Article

Persistence of a commercial codling moth granulovirus product on apple fruit and foliage

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Abstract

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larval bioassays were carried out on apples and leaves collected from trees treated with the commercially available codling moth granu- lovirus, Virosoft CP4®, to estimate the persistence of the product over time. The virus had a significant effect on survival of laboratory derived codling moth larvae placed on apples collected up to five and eight days post-treatment. Larvae died with virus symp- toms after feeding on treated foliage and the leaf bioassay was easier to count than the apple bioassay. A combination assay, exposing larvae to leaf discs and fruit may more accurately account for potential exposure of wild neonate codling moth to virus in treated orchards. The addition of fish, soybean or mineral oils to Virosoft CP4® treat- ments did not significantly increase the efficacy or persistence of the viral insecticide on apples in this study.

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... Field application of codling moth granulovirus for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Falcon et al. (1968) Apple Jaques et al. (1977Jaques et al. ( , 1981 Apple Falcon and Berlowitz (1986) Apple Jaques et al. (1987Jaques et al. ( , 1994 Apple Jaques (1990) Apple Falcon and Huber 1 (1991) Apple Vail et al. (1991) Walnut Riddick and Mills (1995) Apple Cossentine and Jensen (2004) Apple Arthurs and Lacey (2004 Dickler (1975, 1977) Apple Dickler (1978) Apple Glen and Payne (1984) Apple Dickler and Huber (1986) Apple Charmillot et al. (1984Charmillot et al. ( , 1998 Apple Burgerjon (1986) Apple Blommers et al. (1987) Apple, pear Falcon and Huber 1 (1991) Apple Audemard et al. (1992) Apple Helsen et al. (1992) Apple Guillon and Biache (1995) Apple Trematerra et al. (1997) Apple Biache et al. (1998a) Apple, pear Cross et al. (1999) 1 Apple, pear Kienzle et al. (2003a) Apple Stará and Kocourek (2003) Apple Simon et al. (2007) Apple Israel ...
... The decline to 50% activity was more rapid (4 days) in mid-summer, but temperature above 358C could also have a played a role. Cossentine and Jensen (2004) observed the highest mortality of larvae fed on apple or leaves that were sprayed with the Virosoft formulation and collected 1 day later. Significant, but lower larval mortality was also recorded on apples collected 5 and 8 days post-treatment. ...
Article
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Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L), is regarded as the most serious insect pest of apple worldwide. A variety of problems associated with the traditional use of non-selective insecticides for its control include: untoward environmental effects, insecticide resistance, negative impacts on natural enemies, and safety for pesticide applicators and the food supply. Concerns about these consequences have increased the interest in and development of alternative means for CM control that have little or no impact on humans, beneficial organisms and sensitive ecosystems. An effective and selective alternative to chemical insecticides for CM control is the CM granulovirus (CpGV). The virus was first isolated in Mexico and subsequently studied and evaluated in Europe and North America. A variety of research including pathology, pathogenesis and histopathology of the virus, determination of virulence, development of production methods, field use, factors that influence efficacy, commercial development, formulation, and CM resistance to the virus has been conducted. Commercial products of CpGV are now produced in Europe and North America and used by orchardists worldwide. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of the CpGV literature and the role of the virus in integrated pest management.
... More recently, three commercial CpGV products based on the original Mexican isolate have been registered for use in North America (Arthurs & Lacey 2004): two of these are produced in Europe (France and Switzerland) and the other in Quebec, Canada. Their efficacy under a variety of orchard conditions in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and in Western Canada has been demonstrated by Arthurs and Lacey (2004), Lacey et al. (2004), Arthurs et al. (2005), and Cossentine & Jensen (2004). ...
... Previous studies have estimated CpGV half lives on foliage at between 2 and 3 days (Glen & Payne 1984;Huber 1980;Jaques et al. 1987). Persistence of CpGV under orchard conditions in British Columbia and Washington State range from three to eight days (Cossentine & Jensen 2004;Arthurs & Lacey 2004;Lacey et al. 2004). Some virus activity is detectable 14 days after application (Arthurs & Lacey 2004), although most virus is inactivated by sunlight within four days of application (Arthurs & Lacey 2004;Lacey et al. 2004). ...
... The occurrence of CpGV can be used as an alternative and environmentally safe management tool for managing codling moth in India and globally [16,18]. CpGV was isolated first time in Mexico [35], since then, several spray trials have demonstrated that CpGV has a considerable potential as a control agent for codling moth [24], and the virus production methods have been well established [7,23,24]. The development of resistance in some strains of CpGV against codling moth has been reported in USA, Europe and other countries [2,21,32]. ...
Article
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a quarantine pest of apple in Ladakh, India. We report Cydia pomonella granulovirus from infected larvae of codling moth for the first time in India. The two CpGV isolates were identified as (CpGV SKUAST-1 and CpGV SKUAST-2) and published in Genbank under accession number, MK801791 and MK801792, respectively. The mortality of CpGV was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of codling moth at various concentrations viz., and 10 14 OB S /ml. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90) were observed at 7.08 and 28.56 OB S /ml, respectively. In field, the infection rate by CpGV was 5.95 to 15.65%. Based on typical infection symptoms on the larvae, morphological features under the microscope and sequence results of the amplified product confirmed the first occurrence of CpGV from India. Thus, CpGV will form an important non-chemical strategy for managing this pest.
... Burden et al. (2002) demonstrated that a persistent infection was introduced with GV of P. interpunctella into a high proportion of the survivors of viral challenge, and the infection was passed via both sexes to the next generation in a classic latent form by a low level replicating, persistent infection. Cossentine and Jensen (2004) identified per os C. pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) transmission within a large codling moth colony. They detected CpGV in the water which was used to wash egg sheets. ...
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Larvae that survived sublethal infection of Spodoptera litura granulovirus (SlGV) as 4th and 5th instars led to an increase in the larval period of treated larvae when compared with control. While pupal period and pupal weight remained unaffected, a significant alteration in sex ratio was observed. Although survivor moths could mate successfully, there was a significant reduction in the proportion of ovipositing females in treated larvae as compared with control. A significant reduction in fecundity of moths emerging from treated larvae was also noticed, but the egg viability was never influenced by the treatment. However, there was a significant increase in progeny mortality in treated larvae over control. The offspring mortality in survivors increased up to three subsequent generations but not thereafter. Hence, repeated field applications of inoculum are required. The implication of the present findings in terms of reduced fecundity coupled with increased larval development indicates that vertical transmission can lead to increased virus dispersal, both of which would reduce the host's innate capacity for population increase. This is particularly important in S. litura, which is a migratory species and occurs sporadically in a particular agro-ecosystem. KeywordsDebilitating effects- Spodoptera litura granulovirus (SlGV)-Sublethal infection
... Following its initial discovery in infected codling moth Cydia pomonella L. larvae in Mexico in 1964, numerous laboratory and field studies have confirmed the virulence of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), against its homologous host (Falcon et al. 1968, Laing and Jaques 1980, Arthurs and Lacey 2004, Cossentine and Jensen 2004. In early host specificity studies, CpGV was also noted to have larvicidal activity against the pea moth, Cydia nigricana (Fabricius) (Payne, 1981) and oriental fruit moth (Falcon et al. 1968), but quantitative assays of the virus have not been reported for the latter species. ...
Article
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The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., CpGV, is now com- mercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. It is highly spe- cific for codling moth and related species. Comparative assays of CpGV against neonate larvae of another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, revealed a 557 and 589 fold lower susceptibility of neonate larvae compared with the LC50 and LC95 values derived for C. pomonella. Since its introduction into North America, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, has become a widely established pest of peach, nectarine, apricot, and apple (Rothschild and Vickers 1991). There is little information regarding naturally occurring disease of the oriental fruit moth, with the exception of mi- crosporidia in adults (Simchuk and Komarova 1983) and Bacillus thuringiensis in larvae (Grassi and Deseö 1984). Although field trials with various formulations of B. thuringiensis have been reported for oriental fruit moth, re- sults indicate that it is relatively ineffective (Rothschild and Vickers 1991).
... Most 'soft' control eVorts focused around ovicidal oils, removal of infested fruit, and more recently mating disruption (Beers et al., 1993;Calkins and Faust, 2003). The granulovirus of the codling moth (CpGV) has been widely tested in North America (Arthurs et al., 2005;Cossentine and Jensen, 2004;Falcon and Huber, 1991;Jaques et al., 1994;Lacey et al., 2004a;Vail et al., 1991). The virus is sprayed in the orchard as an aqueous suspension to coincide with the hatching of eggs. ...
Article
We compared the efficacy of a commercial preparation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus, CpGV (Cyd-X®) and spinosad (Entrust®) at operational rates for codling moth control in 2004 and 2005. Concurrently we monitored the impact of treatments on populations of non-target arthropods. Spinosad was effective at protecting fruit, with ⩽1.6% codling moth injury in experimental plots, compared with up to 37% injury in the untreated plots at harvest. Mid-season outbreaks of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foërster, were also reduced in spinosad plots. Spinosad was safe for several predators, notably the psylla predator Deraeocoris brevis Uhler, but reduced the abundance of hymenopteran parasitoids by 24% and 40% and non-target Diptera by 49% and 35%, respectively in 2004 and 2005. We found no evidence that spinosad disrupted natural control leading to increased densities of secondary pests including aphids and phytophagous mites. CpGV was less effective than spinosad at protecting fruit, with percentage of fruits attacked similar to controls, but killed the majority (67–71%) of neonate coding moth larvae and did not harm non-target species. Additional observations were conducted in commercial orchards (mixed pear and apple) where CpGV and spinosad were used operationally against existing codling moth infestations. In pear, two spray programs applied in replicated 0.4 ha blocks (i.e. CpGV followed by spinosad against the first and second larval generations, respectively and vice versa) reduced fruit injury at harvest and decreased orchard pheromone monitoring trap catches by 74% over two years. In apple, CpGV was less effective at protecting fruit in the first larval generation compared with spinosad, although population suppression was effective early in the season. Spinosad caused no disruptions of beneficial species or secondary pest outbreaks were observed in the commercial orchards. Our results suggest CpGV and spinosad can be effectively used in integrated pest management for codling moth.
... Exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation (UVB, 280Á320 nm) is the most critical factor limiting the persistence of entomopathogenic viruses (Krieg, Gröner, Huber, and Zimmermann 1981;Ignoffo 1992;Lacey and Arthurs 2005). Several researchers have documented the rapid inactivation of CpGV following orchard applications (Huber 1980;Glen and Payne 1984;Jaques, Laing, Laing, and Yu 1987;Charmillot, Pasquier, and Scalco 1998;Arthurs and Lacey 2004;Cossentine and Jensen 2004;Lacey, Arthurs, Knight, Becker, and Headrick 2004). Although CpGV infectivity was reduced by half in 2Á3 days in most cases (depending on the prevailing conditions and particular methods of evaluation), some activity has persisted from 2 up to 8 weeks suggesting prolonged survival of the virus in UV-protected locations (Glen and Payne 1984;Stará and Kocourek 2003;Arthurs and Lacey 2004). ...
Article
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The identification of effective solar protectants for field application of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulovirus (CpGV) is of interest to improve its efficacy and commercial viability as a biological pesticide. We evaluated several materials as potential adjuvants to protect CpGV from ultraviolet degradation. In laboratory tests with a solar simulator (9.36x10⁶ J/m2), the addition of kaolin clay (Surround® WP at 3 and 6%, w/v), a paraffin wax-based emulsion (SPLAT at 5%, v/v), and a bark extract trans-cinnamaldehyde combined with a film agent (both at 1%, v/v) did not significantly reduce larval entries or increase larval mortality in irradiated apples that were treated with a commercial CpGV product (Cyd-X). In semi-field tests in an apple orchard, a spray-dried lignin formulation containing CpGV (6.57x10¹² OBs/ha) and a lignin-based adjuvant used with Cyd-X (both applied at 4.7-5.6 kg lignin/ha) significantly improved residual activity of CpGV compared with Cyd-X alone applied at the same rate. However, the benefits were short lived and could not be detected after 7 days. In orchard tests, we evaluated two additional refined lignin-products (Lignosulfonate and Vanisperse CB at 5.61 kg/ha) and two particle film materials (kaolin clay, 'Cocoon', and calcium with boron 'Eclipse') as adjuvants for UV protection of Cyd-X (6.57x10¹² OBs/ha) in tests against a dense codling moth infestation. Although all virus treatments were highly effective (causing >or= 90% larval mortality), no significant effects of the adjuvant treatments could be detected. In these latter tests, the use of a silicone based wetting agent at 0.025% (v/v) may have been beneficial at increasing mortality among older larvae inside the fruit.
... Virosoft is the only product available in Canada. Using fresh product, all three commercial formulations have provided effective control of codling moth in western North America , Cossentine and Jensen 2004. However, once CpGV products are purchased, the manner in which they are stored is highly variable. ...
Article
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Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the major pest of apple (Malus spp.) in the western United States and many other regions of the world. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) provides a selective and safe means of its control. We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of CpGV, Cyd-X, and Virosoft. All assays were performed with individual C. pomonella neonate larvae in 2-ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 microl of the test virus suspension. Baseline quantitative assays for the two formulations revealed that the LC50 and LC95 values (occlusion bodies per vial) did not differ significantly between the formulations. For year-long studies on Cyd-X stability, the product was stored at -20, 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and quantitative bioassays were conducted after 0, 3, 6, and 12 mo of storage. Cyd-X retained good larvicidal activity from -20 to 25 degrees C, and it was the least negatively affected at the lowest temperature. Storage of Cyd-X at 35 degrees C was detrimental to its larvicidal activity within 3 mo of storage. For longer term storage studies, Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations were stored at 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and assayed for larvicidal activity over a 3-yr period. For recently produced product, a 10-microl sample of a 10(-5) dilution of both formulations resulted in 95-100% mortality in neonate larvae. Larvicidal activity for the Cyd-X formulation remained essentially unaffected for 156 wk when stored at 2 and 25 degrees C, but it began to decline significantly after 20 wk of storage at 35 degrees C. The Virosoft formulation stored at 2 degrees C also remained active throughout the 3-yr study, but it began to decline in larvicidal activity after 144 wk at 25 degrees C and 40 wk at 35 degrees C. The information reported in this study should be useful to growers and commercial suppliers for avoiding decreases in CpGV potency due to improper storage conditions.
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One of the leading concerns of pest control in modern fruit production, and for bothfruit quality assurance and environmental preservation, has been how conventionalcontrol methods affects biodiversity and how they can be altered to mitigate pesticideside effects in all aspects. This chapter discusses the significance of economicallyimportant microlepidoptera-moth species in fruit production and is mostly focused ontheir Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Microlepidoptera is a cluster of moth familiescommonly known as the 'smaller moths'. Since the group is characterized bypolyphyletic diversity this is not, from a taxonomical standpoint, a restrict definitionalbeit commonly used to group small moth species which in most cases display similarlife cycles and habits that are not found in larger Lepidoptera (i.e. butterflies). Anoverview of the current status of representative codling moths, tortrix, Gelechiidae andleaf-roller moths including: Cydia pomonella, Grapholitha molesta, Anarsia lineatellaand Adoxophyes orana are presented. The detailed habits and bionomics are documentedfrom prior studies and compared to older and latest references. The work proceeds by thedescription of numerous control methods and tactics that are currently used in IPM and aspart of the wider framework of Integrated Fruit Production (IFP). The development offorecasting models based on degree-days, as well as the development of Economic Injurylevels and Thresholds as decision tools to determine the optimal treatment time forbiorational insecticides and insect growth regulators is presented. Efforts are also made todiscuss and weight constrains of the 'Economic Injury Level concept' to be applicable ona realistic basis in fruit orchards. The major properties of bio-rational chemical compounds and biological control agents (i.e. bacteria and parasitic nematodes) andpossible side effects on beneficial species are short reviewed. Novel control methodssuch as matting disruption, the attract and kill and push and pull strategies are brieflyoutlined with the view to be developed and incorporated in future IPM programs on aregular basis to control fruit moths. Finally, actual facts and challenges such as pesticidesresistance and restrictions due to the implementation of the latest European Union councildirectives for pesticides are also discussed.
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During 2004 and 2005, native strains of granulovirus obtained from Tecia solanivora larvae found in Cundinamarca, Nariño and Norte de Santander were isolated, identified and characterized. The effects of these infectious agents were studied on development of the potato moths T. solanivora and Phthorimaea operculella, evaluating variables such as width of the cephalic capsule, signs of viral infection and mortality. The effect of formulation was also determined on the efficiency of the different isolates formulated as a powder for potato seed protection. Additionally, the viral productivity of each isolate was studied using spectrophotometry. The highest viral production yields were obtained in P. operculella larvae, which were significantly higher than those obtained in T. solanivora larvae for all native isolates. The granulovirus infection in T. solanivora and P. operculella larvae caused a greater duration and overlap of the larval instars. The process of formulation did not significantly affect the efficacy of the granulovirus. Through a technique of weighted indicators, the isolate from Norte de Santander was selected as most promising due to its high efficiency and productivity.
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Background: This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen. Results: The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be harmful, such as the biofungicide Serenade and the bioinsecticide Botanigard. Therefore, it is recommended that all should be tested before use in combination with pollinators. In this context, it is also advisable that these MCAs should be evaluated in more realistic field situations for the assessment of potentially deleterious effects on foraging behaviour.
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