elaboration increased perceived benefit understanding and purchase intention when a focal-goal dissimilar attribute was added to the base product. In contrast, there was no differential effect of the relational versus item-specific elaboration when the focal goal of the added attribute was similar to the focal goal of the base product. This study expands the extant knowledge on goal-based product evaluation, cognitive elaboration, and information processing style, and provides marketers with effective strategies for communicating the benefits of new convergence products.
... Categorization not only has a central role in daily life [11] but has been adopted as a research topic in various research fields. For example, it has received a lot of attention in areas such as marketing, psychology, and consumer behavior [2,12,13]. Because categorization affects people's thinking style, it leads to changes in attitudes, judgments, and decisions about specific objects [14,15]. ...
... The goal-derived category, on the other hand, has different physical attributes such as knives, cutting boards, pots, and ladles, but can be grouped into one category through the common purpose of cooking. That is, the distinction depends upon ad hoc characteristics rather than the attributes of objects, as per an individual's situation or purpose [1,3,8,12]. Because taxonomic categories are based on physical properties, their use in a consumer environment may be limited, but they are particularly useful when organizing information about alternatives for consumers. ...
... First, this study extended the literature of categorizations into an online context to identify the effective information structure method presented to consumers. Most of the previous studies have focused mainly on the category method of physical products [2,12,13], so little has been done from the perspective of online information structure. Moreover, recently, a content curation service for providing customized information to consumers has attracted attention, and accordingly, in this study, the two aforementioned category methods have been representatively selected to perform empirical analysis. ...
Article
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With the development of the Internet, consumers can acquire a variety of information; however, as the amount of information continuously increases, it becomes difficult for consumers to make decisions. In this era of information overload, online curation services are emerging to help consumers choose the information they want. In these online services, information is grouped and classified according to certain criteria and presented to consumers. In this context, there are typical goal-derived and taxonomic categories in the method of structuring information. This study investigated the effect of category types on the categorization attitude of consumers according to their psychological ownership of online services. To this end, this study confirmed the interaction effect of category types (goal-derived vs. taxonomic) and the degree of psychological ownership (higher vs. lower). As a result, users with higher (as opposed to lower) psychological ownership of online curation services revealed a more effective attitude toward categorization in the goal-derived (as opposed to taxonomic) type. The results of this study suggest implications on how to structure information in consideration of the psychological state of consumers in an online context and are expected to be useful guidelines for practitioners such as service providers, marketers, and UX(User Experience)/UI(User Interface) designers.
... The context or situation has been shown to exert powerful influence on a consumer's goals, and consequently on the decision made (see, e.g., Ratneshwar et al. 2001;Warlop and Ratneshwar 1993). Studies by Belk (1975) and Ratneshwar et al. (1997) reveal that situational influences often dominate individual differences when it comes to product evaluations. ...
... Hence, the usage context, i.e., the situation in which a product will be used, is instrumental in defining the alternatives actively considered, as it act as an environmental constraint defining consumers' ends or goals, thus limiting the nature of means (products) that can achieve those ends, i.e., supply the desired benefits (Warlop and Ratneshwar 1993;Ratneshwar and Shocker 1991). Consequently, proper market segmentation based on consumer product preferences needs to consider both individual and contextual differences as to goals or desired benefits (Ratneshwar et al. 2001). ...
... Proper market segmentation based on consumer preferences needs to consider both individual and contextual differences as to goals or desired benefits (Ratneshwar et al. 2001). Hence, usage context as well as individual experience and sociocultural context (i.e., the general life situation) were assumed to affect material preferences. ...
Thesis
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Over the last decades, wood has encountered increasing competition from other building materials. Hence, it is relevant to study the underlying factors of material substitution. The market for repair and remodelling (R&R) is growing in importance. The end-consumer´s, or the household?s, assessments as to material selection are generally more crucial in R&R than in construction of new houses, a circumstance highlighting the importance of the end-consumer. Consequently, this thesis deals with material substitution within an end-consumer context. Proper market segmentation and targeting presuppose an understanding of why households differ as to material preferences. Prioritising customer needs in quality improvement and/or product development requires information as to the importance of different customer requirements or needs as well as the performance of wood, relative substitutes, in providing for these needs. The thesis proposes a coherent approach for market segmentation and for prioritising customer needs: (i) how to provide a basis for market segmentation and targeting, i.e., to extract the distinguishing features of different material preferences; (ii) how to extract information enabling the prioritising of customer needs, i.e., importance and performance information. Identifying prominent discriminating factors of building application material preference, in order to subsequently explain why households differ within and between samples/cultures as to material preferences, and finally assessing customer requirements or needs as to the importance and the performance of wood relative substitutes in fulfilling them, presuppose an approach for data collection and analysis, which in turn requires a theoretical frame of reference. Hence, in the thesis a theoretical framework and different methods, for extracting decisive preferential predictors and assessing customer needs respectively, are suggested and evaluated. A pronounced design profile and distinct material alternatives make floorcovering a good illustrative example. The results indicate that material substitution with an end-consumer focus should be studied within a contextual framework. Hence, the usage context, the type of room refloored and whether the dwelling is owned or not, seems to define the types of materials actively considered. Further, households obviously differ in how they perceive the concept of floorcovering in a given usage context, depending on the general life situation and individual experience. Data collection, with the aim of identifying distinguishing factors of building application material preferences, must thus handle the collection of data related to usage context as well as the general life situation and individual experience. To obtain a deeper understanding of the underlying motives open-ended questions are called for. Performance benchmarking as to customer requirements or needs should be relative competitors in the same market segment, i.e., close substitutes. The assessment of customer needs should allow analysis on benefit levels, as alternatives in material substitution most readily can be compared in terms of the more abstract benefits/consequences they provide rather than concrete attributes. The apparent causal complexity, resulting from contextual influences, severely limits the usefulness and adequacy of traditional, additive, statistical analysis. Multivariate projection methods like partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); in coping with collinear variables, as well as the Boolean approach of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA); enabling data reduction in a theoretically guided manner, have potential for handling multiple conjunctural causation when analysing material preferences. Furthermore, both methods are able to handle binary variables resulting from open-ended questions, dependent as well as independent. PLS-DA can, however, more readily than Boolean algebra capture contextual influences. Analysis by means of PLS-DA thus seem to provide the information necessary for market segmentation and targeting, i.e., the causes of preferential differences both between and within cultures: evaluative criteria and variables related to the context. The output from the analysis of material preferences serve as input to the subsequent assessment of customer needs, as to the make-up of customer needs and as to which materials constitute close substitutes, i.e., share usage context. Customer satisfaction modelling (CSM) using partial least squares (PLS) seems well adapted for extracting the information necessary for prioritising customer needs: the impact on customer satisfaction of the fulfilment of different customer requirements or needs, and the performance of wood, relative substitutes, in providing for these needs. A valuable asset of CSM is the ability to allow analysis on customer benefit as well as attribute level. Usage context and data connected with the life situation provide instruments for market segmentation and targeting. For example: according to the present results, users of wooden flooring in the Netherlands are house owners to a greater extent and generally have a higher household income than users of laminated flooring. One of the apparently salient reasons for choosing wood, the natural material property, is part of the intrinsic nature, character, of the material. This quality of wood could provide an edge on the close substitute, laminated flooring. The results presented in the thesis further indicate that practical, functional, benefits exert the greatest impact on customer satisfaction, for wooden flooring as well as its closest substitutes laminate and carpet. This is noteworthy, as the salient evaluative criteria for choosing wooden flooring, unlike the other materials studied, were of a non-practical nature. This circumstance highlights the necessity of considering substitutes to identify latent needs. A low cost over the life cycle and hygiene are apparently the most important benefits to improve for wooden flooring manufacturers, as importance is high and performance relatively low.
... Compared with the attribute-based (i.e., prototypical) approach to categorization, the goal-based approach may prove more fruitful in the study of umbrella categories. 2 At higher vertical levels of categorization, an attribute-based approach may become inapplicable as subcategories may no longer exhibit similar attributes (Loken and Ward, 1990). Goal-derived categorization, in contrast, may better describe umbrella categories that comprise several quite different (prototypical) subcategories that serve the same (often ambiguous and idealized) goal (Ratneshwar, Pechmann, and Shocker, 1996;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Unlike in the attribute-based approach, where category membership is assessed on the basis of the possession of certain attributes or features (Vergne and Wry, 2014), in the goal-derived approach category membership is assessed based on approaching ideals. ...
... In the case analyzed here, a goal-derived lens fruitfully described the umbrella category constructed by macro actors. Whereas prototypical categories encompass ostensibly like objects that are evaluated according to their resemblance to a category prototype, goal-derived categories may encompass highly dissimilar objects serving a similar goal that are evaluated according to the degree to which they approach ideals that no category members may ever fully manifest (Barsalou, 1985(Barsalou, , 1991Ratneshwar et al., 2001). ''Quebec terroir products'' illustrates a goal-derived category comprising highly dissimilar products (e.g., cheeses, meats, wines), all evaluated according to the seemingly unattainable ideals of representing Quebec's land, culture, and traditions such that they allow consumers to ''taste Quebec.'' ...
... This finding expands the conceptualization of goal-derived categories, as it reveals that they can be enduring cognitive structures. Scholarly work to date on goal-derived categories, whether in psychology (e.g., Barsalou, 1983Barsalou, , 1985Ratneshwar et al., 2001;Voorspoels, Storms, and Vanpaemel, 2013) or organization studies (e.g., Durand and Paolella, 2013;Durand and Boulongne, 2017), has focused on ad hoc, individual-level categorization processes, such as how an individual selects ''foods to eat on a diet'' the first time one decides to diet. Consequently, goal-derived categories have been discussed as ''temporary categories constructed around specific goals in a given context'' in order to solve immediate problems Paolella, 2013: 1109). ...
Article
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Categories are organized vertically, with product categories nested under larger umbrella categories. Meaning flows from umbrella categories to the categories beneath them, such that the construction of a new umbrella category can significantly reshape the categorical landscape. This paper explores the construction of a new umbrella category and the nesting beneath it of a product category. Specifically, we study the construction of the Quebec terroir products umbrella category and the nesting of the Quebec artisanal cheese product category under this umbrella. Our analysis shows that the construction of umbrella categories can unfold entirely separately from that of product categories and can follow a distinct categorization process. Whereas the construction of product categories may be led by entrepreneurs who make salient distinctive product attributes, the construction of umbrella categories may be led by “macro actors” removed from the market. We found that these macro actors followed a goal-derived categorization process: they first defined abstract goals and ideals for the umbrella category and only subsequently sought to populate it with product categories. Among the macro actors involved, the state played a central role in defining the meaning of the Quebec terroir category and mobilizing other macro actors into the collective project, a finding that suggests an expanded role of the state in category construction. We also found that market intermediaries are important in the nesting of product categories beneath new umbrella categories, notably by projecting identities onto producers consistent with the goals of the umbrella category. We draw on these findings to develop a process model of umbrella category construction and product category nesting.
... Extant research covers the prominence of prototypical brand leaders (Carpenter and Nakamoto 1996), being more representative of the category (Kalamas et al. 2006) affecting consumer preferences and choices (Ward and Loken 1990; Veryzer and Hutchinson 1998). The extant research has examined consumer preference due to category representation (Ratneshwar et al. 2001) or category-based inferences (Loken et al. 2008), and not explored the preferences due to affective meaning of synonymity brand verbs, the word of mouth strength and one-word positioning, in addition to being prototypical. ...
... Prototypicality is a factor responsible for leadership, though such research is focused on pioneering brands (Carpenter and Nakamoto 1996;Ratneshwar et al. 2001). Recent researchers have extended beyond pioneering ambit, into prototypical brand leadership Phau 2013, 2017). ...
Article
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Brand names have become verbs and entered in the consumer vocabulary, as doing words that are synonymous to consumer actions. Synonymity brands are observed to be prototypical and consumer-perceived brand leaders by planting a word not only in the consumer minds, but also in the lexicon. Corporate attorneys have ignored this fact by labeling such words as potential candidates to brand genericide and projected risk of trademark loss. The 3-part study aims to explore the concept, define brand synonymity, identify the dimensions, and measure the degree of synonymity—in the first part. The second study empirically tests the relationship between brand synonymity and leadership. The study three brings practical use to address the legal concerns by outlining a continuum to plot brands in safe and risk zones, thereby segregating the marketing play (in safe zone) and attorney’s role (in risk zone). The findings show synonymity brands scoring high in four vital brand dimensions and demonstrate positive relationship with brand leadership. The authors explore this new area of brand research that is not adequately covered by extant literature, to benefit marketing scholars, brand managers, and legal attorneys. Want to read the full article? Free to read online here https://rdcu.be/OuFi
... aligned) with their shopping goals (Nordfalt, 2011). These goals are often situational and shopping trip dependent (Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Congruity is the perception of how different stimuli are related to one another. ...
... First, our logic is supported by previous research on goal-directed behavior and processing fluency. Goals have a strong effect on decision-making and guides perception and evaluation (Ratneshwar et al., 2001;Lange, 2003). Also, research on processing fluency shows that shoppers react favorably to information that they feel is relevant to them (Labroo and Lee, 2006). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate whether customer satisfaction varies when presented with different types of omnichannel promotions (shopping goal-congruent vs shopping goal-incongruent and monetary vs non-monetary promotions) and if the effect on satisfaction is mediated by service excellence. In addition, this paper examines whether consumers respond differently to these promotions when shopping for utilitarian or hedonic products or when they have an inherent utilitarian or hedonic shopping motivation. Design/methodology/approach Two online shopping scenario experiments are conducted. Study 1 ( n = 1,034) differentiates effects of omnichannel promotions between hedonic and utilitarian product categories. Study 2 ( n = 345) contrasts hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivation in the same product category. Findings The findings in this paper demonstrate positive effects from both presenting a shopping goal congruent and a monetary promotion in an omnichannel setting on customer satisfaction. The positive effects are explained by service excellence and are demonstrated to be attenuated in the hedonic product category and for consumers with a hedonic shopping motivation. Research limitations/implications The effect of omnichannel promotions was demonstrated using a scenario-based experimental approach, future research should use field experiments. Practical implications The findings in this paper demonstrate practical implications for a retailer who wishes to optimize its omnichannel promotion strategy across channels and touchpoints. Originality/value To date there is little directions for retailers on how to optimize their omnichannel promotion strategy. This paper contributes to research and practice by demonstrating that shopping goal-congruent promotions (vs in-congruent) and monetary promotions (vs non-monetary) increase customer satisfaction more in an omnichannel context. The effects are enhanced for utilitarian (vs hedonic) products/shopping motivation.
... A characteristic of this interconnectedness is that goals can activate (or inhibit) each other: Dealing with a concrete action or a subordinate goal can activate the associated superordinate goal (bottom-up activation; Shah and Kruglanski, 2003), and focusing on a superordinate goal can activate the associated subordinate goals or actions (top-down activation; Kruglanski et al., 2002). Thus, when people carry out a behavior for which they have a corresponding superordinate goal, this should increase the salience of the goal, highlight the importance of carrying out other goal-conducive behaviors, and increase the likelihood of doing so (Bargh et al., 1992;Ratneshwar et al., 2001;Kruglanski et al., 2002;Thøgersen and Noblet, 2012). Positive spillover effects can therefore be understood as the result of an initial goal-conducive behavior that activates a superordinate goal, that in turn guides other behaviors (Lanzini and Thøgersen, 2014;Margetts and Kashima, 2017). ...
... We argued that when people who have a strong attitude toward an issue carry out a behavior that benefits the issue, such a behavior is an integral part of a wider network of behaviors that serve a more comprehensive, superordinate goal (Carver and Scheier, 2001). We further argued that this mental structure implies that when people with strong attitudes carry out a goal-conducive behavior, it will increase the salience of related behaviors and the importance of continuing to work toward their attitude (or their superordinate goal), not least because failing to do so would elicit cognitive dissonance and negative feelings (Festinger, 1957;Bargh et al., 1992;Ratneshwar et al., 2001;Thøgersen and Crompton, 2009;Thøgersen and Noblet, 2012;Lanzini and Thøgersen, 2014). In short, we predicted that a strong attitude would promote positive spillover and mitigate the risk of negative spillover after an initial goal-conducive behavior (and vice versa: it would promote negative spillover after an initial goal-inconsistent behavior). ...
Article
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Studies on how one behavior affects subsequent behaviors find evidence for two opposite trends: Sometimes a first behavior increases the likelihood of engaging in additional behaviors that contribute to the same goal (positive behavioral spillover), and at other times a first behavior decreases this likelihood (negative spillover). A factor that may explain both patterns is attitude strength. A stronger (more favorable) attitude toward an issue may make the connections between related behaviors more salient and increase the motivation to work toward the underlying goal. We predicted that people with a stronger (more favorable) attitude are more likely to engage in subsequent behaviors that address an issue they care about. Two experiments tested the prediction in the contexts of pro-environmental and health behavior. Study 1 (N = 378) provided some support for the predicted moderating role of attitude toward the environment when participants recalled either an environmentally friendly or unfriendly action: A strong attitude increased the likelihood, whereas a weak attitude decreased the likelihood of carrying out successive goal-conducive behaviors. When compared to a neutral control condition in Study 2 (N = 929), participants with a weak environmental attitude supported pro-environmental petitions less strongly after an environmentally harmful action. Support for such petitions did not waver, however, among participants with a strong environmental attitude: They consistently acted environmentally friendly. Contrary to the hypothesis, in neither study did strength of attitude toward personal health moderate the effect of an initial behavior in the expected direction. In sum, the two studies provided only limited evidence for behavioral spillover: Participants mostly acted in accordance with their attitude but were hardly affected by recalling previous actions. When behavioral spillover did occur, however, a strong environmental attitude tended to increase the likelihood of acting in an environmentally friendly way, whereas the behavior of those with a weak attitude was less predictable. This research contributes to a more nuanced theoretical understanding of the role of attitude in spillover, but provides only limited evidence for its role as a moderator.
... Such assumptions are in line with the associative network theory of category knowledge structures as well as the top-down perspective of category representations (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001;Vaughan, Beal, & Romaniuk, 2016). ...
Chapter
Products presented in reality have a higher chance to be purchased than products that are symbolically presented as a photograph (Müller 2013). Loewenstein (1996) explains the superiority of the products presented in reality by the fact that the presentation’s sensory richness increases vividness. Thus, shoppers experience the gratification arising from consuming the more intensively presented products in reality than concerning a symbolic presentation, which is supposed to lead to a higher buying impulse. In fact, especially in the context of online shopping, studies show that a higher vividness is accompanied by a greater intention to buy (Steinmann et al. 2014).
... An alternative way to organize assortments is a complement-based approach, such that the product categories are grouped according to a particular consumption goal or context of use (Diehl, Van Herpen, and Lamberton 2015). This organization method also has been referred to as goal-derived (Chernev 2003;Ratneshwar et al. 2001), consumption constellation-based (Englis and Solomon 1996), or shopping mission-based (Sarantopoulos et al. 2016). Examples of retailers using complement-based assortment organizations include IKEA ("bedroom," "living room," "kitchen"), Mango ("office wear," "wedding & parties," "sportswear"), and Marks & Spencer ("breakfast," "lunchtime meal," "barbeque"). ...
Article
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This article examines whether and why organizing product categories according to the consumption goal they serve (i.e., complement-based assortment organization) may increase purchases compared with organizing product categories according to their attributes or physical characteristics (i.e., substitute-based assortment organization). Across two field experiments, a virtual reality experiment, and a lab experiment, the authors show that a complement-based assortment organization, compared with a substitute-based assortment organization, leads to increased numbers of purchases and increased expenditures. Ease of visualization of the consumption process mediates the results. The impact of the complement-based organization on purchases is more pronounced for less involved consumers and for consumers with a less specific shopping goal. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications.
... Given that shift in preferences, goal accessibility (Förster et al., 2005) refers to the "level of awareness of the goal" through levels of attention and intention of working memory (Austin and Vancouver, 1996). Acting in a significant way on perception and cognitive representations (Ratneshwar et al., 2001), goal accessibility is a necessary condition for the commitment to behavior, especially in regard to health. ...
Article
Effective body weight management requires dieters to engage in healthy eating and physical activity. This research explores the influences of physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labeling on dieters’ food consumption and post‐consumption physical activity. PACE indicates the amount of physical activity required to burn off food energy intake. This labeling aims to raise awareness on energy balance by highlighting an immediate link between food intake and exercise. This research shows that when exposed to PACE labeling, dieters (but not non‐dieters) reduce their food consumption, increase their post‐consumption physical activity, and are considerably motivated to achieve energy balance. This occurs because PACE labeling active energy balance‐goal for dieters and influences their food consumption and subsequent physical activity. Implications for consumer well‐being and policymakers are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A growing body of research has identified contextual factors-such as food packaging and labeling and food portion sizes-as well as consumer-related factors-such as consumers' mood, self-control, and regulatory focus-that influence consumption decisions regarding indulgent and healthy foods (see, e.g., Argo and White 2012;Minton and Cornwell 2016;Minton, Liu, and Lee 2018;Mishra and Mishra 2011;Raghunathan, Naylor, and Hoyer 2006;Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999;Tudoran, Scholderer, and Brunsø 2012). One reason such factors influence the purchase of indulgent versus healthy foods is that consumers' health goal salience is activated at the time of purchase (Ratneshwar et al. 2001). We suggest that consumers' sense of power, a psychological state of feeling powerful versus powerless, is another important factor that will influence consumers' health goal salience and consequently influence their purchase of indulgent versus healthy foods. ...
Article
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Research has inadequately examined how increasing a consumer’s sense of power may positively influence healthy choices. With the global obesity epidemic worsening each year, now is an essential time for marketers and policy makers to identify ways to encourage healthy choices. Thus, the current research addresses this need and the accompanying gap in the literature. Through five studies (including a field study) involving both corporate advertising and public service announcements, results show that priming a high (vs. low) sense of power leads consumers to make healthier food purchase decisions and that this effect occurs because a higher sense of power results in a more salient health goal. Most relevant for policy makers, the findings show that priming a high sense of power through simple changes in marketing communications (e.g., using the headline “You are powerful”) is an effective way to increase healthy choice, particularly for lower-socioeconomic-status consumers.
... An individual's underlying social attitude functions towards luxury can influence their luxury brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Two products that look identical can be perceived as similar, however an individual's personal goals determine how consumers compare products (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann & Moore, 2001). ...
Chapter
The growth in the luxury sector has called for identifying new customer segments and assessing which factors lead consumers to choose between authentic luxury products and counterfeited goods. The current research analyzes the motivations and purchase intentions of individuals to consume authentic or counterfeit luxury products, based on their psychological distance from the brand and self-perception. The use of an experimental design permitted an accurate representation of psychological distance from the store and the brand, which consequently influence luxury motivations as well as intention to purchase authentic or counterfeit luxury goods. 150 participants responded to an online questionnaire, to know how they perceive authentic and counterfeit luxury products. A conceptual framework has been developed and tested through structural equation modeling to outline how aspects of self-perception, shame for counterfeited purchases, and perceived proximity from the brand and store influence decision making for authentic luxury brands. According to the results of a Partial Least Squares approach, the perceived proximity from a luxury store, be it original or counterfeit, influences the motivation to pursue luxury products. Consumers of authentic luxury brands are guided in their luxury motivations through the need to authenticate one's self, while counterfeit luxury consumers switch to authentic purchases when they feel more self-conscious. The study highlights the differing processes for consumers of authentic and counterfeit luxury, aiding marketers to better understand the components of the luxury brands they should emphasize through advertising to capture different consumer segments.
... This applies in particular to food choices, where very strong habits and preferences may create favoured combinations of use situations, meals, products and ingredients. Several previous studies in this field broadly suggest that the impacts of values may operate via involvement, attitudes and some closely related concepts, including lifestyles and knowledge structures (Brunsø, Scholderer, & Grunert, 2004), motives and criteria (Steptoe & Wardle, 1999), goals and goal-derived categories (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001), and regulatory focus (Spiegel, Grant-Pillow, & Higgins, 2004). Although there is a high degree of overlap in the way these concepts specify the development of predecisional processes, we build on Higgins's work (Higgins, 1997;Higgins et al., 2001), which provides a very interesting theoretical basis for research into motivational impacts on food choices. ...
Article
This paper aims to improve our understanding of food choices that are more sustainable in terms of moral and health aspects of eating. The aim of sustainability may require that people in Western countries choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as types of meat that are produced in a more responsible way. Focusing on mediators of the relationship between broad universalistic values and meat choices, we examined how involvement in food can be separated into promotion-oriented and prevention-oriented motivational goals. In a survey among 1530 Dutch consumers we found that that most of the basic human values were to a certain extent related to the direction of the food choice motives. However, giving priority to universalism appeared to be unique in its impact on food choices favouring less meat or free-range meat. This impact was weak but robust and it was mediated by prevention-oriented food choice motives together with a high level of involvement in food and motive-congruent animal friendly attitudes.
... En d'autres termes, une fois que l'individu a identifié la catégorie d'appartenance ou la catégorie la plus proche d'un produit, il transfère par inférence les caractéristiques de cette catégorie à celui-ci et pourra faire des prévisions sur sa performance, son utilisation et, aussi, son emplacement sur le point de vente (Gregan-Paxton et al., 2005 ;Gregan-Paxton, Moreau, 2003). Les catégories peuvent avoir deux types de structure : technique ou taxonomique, (les catégories sont fondées essentiellement sur la similarité, souvent physique, entre les attributs) ; ad hoc ou par objectif (les catégories sont fondées sur la similarité entre les objectifs permis par ces regroupements ou sur les valeurs partagées par les membres d'une catégorie) (Barsalou, 1985 ;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Les individus auraient recours indifféremment à l'une ou à l'autre de ces deux structures de regroupement pour classifier les produits. ...
... Hence, consumers' purchase goals can have a strong influence on how they categorize and compare products (Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Luxury consumers are willing to purchase highpriced products to demonstrate their social status, which increases consumer conspicuousness (Wilcox et al., 2009). ...
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Price promotion, as price information, and user-generated content (UGC), as non-price information, play an important role in generating luxury hotel revenue. This study empirically investigates how price promotion influences actual consumer spending on luxury hotel services except room price, by considering the contingency role of room price and volume and valence of UGC. Combined data of daily settlements and Tripadvisor customer reviews of a regional luxury hotel chain are used for the analyses. The results indicate that, overall, price promotion negatively influences consumer spending on luxury hotel services and its negative effect is strengthened when the room is higher priced or the valence of UGC is high. Furthermore, a larger volume of intrinsic attribute-related UGC–amenity and location–with price promotion leads to more consumer spending than a larger volume of extrinsic attribute-related UGC–food and staff. The findings provide hotel managers with important insights into pricing and UGC management.
... Furthermore, engaging in a directed cognitive effort to derive new, idiosyncratic goal-based categories renders audience members more open to new meanings and help audience members better understand the meaning of ambiguous cues than when simply interpreting them in the light of known prototypes and exemplars (Chrysikou, 2006;Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009;Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001). Thus, when organizations send unexpected and ambiguous cues, the cognitive effort required to engage in goal-based evaluation is reduced with respect to interpreting and making sense of themwhich prototype-based and exemplarbased evaluation cannot offer. ...
... Still, finding a relation is not enough; the incongruency requires a goal (e.g., Barsalou, 1982). In one case, the goal of "healthy breakfast substitutes" helped consumers link yogurt, banana, and cereal bars (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001). In IBAs, delivering more value and signaling quality for the customer drives the combination of structural alignment and goal. ...
Article
This research examines the marketplace performance of ingredient brand alliances (IBAs). In this type of alliance, a component or feature of a primary or focal brand is branded using a secondary brand. Performance is affected by both the primary and secondary brands, each of which has functional and emotional associations. Drawing on concept combination theory, the authors examine congruent and incongruent effects in both associations as a means of achieving synergy in the brand. While the extant literature largely focuses on consumer perceptions of ingredient brand alliance products as an outcome, the authors examine the market share and revenues for 126 ingredient brand alliances in 49 product categories of consumer packaged goods over 14 years. A generalized estimation equation shows that, on average, each brand's associations have positive main effects on ingredient brand alliance performance. However, congruent associations (such as the perceived functional associations of both brands) attenuate these effects, while incongruent associations (the perceived functional association of one brand with the perceived emotional association of another) were not significant. The article concludes with a simulation showing that managers can do better by picking a partner brand whose associations are more incongruent, rather than merely what seems to be the strongest partner on both associations.
... Misfit between elements of the new product can result in ambivalence towards the product, leading to a negative evaluation of that product (Gibbert & Mazursky, 2009). In addition, the degree of perceived fit and subsequent categorisation depends on the goal of the product in a given situation (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001), and this has been shown to influence how acceptable and fitting food-ingredient combinations are perceived to be (Tan, Fischer, van Trijp, & Stieger, 2016). The more fitting a product is in a particular situation, the more the product will be liked in general (Schutz, 1988(Schutz, , 1995. ...
Article
Duckweed is considered a promising source of protein for human food products due to its high protein content and environmentally friendly production properties. In order to achieve successful inclusion in the diet, duckweed should be presented to consumers in an acceptable way. This paper explores Western consumers’ perceptions towards duckweed as human food and investigates in what contexts duckweed could be acceptable to consumers who are not used to eating it. In a first interview study (N = 10), consumers generally responded positively towards duckweed as human food, although associations with turbid ponds also did come up. According to the respondents, duckweed belonged to the food category vegetables. So, duckweed was considered to fit best in meals where vegetables and greens are expected. In a larger online survey (N = 669), it was confirmed that consumers had a more positive deliberate evaluation of duckweed and were more likely to accept a meal with duckweed if duckweed was applied in a fitting meal. It was also shown that providing information about nutritional and sustainability benefits increased deliberate evaluation and acceptability for fitting meals, but decreased it for non-fitting meals. Automatic evaluations positively influenced deliberate evaluation and acceptability, supporting the ‘yuck’ effect, but they did not differ between the meal applications. The current paper shows that if applied in a meal context that fits with consumer expectations, under the assumption that sensory properties like taste are satisfactory, there appear no major objections from consumers against the introduction of duckweed as human food at a larger scale.
... Donc évidemment j'aurais pu regrouper tous les pinots ensemble etc. mais c'était sans intérêt. » Cette catégorisation alternative rappelle le concept de catégories dirigées par un but décrit parRatneshwar et al. (2001). La représentation des vins des Experts semble être donc assez flexible pour s'adapter à différents types de situation. ...
Thesis
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Expertise was studied in cognitive psychology in order to understand the psychological mechanisms and the abilities involved in various areas of expertise. In the wine field, the few studies conducted on expertise suggest that the knowledge representation of experts is organized around “prototypes” derived from wines of different colours or grape varieties. The general purpose of this thesis was to address 1) theoretical questions about knowledge representation of wines among experts and novices, and 2) wine industry questions about Beaujolais wine perceptions. To this end, the effect of expertise on knowledge representations of wines was evaluated by comparing the performance of three different panels (experts, familiar novices and unfamiliar novices). In a first section, the hierarchical organization of knowledge was studied, and compared to the wine classification system. To this end, a free hierarchical sorting task was conducted on wine labels from different grape varieties, vineyards and appellations. Additional interviews allowed us to identify the criteria and the strategies used by panelists.In a second section, the transcribed interviews were analyzed by textual analysis in order to provide additional information about the wine representations of the different panels.In a third section, the conceptual and the perceptual wine representations of panelists were compared at different levels of abstraction going from the more general to the more specific (grape variety, appellation and lieu-dit) were compared. A binary sorting task was conducted for each level of abstraction using wines and labels of the same wines as stimuli.
... Consequently, several views and different classification of categorizations have emerged (Alba and Hutchinson, 1987;Basu, 1993;Cohen and Basu, 1987;Ross and Murphy, 1999). One such area is the cross-categorization of objects into multiple categories, which forms the essence of categorization flexibility (Moreau et al., 2001;Ratneshwar et al., 2001;Shafto et al., 2011). Flexibility is acknowledged as a hallmark of human cognition, intelligence and creativity (Guilford, 1962), and categorization flexibility occurs when there are more overlaps and easier accessibility of multiple categories (Smith et al., 1996). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to propose that high categorization flexibility’s positive influence on hedonic or affect-laden choice is attenuated by conservation and nutrition mind-sets. Further, categorization flexibility can also promote utilitarian or cognitively superior preference and may have a role in steering customers toward healthier dietary choices. Design/methodology/approach Two experimental studies document that the pro-utilitarian impact of food categorization flexibility can be facilitated by priming conservation mind-set and nutrition mind-sets. Findings The results of this study show that conservation and nutrition mind-sets not only mitigate the earlier-demonstrated facilitative influence of food categorization flexibility on hedonic food preference, but also facilitate utilitarian food preference. Originality/value The current study provides the first evidence that food categorization flexibility can facilitate both hedonic and utilitarian preferences. The findings contribute to literature streams on categorization flexibility, resource-scarcity and hedonic versus utilitarian consumption. In addition, the findings offer specific prescriptions about encouraging customers to choose utilitarian and relatively more healthful food options, which in turn will improve the general welfare of the society.
... Along this vein, several different views and classifications of categorizations have emerged (Basu, 1993;Cohen and Basu, 1987;Ross and Murphy, 1999). Within this substantial body of research related to our focus, categorization flexibility is conceived as the capacity to cross-categorize objects into multiple, sometimes overlapping, domains with fuzzy boundaries, allowing flexibility in cognitive thinking (Moreau et al., 2001;Nguyen and Murphy, 2003;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). In line with prior work, we define categorization flexibility as an individual difference variable that illustrates the extent to which individuals cross-categorize or cross-classify objects into multiple categories (Chowdhury et al., 2018;Khare and Chowdhury, 2015;Shafto et al., 2011). ...
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Purpose This paper proposes that categorization flexibility, operationalized as the cognitive capacity that cross-categorizes products in multiple situational categories across multiple domains, might favorably influence a consumer’s evaluation of unconventional options. Design/methodology/approach Experimental research design is used to test the theory. An exploratory study first establishes the effect of categorization flexibility in a non-food domain. Study 1 documents the moderating role of decision domain, showing that the effect works only under low- (vs high-) consequence domain. Studies 2A and 2B further refine the notion by showing that individuals can be primed in a relatively higher categorization flexibility frame of mind. Study 3 demonstrates the interactive effect of categorization flexibility and adventure priming in a high-consequence domain. Study 4 integrates the interactive effects of decisions with low- vs high-consequence, adventure priming and categorization flexibility within a single decision domain of high consequence. Findings Consumers with higher- (vs lower-) categorization flexibility tend to opt for unconventional choices when the decision domain entails low consequences, whereas such a result does not hold under decision domain of high consequences. The categorization flexibility effects in case of low-consequence decision domain holds true even when consumers are primed to be categorization flexible. Furthermore, with additional adventure priming, consumers show an increased preference for unconventional options even under a decision domain with high consequence. Research limitations/implications This study could not examine real purchase behavior as results are based on cross-sectional, behavioral intention data. In addition, it did not examine the underlying reason for presence of cross-domain categorization flexibility index. Practical implications The results suggest that stimuli may be tailored to consumers in ways that increase the salience and the perceived attractiveness of unconventional choices. Further, data reinforce the notion of cross-categorical interrelations among different domains, which could be leveraged by marketers. Originality/value This study represents the first documentation of the potential ways by which unconventional product choice might be a function of individuals’ categorization flexibility level across different types of decision domains. The findings yield implications that are novel to both categorization and consumer decision-making literature.
... The literature suggests that two product categorizations based on similarity exist in our memory: common taxonomic and goal-derived categories (Barsalou, 1983;1985). The former categorization often implies a stimulus-based or bottom-up view where individuals assess the similarity of two or more products based on their common attributes (e.g., t-shirt A, t-shirt B), while the latter involves an ad-hoc and top-down process where categories are constructed to achieve a common salient goal (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001). In comparison to goal-derived categories, taxonomic categories are well-established in memory, making external similarities more accessible when considering a set of products. ...
Article
While past research has extensively investigated how a specific product attracts attention, little is known about how the display of other products in the same visual field affects the consumer's attention. Drawing from the Biased Competition Model and the Gestalt Principles, the current research seeks to examine the effect of distracting products' similarity and proximity on a focal product in a goal-oriented online shopping episode. Specifically, in Study 1 (n = 38), using eye-tracking, we show that consumers allocate the most visual attention to distracting products when they are both categorically similar and spatially near the focal product. We replicate this finding in Study 2 (n = 211) and results additionally suggest that under such distraction, consumers are less likely to accurately identify the focal product. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Such a category creates a new reference point to build associations between products. Ratneshwar et al. [55] also noted that consumers construct special relationships between dissimilar products only after it makes sense because of a salient goal or usage situation. For example, customers planning a winter holiday would consider "things to bring to holidays". ...
Article
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We investigated whether adding product information in mobile commerce improved consumers’ attitudes toward a product and whether this relationship was moderated by consumption goals. We conducted two field experiments in which we recruited parents in Korea and the USA and asked them how they evaluated two childcare hybrid products (HPs) newly developed by Samsung Electronics designers. The results revealed that participants exposed to additional information about the HPs evaluated them more favorably than those who were not exposed. However, this relationship disappeared when a consumption goal was activated. Our findings establish a dynamic relationship between information seeking and consumption goals, asking designers to rethink their rule of thumb in the mobile commerce context.
... Goals shape consumers' choice and evaluation. Consumers consider goal-relevant attributes important when they develop knowledge [20] or when they make a purchase decision [21]. For example, Huffman and Houston [20] demonstrated that when participants learned how to carry a guitar comfortably, they recalled a goal-relevant attribute (e.g., body wood) better than a goal-irrelevant attribute (e.g., pickups). ...
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In the past, researchers focusing on environmentally friendly consumption have devoted attention to the intention–action gap, suggesting that consumers have positive attitudes toward an environmentally friendly product even though they are not willing to buy it. In the present study, we borrow insights from the behavioral decision making literature on preference reversal to introduce an opposite phenomenon—that is, consumers buying an environmentally friendly product even though they do not evaluate it highly. We further rely on the research on goals to hypothesize that choice–evaluation discrepancies disappear when consumers pursue an environmentally friendly goal. A two (Mode: Choice vs. Evaluation) by three (Goal: Control vs. Quality vs. Environmentally friendly) between-subjects experimental design was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Our findings obtained from 165 undergraduate students in Korea showed that, first, 76% of the participants chose an environmentally friendly cosmetic product whereas only 49% of the participants ranked it higher than a competing product, and, second, when participants read the sentence “You are now buying one of the two compact foundations in order to minimize the waste of buying new foundations,” the discrepancy disappeared (64% vs. 55%). Our experimental findings advance academic discussions of green consumption and the choice–evaluation discrepancy and have practical implications for eco-friendly marketing.
... D'autres travaux montrent que la compréhension des phrases émo-tionnelles est facilitée par la congruence entre l'humeur exprimée dans la phrase et l'humeur réelle du sujet ou induite expérimentalement (Glenberg, Havas, Becker et Rinck, 2005). D'autres chercheurs, comme Lawrence W. Barsalou (Barsalou, 1991(Barsalou, , 1993bRatneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann et Moore, 2001 ;Wu et Barsalou, 2009), montrent que les sujets ont recours à des simulations perceptuelles pendant les combinaisons conceptuelles, ou plus généralement la manipulation de concepts abstraits. Robert Goldstone et Lawrence Barsalou confirment que « des parallèles entre les processus perceptifs et conceptuels suggèrent que de nombreux mécanismes typiquement associés à la pensée abstraite sont également présents dans la perception, et que les processus perceptifs fournissent des mécanismes utiles qui peuvent être captés par la pensée abstraite » (Goldstone et Barsalou, 1998, p. 231). ...
Chapter
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Pendant longtemps, le paradigme cognitiviste STR [Stimulus-Traitement-Réponse] a régné sur les modèles de la cognition. Bien qu’il ait servi de schéma directeur utile dans l’étude des divers aspects de la cognition humaine, il devient de plus en plus obsolète et incapable d’expliquer la richesse et la complexité des représentations mentales, les aspects dynamiques de la cognition située, et surtout les effets cruciaux de modulation et de régulation émotionnelle et motivationnelle. Nous proposons de passer à un nouveau paradigme PCD [Percept-Concept-Décision], permettant de rattacher le traitement de l’information aux divers contextes de la vie de tous les jours et de rendre compte des rôles que jouent l’émotion et la motivation. Des travaux et des modèles de psychologie cognitive et de neurosciences cognitives sont cités pour étayer ce nouveau paradigme.
... This literature has primarily focused on internal processes, such as goal strength and conflict (Mann et al., 2013), situational factors like acute stress (Pannicke et al., 2021), but also external cues that can activate health goals or trigger unhealthy desires during decision-making (Hofmann and Van Dillen, 2012;Papies, 2016). Hence, we also investigate whether the salience of a healthy eating goal and desire experiences for unhealthy food, both of which have been identified as key processes involved in self-control (Hofmann et al., 2014;Ratneshwar et al., 2001), serve as potential mechanisms for how micro-environments affect food choices. ...
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Across many parts of the world, people increasingly eat out-of-home. Simultaneously, many people strive to eat a healthier diet, but it remains unclear to what extent and how eating out helps or hinders people in achieving their dietary goals. The present study investigated how characteristics of the physical micro-environment in out-of-home food outlets (e.g., cafeterias, supermarkets, and restaurants) influence the healthiness of food choices among a sample of German adults with a goal to eat healthier. We used an experience sampling method to obtain detailed information about people's motivation for selecting a specific food outlet and the outlet's micro-environment. We further asked for people's mood, visceral state, and thoughts during their food choice and obtained evaluations of food choices reported near their occurrence and in externally valid conditions. The data was collected via a mobile app over a period between six to eleven days between November and December of 2018 in Germany with a sample of 409 participants (nobs = 6447). We find that even health-conscious people select food outlets and their respective micro-environments by prioritizing short-term goals, such as ease, taste, and speed of a consumption episode over long-term health outcomes. Using multiple regression, we show that micro-environments which promote healthy food, make such food appealing and easy to select facilitate dietary success. We further identify some of the psychological mechanisms through which the micro-environment can affect food choices, as well as how individual characteristics moderate the relationship between specific micro-environmental factors and goal success. Taken together, our findings suggest the opportunity for, and arguably also necessity of, reshaping food environments to better facilitate healthier choices and support public health in the face of increasing out-of-home food consumption and the known adverse consequences of unhealthy diets.
... -Alleviate social isolation -Connectedness: family, friends, and health providers -Improve actual and perceived safety 1976). Such grouping can be based on attribute similarity and usage goals (Ratneshwar, Barsalou, Pechmann, & Moore, 2001). As such, categorization shapes the evaluation of products in general (Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989) and new products, in particular (Moreau, Markman, & Lehmann, 2001). ...
Article
Social robots are artificial agents communicating in a human-like way. These assistive technologies are surging particularly to address personal healthcare shortages while allowing aging people to stay in their homes. Social robots belong to a rapidly changing AI industry. Such innovation may adopt different diffusion and adoption processes due to the categorical ambiguity of these products; their features vary from those typical of an object (i.e., delivering food) to those typical of a human being (i.e., speaking with and answering to patients). Social robots combine product, service, and software elements, making them hybrid products categorized into alternative categories, fluctuating users’ attitudes towards these products. The paper draws on prior research on social robots, categorization, and innovation adoption and diffusion. The aim is to explore healthcare professionals’ perception of social robots’ adoption and diffusion, allowing us to understand how they view and handle their categorical ambiguity feature. Using the Delphi technique targeting experts with extensive knowledge of social robots and e-health practice, the results emphasize that even if the ambiguous nature of social robots may represent a barrier to their adoption, their categorical ambiguity is an opportunity to create interactive experiences that ultimately increase their acceptance and diffusion.
... Previous studies that have examined similar issues include an examination of the migration of purchase channels by Reinartz et al 25 and a paper by Ratneshwar et al 26 on how to provide consumers with alternative product platforms and to offer a comparison standard for products in alternative schemes. Consumption substitution is generally a transformation of long-term trends, usually occurring at an industry level. ...
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Introduction: Understanding the relationship between tourists’ consumption behavior and their willingness to substitute consumption in unusual environments can promote tourists’ sustainable consumption behavior. This study explores the internal relationship between tourists’ willingness to engage in sustainable consumption behavior and the substitution of tourism consumption willingness in an unusual environment and the related factors. Methods: Through qualitative and quantitative mixed research, this study first invited 32 interviewees related to the tourism industry to conduct in-depth and focus group interviews and extracted a research model based on the push-pull theoretical model (PPM) through three rounds of coding of grounded theory. Then, through questionnaire design, pre-release, and formal release, 268 valid questionnaires were collected using a convenience sampling method, and the hypothesis and its mediating effect were verified using a structural equation model. Results: Further quantitative analysis and verification showed that being in an unusual environment had a positive effect on tourists’ perception of crisis awareness, safety risk, and willingness to engage in sustainable consumption behavior. However, the results did not support the unusual environment positively affecting the substitution of tourism consumption willingness, the psychological transformation cost, and the fixed consumption habit negatively affecting the substitution of tourism consumption willingness. In this study, two mediating variables were used to verify the indirect effect of being in an unusual environment and the substitution of tourism consumption willingness. The results showed that the mediating effect was significant. Conclusion: This study explored an action mechanism model aimed at guiding tourists’ willingness for sustainable consumption, based on the environment and consumption behavior, and provided relevant countermeasures for the government and business decision-makers, enterprises, and investors in the tourism sector.
... This leads to relatively lower positive attitudes toward the displayed product, which makes it more unlikely that a purchase will be made from the incongruent display. Such assumptions are in line with the associated network theory of category knowledge structures as well as the top-down perspective of category representations (Ratneshwar et al. 2001). This discussion leads to the following assumption: ...
Chapter
In-store displays are a frequently used tool in shopper marketing. Empirical studies show the effects of promotional displays on sales; however, they seldom attend to the determinants of the effects of displays from the shoppers’ perspective. Thus, there are hardly any findings about the role of the display’s location in the shop. In this paper, we assume that the congruence of the product presented on the display with its setting has an influence on the effect of the display. In particular, we assume that although a display in an incongruent setting attracts more attention, it can turn this attention into purchases only to a lesser extent than a display in a congruent setting. The results of a field experiment in a Swiss grocery store support this assumption. Using observational techniques and electronic checkout data, we are able to show that displays in an incongruent setting gain more attention but lead to fewer sales than displays in a congruent setting.
... This leads to relatively lower positive attitudes toward the displayed product, which makes it more unlikely that a purchase will be made from the incongruent display. Such assumptions are in line with the associated network theory of category knowledge structures as well as the top-down perspective of category representations (Ratneshwar et al. 2001). This discussion leads to the following assumption: ...
Chapter
Given that there are increasing concerns regarding the ethical issues and sustainability of fashion products, fashion retailers are communicating their sustainable efforts on social media on a larger scale. Through analyzing 12,744 tweets from six fashion brands, we find that the tweets about sustainability positively affect consumer engagement on social media. Compared to the tweets about environmental sustainability, the tweets about social sustainability have a significantly positive effect on customer engagement. Regarding the type of fashion brands, we find that the tweets from luxury brands can increase customer engagement. Therefore, we suggest managers, especially in luxury fashion brands, should put more effort into communicating sustainability with consumers on social media.
... The other type of ordering creates a clarification by thematic extension within a given context. This enriches information by invoking subjective associative knowledge (Neisser, 1976;Plant & Stanton, 2013;Ratneshwar et al., 2001). Thus new varieties of seed potato from a formal seed developer can be associated with higher yields and a rounder shape compared with traditional varieties. ...
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Means‐end chain analysis has been applied in a wide range of disciplines to understand consumer behavior. Despite its widespread acceptance there is no standardized method to analyze data. The effects of different analyses on the results are largely unknown. This paper makes a contribution to the methodological debate by comparing different ways to analyze means‐end chain data. We find that (1) a construct that is not mentioned can still be important to a respondent; (2) coding constructs at the same basic level or condensing constructs at a superordinate level lead to different results and both an increase and decrease of information; (3) aggregating data can be based on different algorithms which influences the results. Among available software packages there is no consistency in the used algorithm; (4) before applying means‐end chain analysis in a new research area the validity of assumptions underlying the research model should be evaluated. We conclude there is no universal “best way” to means‐end chain analysis, the most suitable approach depends on the research question. Research concerning how products are evaluated can best apply number‐of‐respondents‐based aggregation and low levels of condensation. Research concerning why products are valued can best apply frequency‐of‐responses‐based aggregation and high levels of condensation.
Article
Food retailers can present specific products in a separate category (e.g., separate section for organic products) or integrated into the mainstream shelf. This study investigates how assortment organization influences consumers' variety perceptions and product choice. We argue and show that when an assortment is organized according to an individual's goal (e.g., organics), he or she is more likely to choose a product that is in line with his/her goal (e.g., choose an organic product), compared to when products are presented in a mixed display or when categories are unrelated to this goal. Moreover, the results of three experiments show that when assortments are organized according to a relevant goal, people perceive more variety in the category with goal-consistent products (an in-category heterogeneity effect), but tend to see less variety in the category with products that are not consistent with their goal (an out-category homogeneity effect). This implies that food retailers can direct consumers' choice, as well as consumers' perception of the assortment, through assortment organization. Size of the category is shown to be a boundary condition.
Article
Oftentimes, social enterprises simultaneously pursue competing organizational goals. For example, this can mean having a social goal (e.g., integrating vulnerable populations into the labor market) and a commercial goal (e.g., being profitable). I propose a theory according to which for such social enterprises, how they are perceived depends on how their goals are presented and on the type of categorization process used by their evaluating audience. These two factors together impact a venture's legitimacy and expected value. I also show that these effects vary with the level of knowledgeability of the audience performing the evaluation. Taken together, the results of this paper have implications for the cognitive perspective on strategic entrepreneurship as well as the literature on categories in markets and on hybrid organizations. I study the different category priming that influence the customer's perception of Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs). These social enterprises can either direct their customers’ attention toward comparability with a category prototype (prototype‐based categorization), or toward a customer goal (goal‐based categorization). I find support for the idea that, depending on which organizational goal is emphasized first and foremost by a WISE (e.g., social or commercial), the activation of either category priming impacts the venture's capacity to create value. Ultimately, this work establishes the cognitive foundations of social enterprises’ competitive advantage by showing the type of category priming (goal‐based vs. prototype‐based categorization) that positively impacts a WISE's expected value as a function of “who” the targeted customers (less vs. more knowledgeable customers) are. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Thesis
The understanding of Vietnamese consumer behaviors toward brands is crucial for not only local but also foreign marketers to be prepared for the competition in the Vietnamese market. In addition, marketers are increasingly trying to build and to understand the relationship between their brands and consumers. So, this research focuses on a causal model of some antecedents and consequences of hot and cold brand relationship quality (BRQ) dimensions: an empirical test in a Vietnamese context. The investigation is based on the theories of brand personality, antecedents (self-congruence and partner quality), consequences (WTP, consideration set size, and WOM), hot and cold BRQ, and brand purchase intention.The aim behind of this research can be summed up in the following objective: firstly, to determine the effects of brand personality on antecedents of two components of BRQ in the context of Vietnam; secondly, to investigate the impacts of antecedents and consequences of two components of BRQ on brand purchase intention in the context of Vietnam. A structure model was developed illustrating the relationships (assumed) between brand personality on antecedents and consequences of brand relationship quality (BRQ). This resulted in the developed of twenty hypotheses. To address the research aims, data were collected which focused on six product classes and 634 questionnaires were collected in final. Regarding the current of theoretical development, PLS path modeling was used to analyze the data.The key findings emerged from the findings of the current research, which supports our expectation. First, the results of our findings reveal that brand personality has a positive influence on two variables self-congruence and partner quality, but it is clearly seen that there is a different level of influence and importance. Secondly, given that self-congruence is a more significant effect on hot than cold BRQ, on the other hand, partner quality is a more significant effect on cold than hot BRQ. However, based on the path coefficient of self-congruence and partner quality, the results reveal that self-congruence has a positive significant effect on both hot and cold BRQ compared to partner quality. Next, to see how the effects of hot and cold BRQ on the consequences of its, the findings reveal that hot and cold BRQ have positive on consequences with WTP, consideration set size, WOM, which are supported to our proposal hypotheses. Regarding the results of consequences of two components of BRQ on brand purchase intention. We found that consideration set size and WOM have no relationship with brand purchase intention, while WTP has a positive significant effect on brand purchase intention.The key contributions of this research provide a better understanding consumer behavior in the Vietnamese market. The findings of our study show that hot BRQ has been shown to have a stronger and significant influence on consumer’s WTP. Cold BRQ, however, was found to strongly impact the consumer’s WOM. Therefore, hot BRQ, which is the emotional relationship quality, mainly increases the loyalty behavior of customers; in contrast, cold BRQ helps to attract new customers by positively word-of-mouth communication of customers. Both the retention of current customers and the attraction of news customers are crucial drivers for the sustainable future of a brand or a product. Managers need, therefore, try to positively impact both hot and cold BRQ of their customers. Furthermore, based on the research results, they should focus on a willingness to pay price premium in order to increase their brand purchasing intention.
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An individual will behave consistently across situations he or she perceives as similar. But what dimensions of similarity do individuals use? Must an idiographic index of similarity be tailored for each individual, or will a common consensual index serve for all individuals? Four idiographic and 4 consensual similarity assessment measures were tested to see how well they could predict the cross-situational consistency of "conscientious" behavior. Two of the idiographic approaches, based on the template matching technique, were successful. In this technique, 40 undergraduates provided both Q-sort personality descriptions of themselves and Q-sort templates of the hypothetical "most conscientious" individual for each situation. The index of perceived situation similarity was defined as the similarity between the pairs of templates (or between a template and an S's self-Q sort). A 3rd idiographic method, which defined the similarity of 2 situations as the degree of similarity in instrumentality for attaining valued goals, was marginally successful. Neither direct similarity ratings, in which no a priori specification of the basis of similarity was provided, nor the 4 consensual measures of similarity were successful at predicting behavioral consistency. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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graded structure / refers to behavior, that is, to how people order exemplars in categories according to typicality reviews empirical findings showing that the graded structure of a category is unstable, varying widely across contexts / implications of these findings for theories of categorization are discussed, and it is concluded that graded structures do not represent invariant structural characteristics of categories / proposed that instability in graded structure occurs because different concepts temporarily represent the same category in working memory on different occasions theory of concept construction is presented, and the relations of this theory to dreaming, conceptual combination, exemplar theories, norm theory, and parallel distributed processing are discussed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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the mental routines involved in attaining many important goals of social interaction can exert an influence on: (1) attentional and perceptual processes, (2) encoding and organizational processes, (3) storage and retrieval processes, (4) higher order integration and judgment processes, (5) response selection processes, and (6) affective and emotional reactions / discuss each of these stages attempt to show . . . [that] research efforts related to each of these stages has contributed substantially . . . to our general understanding of the relationship between the motivational and cognitive systems (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the 1st session of each of 2 studies, 48 undergraduates' accessible traits were elicited by asking them to list the characteristics of different people, with accessibility defined as frequency of output (Study 1) or primacy of output (Study 2). In the 2nd session, held 1 or 2 wks later, Ss read an essay describing the behaviors of a target person. The essay contained both accessible and inaccessible trait-related information for each S, with different traits being accessible or inaccessible for different Ss. Both studies found that Ss deleted significantly more inaccessible than accessible trait-related information in their impressions and reproductions of the target information. This effect on impressions and reproductions was evident 2 wks after exposure to the target information. Implications of this approach for personality differences, interpersonal conflict and attraction, similarity of self and other judgments, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We conducted two experiments to investigate the acquisition and representation of social categories, with an emphasis on the perception of variability of group members. In Experiment 1, subjects learned about a group that was sociable and intelligent and either high or low in variability with respect to these attributes. Differences in the actual variability of group members were reflected in subjects' estimates of variability, in their tendency to generalize from the traits and goals of a single member to the entire group, and in their classification judgments of new instances, which reflected their expectations of group members' future behavior. Memory for instances of the category also played a role in these judgment tasks. In Experiment 2, subjects who first learned about the behaviors performed by group members and then about general characteristics of the group perceived the group as more variable than did those who learned the same information in the reverse order. In both experiments, we manipulated memory for specific behaviors such that either the most extreme behaviors or behaviors at the center of the distribution were most memorable. This manipulation did not affect estimates of perceived variability, suggesting that these were constructed and stored on-line rather than from a retrieved set of category exemplars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A general model is described that views similarity judgment as a contrasting of product features. The relative influence of common and distinctive features on perceived similarity is considered a function of the context or task environment. A memory probe is used to measure the common and distinctive features consumers associate with various products. The feature measures are then used to estimate the model under three different task environments: similarity, dissimilarity, and subject/referent similarity. The results support the model and the effect of the task environment on judgments of interproduct similarity.
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An individual differences model for multidimensional scaling is outlined in which individuals are assumed differentially to weight the several dimensions of a common “psychological space”. A corresponding method of analyzing similarities data is proposed, involving a generalization of “Eckart-Young analysis” to decomposition of three-way (or higher-way) tables. In the present case this decomposition is applied to a derived three-way table of scalar products between stimuli for individuals. This analysis yields a stimulus by dimensions coordinate matrix and a subjects by dimensions matrix of weights. This method is illustrated with data on auditory stimuli and on perception of nations.
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Six experiments explored the hypothesis that the members of categories which are considered most prototypical are those with most attributes in common with other members of the category and least attributes in common with other categories. In probabilistic terms, the hypothesis is that prototypicality is a function of the total cue validity of the attributes of items. In Experiments 1 and 3, subjects listed attributes for members of semantic categories which had been previously rated for degree of prototypicality. High positive correlations were obtained between those ratings and the extent of distribution of an item's attributes among the other items of the category. In Experiments 2 and 4, subjects listed superordinates of category members and listed attributes of members of contrasting categories. Negative correlations were obtained between prototypicality and superordinates other than the category in question and between prototypicality and an item's possession of attributes possessed by members of contrasting categories. Experiments 5 and 6 used artificial categories and showed that family resemblance within categories and lack of overlap of elements with contrasting categories were correlated with ease of learning, reaction time in identifying an item after learning, and rating of prototypicality of an item. It is argued that family resemblance offers an alternative to criterial features in defining categories.
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Although attention is a key construct in models of marketing communication and consumer choice, its selective nature has rarely been examined in common time-pressured conditions. We focus on the role of benefit salience, that is, the readiness with which particular benefits are brought to mind by consumers in relation to a given product category. Study 1 demonstrated that when product feature information was presented rapidly, individuals for whom the benefit of personalised customer service had high habitual salience displayed selective attention as evidenced by elevated recall and recognition of a target feature (a bank's “friendly employees”). Also, as expected, individual differences in habitual benefit salience affected judgements of the target product. Study 2 showed that when subjects were additionally informed about a specific product usage situation, selective attention was primarily influenced by the relevance of the target feature to benefits made salient by the usage situation; individual differences played a less important role. Discussion emphasises theoretical aspects of the findings as well as managerial implications with respect to person-situation approaches to benefit segmentation.
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Three experiments examined the effect of context on the representativeness ordering of exemplars of a category. Experiments 1 and 2 employed an online reading time paradigm to examine the effect of context on the time it takes to establish an anaphoric reference between an exemplar and a category term. Experiment 1 demonstrated that context can change the relation between a category term and an exemplar at the time of comprehension. Experiment 2 showed that category terms presented in context generate graded goodness-of-example distributions of exemplars that are different from the distributions generated in the absence of explicit context. These distributions cannot be derived by assuming that the exemplar most strongly suggested by the context serves as the category representation. Experiment 3 employed a membership verification paradigm. Response time was found to be a function of degree of relatedness to the contextdependent category representation. Typicality, as determined in the absence of explicit context, had no effect on decision time. Several models, including some extensions of current semantic memory theories, are developed to account for the results of these experiments.
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Questions the metric and dimensional assumptions that underlie the geometric representation of similarity on both theoretical and empirical grounds. A new set-theoretical approach to similarity is developed in which objects are represented as collections of features and similarity is described as a feature-matching process. Specifically, a set of qualitative assumptions is shown to imply the contrast model, which expresses the similarity between objects as a linear combination of the measures of their common and distinctive features. Several predictions of the contrast model are tested in studies of similarity with both semantic and perceptual stimuli. The model is used to uncover, analyze, and explain a variety of empirical phenomena such as the role of common and distinctive features, the relations between judgments of similarity and difference, the presence of asymmetric similarities, and the effects of context on judgments of similarity. The contrast model generalizes standard representations of similarity data in terms of clusters and trees. It is also used to analyze the relations of prototypicality and family resemblance. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35791/2/b1371344.0001.001.pdf http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35791/1/b1371344.0001.001.txt
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This article investigates the assumption that similar products are similarly liked. An examination of previous research reveals a subtle discrepancy-what is important to consumers when judging the similarity of products does not necessarily match what is important to them when evaluating products for purchase. In an empirical study, we examine this discrepancy and focus on the role of different kinds of attributes. We find that beneficial attributes were relatively more important in preference assessments than in similarity judgments. Alternatively, characteristic attributes were relatively less important in preference assessments than in similarity judgments. Unexpectedly, image attributes were relatively less important in preference assessment than in similarity judgments. These results provide insights into why ''me too'' products may not succeed.
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Three experiments examined the effects of situational factors on the ability to learn simple rules for classifying products and estimating prices. In each experiment, multiattribute information about stereo speakers was presented to subjects in a training phase. However, only one attribute was diagnostic. Analytic processing (i.e., the ability to isolate the diagnostic attribute in a subsequent test of product knowledge) was measured. Results showed that analytic processing varied significantly as a function of memory load, processing goals. type of information search, and the relative perceptual salience of product attributes. Surprisingly little holistic (i.e., multiattribute) processing was observed among nonanalytic subjects. Most of these subjects relied on a small subset of attributes, often placing heavy emphasis on a single nondiagnostic attribute. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
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This article focuses on memory-based choice situations where changes in a brand's accessibility may affect the probability that it is retrieved and considered for choice. In such instances, factors other than evaluation may affect which brands are brought to mind at purchase. Two experiments are described that manipulate the determinants of brand accessibility and measure consequent effects on retrieval, consideration, choice, and evaluation. Results provide evidence for the influence of memory during the brand-choice process. For a brand to be selected in memory-based choice, the consumer must recall that brand and fail to recall other brands that might otherwise be preferred. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.