Internet Journal of Food Safety, Vol.10, 2008, p.50-57
Copyright© 2008, Food Safety Information Publishing
The Insidious Food Hazards as New Categories in
HACCP and ISO-22000 Based Systems
Mohamad Azzam F. Sekheta¹’²*, Abeer H. Sahtout¹, Issam Farid Soukhaita¹,
Mirvana A. Airoud³, Kinda A. Airoud4 and Hanan Y. Qudsieh¹.
¹Sekheta Bros Company, R&D Department, Gdaideh, Aida Str. No. 1, 21000 Aleppo, Syria, ²University of
Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, Studentski Trg 12, 11000 Beograd, Serbia,
³University of Parma, Faculty of Medicine, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, Italy,
4University of Parma, Faculty of Pharmacy, Via Universita, 12-I, 43100 Parma, Italy.
Abstract : It is widely recognized that the absence of
any food safety program or system such as HACCP and
ISO-22000, might lead to food poisoning among wide
range of population caused by food contamination. The
importance of such food safety programs or systems
lies in the fact that prevents food contamination or at
least minimizes risk. As it is well known, in all
enhanced food safety systems, hazard analysis play
major roles in order to determine the critical control
points (CCPs) for different types of hazards such as
biological, physical and chemical hazards, which could
effects food starting from farms and ending in the stores
or restaurants. Unfortunately, many food safety
systems world wide are often not integrated among
government agencies, hampering communication and
cooperation (1) and that due to low level of knowledge
and the lack of training understaffed, or untrained for
the rapid changes that have occurred in risk assessment,
changes in production and distribution methodologies,
and new foods and emerging pathogens.
In this paper, we are focusing on some different types
of hazards that are insidious hazards which include
different categories and subcategories such as food
handlers, electronic hazard and long terms & wide
ranging insidious hazards.
Key words: Insidious hazard, Hidden hazard,
Ergonomic hazard, ISO-22000, HACCP
* Corresponding author, mailing address: Dr. Sekheta,
Mohamad Azzam F., Sekheta Bros Company, R&D
department, Jdaideh, Aida Street, No. 1, 21000
Aleppo, Syria. Phone: 00963-944-364-053, Fax:
00963-21-268-5231. Mailing Address: P. O. Box:
10405, Aleppo (SAR); E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Although a nutritious and adequate food supply is vital
to human survival, it can also pose health risk from
food-borne illnesses. Safety measures and risk
indicators are regulated by most governments,
administrations, organizations worldwide and others.
Consumers have raised questions about food safety
standards and the role that governments play in
ensuring safe food supply. On the other hand, safe
production, distribution, and consumer handling of food
require knowledge of food-borne pathogens, chemical
toxins, food quality, labeling, and food safety education
too. Consumers have expressed concern about the
safety of food additives, agricultural and veterinary
chemical residues, biological, chemical and physical
contaminants, radionuclide contamination and
uncontrolled and unacceptable food handling practices
and processing which can result in the introduction of
hazards to food at all stages along the food chain, from
primary production to the consumer.
These concerns have been voiced most often by
consumers in the developed world; however,
continuous development and improvements in global
communication have heightened the interest of
consumers throughout the world on these matters.
Finally, this new era of globalization requires a careful
effort designed to build and maintain consumer's
confidence worldwide in recent achievements in food
science and technology.
As there are many hazards associated with food that can
and do result in injury and harm to human health, food
safety is a worldwide issue affecting hundreds of
millions of people every year who suffer from diseases
caused by contaminated food or from some kinds of
food poisoning. Unfortunately, due to the fact that
hazard analysis is one of the most difficult works as
some hazards are hidden or insidious, current food
safety systems are still not perfectly prepared.
Uncontrolled application of agricultural chemicals,
environmental contamination, and use of unauthorized
additives, microbiological hazards and many other
abuses of food along the food chain, can all contribute
to the potential of introducing or failing to reduce
hazards related to food. With increased awareness of
the effects of food hazards on human health, the
increasing importance and rapid growth of world food
trade and the demand by consumers for safe food
supply, analysis of the risks associated with food has
become more important than ever before.
In general, risk analysis process comprises three
separate elements; risk assessment, risk management
and risk communication. It is widely recognized as the
fundamental methodology underlying the development
of food safety standards.
Categories of Hazards Associated with Food
In fact, HACCP and ISO-22000 based systems are
designed to prevent the occurrence of potential food
safety problems. This is achieved by assessing the
inherent risks attributable to a product or a process and
then determining the necessary steps that will control
the identified risks. The goal of implementing a
particular HACCP and ISO-22000 system is to prevent
or minimize risks associated with biological, chemical,
and physical hazards to acceptable levels as it is based
on prevention rather than detection of hazards.
In this paper, we are going to divide the major food
hazards into three major groups:
A-) Expected Food Hazards as Defined by Codex
Codex Alimentarius Commission defines hazard as a
biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition
of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health
effect. Microorganisms that can cause disease or illness
are called pathogens and they are biological food safety
hazards that must be evaluated in a hazard analysis.
Most of these pathogens are killed or inactivated by
adequate cooking and numbers are kept to a minimum
by adequate cooling during distribution and storage. If
it's determined that a pathogen is reasonably likely to
occur at a level that will cause illness, this hazard
would need to be controlled in a HACCP plan (2). In
general, there are three types of pathogenic organisms
that can be potential food safety hazards: bacteria,
viruses and parasites.
Chemical contamination of food products can occur at
any stage of food processing. Exposure to some
chemicals may cause immediate symptoms and other
chemicals may require exposure over prolonged periods
to have a toxic effect. Although, certain chemicals can
be considered food safety hazards, the presence of a
chemical may not always mean there is a hazard as the
amount of the chemical may determine whether it's a
hazard or not.
Physical hazards on the other hand, are the most
commonly reported consumer complaints because the
injury occurs immediately or soon after eating, and the
source of the hazard is often easy to identify.
B-) Hidden Hazards in Food
Unfortunately, many food manufacturers seem to be not
aware enough of such hazards. It is HACCP team's
responsibility to consider such hazards while analyzing
hazards along the food chain in their establishments.
The most common categories of hidden hazards in food
chain from farm to fork are: Irradiated food, canned
food, heavy metal residues in food, household
chemicals, microwave ovens-cooked food, cling wrap
in contact with food, bottled water in PET bottles, soft
drinks, energy drinks and artificial sweeteners, artificial
flavorings and colorings, refrigerators, fat and cooking
oils, cooking food in aluminum and Teflon coated
vessels and other cookware, vitamin and mineral tablets,
the Ingredients in "Dietary Supplements" promoted for
sexual enhancement and many others. This group of
hazards will be discussed in our next paper which is
C-) Insidious Hazards in Food
This group includes different categories and
subcategories of hazards effecting on food safety. In
order to implement a particular HACCP, ISO-22000 or
any other food safety system more successfully, it is
more than a need for assistance from an expert to
deliver more skills to the HACCP team in order to
enable them to analyze all categories of possible and/or
eventual food hazards.
In this paper, we are going to consider the following
categories as major possible insidious hazards to food
and water supplies:
1- ) Insidious Hazards of Food Handlers
There are number of hazards that can be found in
almost any workplace in food industry. There are
obvious unsafe working conditions, such as unguarded
machinery, slippery floors or inadequate fire
precautions, but there are also a number of categories of
insidious food hazards including:
Mental Health of Food Handlers:
Psychology in Worker's Compensation has been viewed
much more favorably in the last decade. Prior to that,
there was little consideration of the psychosocial factors
involved in a work-related injury and reactions to the
injury. Employers, employees and unions are starting to
realize that, mental health problems are the single most
important cause of disability responsible for a global
burden of disease larger than that due to infections.
In fact, mental health of food handlers is one of the
most important ingredients in preventing foodborne
illness. Sekheta et al., (3) consider mental illness of
food handlers as a very important issue. Large
percentage of employers understand the relationship
between health and productivity and are improving
their management strategies by developing and
implementing systems supportive of work, family and
life issues, such as flexi time, part-time schedules, child
care benefits, personal leave, wellness health programs,
and family counseling. Training food handlers in
general and those monsters with disabilities in
particular on how to mind their psychiatric symptoms at
work in order to ease or master their stress is quite
The Effects of Ergonomic Hazards on Food Handlers:
Ergonomics is the study of fitting the work/job to the
individual. Ergonomics matches the design of tools,
controls, and equipment to fit the safety needs of the
operator. Many ergonomic problems in food industry
result from technological changes such as increased
assembly line speeds, adding specialized tasks, and
increased repetition. Any of those conditions can cause
ergonomic hazards such as excessive vibration and
noise, eye strain, repetitive motion, and heavy lifting
problems. Improperly designed tools or work areas can
be also ergonomic hazards.
Poorly designed work stations/practices lead to
Musculoskeletal Disorders MSD. Understanding basic
ergonomic principles is essential for prevention of these
injuries. Each employee needs to understand the
ergonomic risk factors related to his or her work tasks
and solutions to minimize such risks. Beside the
ergonomic hazards in food Industry, there are a lot of
occupational hazards such as burns, cuts, fires, cleaning
chemicals, CO poisoning, heat stress, cold stress, slips,
trips, falls and many others.
Ergonomic hazards in food industry are avoided
primarily by the effective design of a job or jobsite and
by better designed tools or equipment that meet food
handlers' needs in terms of physical environment and
job tasks. Evaluating working conditions from an
ergonomics standpoint involves looking at the total
physiological and psychological demands of the job on
the food handlers. Engineering controls, where feasible,
are the preferred method for controlling MSD hazards
as they act on the source of the hazard and control
employee exposure to the hazard without relying on the
employee to take self-protective action or intervention.
Finally, it is important to point out that the benefits of a
well-designed, ergonomic work environment in food
industry can include increased efficiency, fewer
accidents, lower operating costs and more effective use
Improper Food Hhandlers Hygiene:
Food Industries, unions and Governments worldwide
are starting to realize that, improper food worker
hygiene problems are the single most important cause
of foodborne illness:
Clean hands are the most important food safety tool.
Food Handlers must be trained on proper hand washing.
Food handlers not allow to work if they have any risk
having infection. They must stop working with food
when they are sick and that until all symptoms are gone.
Food handlers must check times and temperatures
regularly in cooking, pasteurization and cooling. As in
cooking, food handlers must take cooling seriously;
certain bacteria can make poisons that are not destroyed.
It is important to cool food through the "Danger Zone"
as fast as possible to keep bacteria from growing.
As insidious hazard gloves, will always have a role to
play in ensuring safe and healthy workplace, but only if
selected and used correctly. Some gloves, contain
substances capable of causing allergic (type IV)
reactions. Other gloves contain harmful chemicals such
as thiurams, and di-thio-carbamates. Today, we and a
lot of other colleagues scientists concerned of food
safety are wondering whether the gloves are a help or a
Cleaners and disinfectants must be suitable for using
safely in food establishments. Special written
procedures should be followed and applied. Workers in
the sanitation team should have special training too.
Another important food safety issue is reducing food
cross contamination and workplace accidents.
Therefore, food handlers must keep food-contact
surfaces washed, rinsed, and sanitized after each use to
remove germs that can cause illness. As, the used
sanitizer becomes less effective gradually, food
handlers should change it more often. They must keep
equipment and kitchens clean in order to reduce the
potential for food contamination.
It was also found that the highest prevalence rates
occurred amongst the youngest age group with the
lowest socioeconomic status or probably, most of those
who prefer to work in the night shifts.
2- ) Electronic Hazards Effecting Cyberspace
While only a few cases of intentional contamination of
food have been proven, the risk of possible terrorist
threats to food should be given serious consideration by
governments through health authorities and the food
industry worldwide. Existing food safety management
systems such as HACCP and ISO-22000 can be
enhanced, while putting in place appropriate security
measures to protect the whole food chain including the
production itself as well as the related distribution
systems too. A novel HACCP based defeating plan
against terrorist threats to Cyberspace controlling food
processing and water supplies is being enhanced and
established by Sekheta, M. A. et al., and the risks &
possibilities of combining terrorism and computers are
addressed too (4). According to the world health
organization WHO, the contamination of food for
terrorist purpose is real and current threat, at the same
time, contamination of food at one location could have
global public health implication.
Nowadays, more chemicals and biological agents are
related to the effects of aerosol exposure, many agents
also could be delivered through food or water. These
agents might be utilized including industrial or
biological toxins and or microbial pathogens (5). The
possibility of contaminating food and water supplies
deliberately by a terrorist attack aiming on cyberspace
must be taken seriously. The key to preventing from
such terrorist attacks is coming from improving quality
control and implementing a reasonable security
measures at production facilities based on vulnerability
assessment. There may not be an optimal cyberspace
controlling system for all food businesses at all stages
along the sophisticated food chain but enhanced
HACCP approaches have clear benefits (6).
3- ) Long-term and Wide-ranging Insidious Hazards
3-1) Genetically Modified Food (GMF):
Although GMF is a revolutionary new technology still
in its early experimental stages of development, this
technology has the power to break down fundamental
genetic barriers-not only between species-but between
humans, animals, and plants (7). The introduction of
genetically modified foods in consumer markets
worldwide is currently a hot topic for debate.
Genetically engineered foods are different from other
foods. Genetic engineering allows, for the first time,
foreign genes, bacterial and viral vectors, viral
promoters, and antibiotic marker systems to be
engineered into food. The most insidious dangers of
genetic engineering are inherent to the process; it
greatly enhances the scope and probability of horizontal
gene transfer and recombination, the main route to
creating viruses and bacteria that cause disease
epidemics. Newer techniques, such as DNA shuffling,
allow geneticists to create in a matter of minutes in the
laboratory millions of recombinant viruses that have
never existed in billions of years of evolution Disease-
causing viruses and bacteria and their genetic material
are the predominant materials and tools of genetic
engineering, as much as for the intentional creation of
bio-weapons (8). Genetically engineered foods are also
inherently unstable. It is important to put the fact that
the genetic instability of these GM foods can be also a
major culprit in reducing their nutrients. A number of
studies over the past decade have revealed that
genetically engineered foods can pose serious risks to
humans, domesticated animals, wildlife and the
environment. Human health effects may include higher
risks of toxicity, as each genetic insertion creates the
added possibility that formerly nontoxic elements in the
food could become toxic (9). The genetic engineering
of food creates two separate and serious health risks
involving allergenicity (10, 11). Another insidious risk
of GM foods is that they could make disease-causing
bacteria resistant to current antibiotics, resulting in a
significant increase in the spread of infections and
diseases in the human population. Virtually all
genetically engineered foods contain antibiotic
resistance markers which help the producers identify
whether the new genetic material has actually been
transferred into the host food. There should be a ban on
the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM
food, as the risk to human health from antibiotic
resistance developing in microorganisms is one of the
major public health threats that will be faced in the 21st
century (12). A group of scientists from UK found that
the rats consuming genetically altered potatoes showed
significant detrimental effects on organ development,
body metabolism, and immune function (13).
Large groups of scientists and activists see the new
technology "GMF" as one giant experiment that could
go dangerously wrong should genetically modified
crops cross-pollinate, migrate, or mutate in nature.
Recently, soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola are the
most commonly engineered crops. A new report on the
impact of GM on the genetics of the modified crops by
an independent group of scientists (14) has highlighted
huge gaps in scientific knowledge and the need to
greatly improve scientific assessment procedures before
GM crops are licensed.
Supporters to GMF, on the other side, say the first wave
of any new technology is flawed. Still, we are not able
to get a clear answer to our simple question whether we
can eat genetically modified foods safely or not, as the
answer we get depends on who we ask about this very
Actually, consumers worldwide, but mainly in the
undeveloped countries, eat food that's genetically
modified every day without knowing it. That's because
processed foods like vegetable oils and food additives
including baby and infant food, often use foods that
have been genetically engineered, and there's no
requirement that they be labeled as such.
Food and Drug Administration (USA), believes that the
genetically modified foods are no different from their
unmodified counterparts, so there's nothing that needs
to be reported. But the authors of this paper together
with many other scientists worldwide disagree. Most of
us think labeling is the key and without labels, that's
next to impossible. Fortin and Renton (15), examined
the impact of additional product benefits on consumer
attitudes towards GMF. Results indicate that genetic
modification in food products has a negative impact on
attitudes. More importantly, the presence of additional
product benefits resulting from GMF was not enough to
offset this negative view.
3-2) Unacceptable Levels of Pesticide and Fertilizers
Today, millions of children worldwide, age five and
under face possible health risks from eating fruit,
vegetables and even baby food containing unacceptable
levels of pesticide and Fertilizers residue. Although
food and chemical makers insist the food is safe,
pediatricians believe there is cause for concern.
Pesticide and veterinary drug residues: According to the
reports of National Academy of Sciences in USA, 15%
of people are at least significantly harmed by pesticide
exposure each year. Symptoms, which are often
mistaken for the flu or allergies, include: headaches,
breathing difficulties, diarrhea, coughing, sleep
disorders, and temporary paralysis.
Long-term consequences of exposure include lowered
fertility, birth defects, liver & kidney dysfunction,
neurological damage, immune system disorders, cancer
and death (16, 17).
More than 90% of the pesticides on the market lack
minimal required safety screenings. Of the 34 most
commonly used lawn pesticides, 33 have not been fully
tested for human health hazards. The few tests that are
done are preformed by the manufacturers, not the
governments or their institutions.
Pesticides are also called Persistent Organic Pollutants
POP's. Some commonly used Pesticides, commonly
called the dirty dozen are DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene, hexa
chlorobenzene, poly chlorinated biphenyles, dioxins
These Pesticides poison the soil and water for many
years and enter our food chain through fruits,
vegetables and grains as well as through meats and fish.
These Pesticides have a half life of between 40-150
years and hence will persist to even poison our great
grand children. This is why most of the world's
population has pesticide levels in their bodies which are
20 to 1000 times more than what the WHO considers to
be safe. As a result the incidence of cancer, allergies
and auto immune diseases has sky rocketed world wide.
Millions of people are engaged in some aspect of
managing pesticide risks too. Much of this regulatory
intervention in pesticide commerce and use came after
Pesticides were in wide circulation, in response to our
growing understanding of the consequences of their use.
According to Michelle Miller (18), there are four areas
of experience with pesticide policy. Public policy
makers struggle with identifying acceptable risk from
Pesticide and then managing for that risk within the
agreed critical limits (CLs).
Fertilizers: They are artificial nutrients added to the soil
to increase the yield of food. If applied carefully in the
correct dosage they have few adverse effects on health
but if applied indiscriminately in the wrong doses as it
is the case in some parts in China, Egypt, Lebanon,
Nigeria, Sudan and many other undeveloped countries
worldwide (19, 20), they affect the soil, the water, our
health and our bodies.
3-3) Sugars and Artificial Sweeteners:
Sugars: This product’s atomic density (98.4 to 99.5 %)
falls under the category of poison. It takes years before
it ruins someone's pancreas, his adrenal glands and his
endocrine system. Had it been ten times as dangerous,
nobody would have touched it. But since it is a slow
and insidious poison, consumers worldwide relish it
ever so much. Most known sugar related health
problems are Allergies, Cancer (cancer cells feed on
sugar), Vaginal yeast infections, Menstrual difficulties,
Mental illness, Hormonal problems, Heart Disease and
more. This industrial sugar also paralyzes the intestinal
peristaltic functions and leads to immune system failure.
White sugar also destroys brain cells and elevates the
internal temperature of the body. In 1996, Ann Louise
Gittleman (21) in her book "Get the Sugar Out" says
that no matter what form it takes, sugar paralyzes the
immune system in a variety of ways.
Artificial Sweeteners: They fall into two major
The bulk sweeteners, such as mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
and hydrogenated glucose syrup, have approximately
the same calorific value as sugar and replace it in many
processed foods, but they are not so readily absorbed.
The sugar alcohols, hydrogenated glucose syrup and
xylitol, actually help to prevent tooth decay. However,
any of these bulk sweeteners can cause diarrhoea if
consumed in quantity.
Intense sweeteners, such as Aspartame (E951),
Tagatose, Acesulfame-K, Sucralose, Stevia and
Saccharin, provide virtually no calories and are mainly
used in diet products. They have produced worrying
adverse reactions and are cause for concern. Many
clinical studies represent merely a fragment of the
diverse effects chemical sweeteners can have on
diabetic individuals, particularly Type I diabetics, (22).
An important point that is overlooked: it is vital to
monitor chemical sweetener interactions with the
various types of diabetic medications.
Aspartame has been used throughout the world in soft
drinks and other low-cal or sugar free foods since 1974.
It was first approved for use in the UK in 1982. It is
known by the name NutraSweet, aspartame or E951. It
is made up of three chemicals: Aspartic acid,
phenylalanine, and methanol. Aspartame sugar
substitutes cause worrying symptoms from memory
loss to brain tumors (23). But despite US FDA approval
as a ‘safe’ additive, aspartame is one of the most
dangerous substances ever to be foisted upon an
unsuspecting public where billions of people are now
Still, many people want to know what other artificial
sweeteners they may safely use instead of aspartame.
Our first recommendation is NOT to use any chemical
sweeteners at all, but merely use natural sugars or learn
to adjust to the natural sweetness of raw foods
themselves. If sugar substitutes are being used to help
manage someone's weight, he/she should make them
part of a sensible plan that includes healthful eating,
exercise and lifestyle changes.
4- ) Other Insidious Hazards in Food
There are too many other insidious hazards which can
affect badly on food and consumer's health too. It is
hard to talk about them all in this paper. The main other
insidious hazards in food are: heavy metals mainly in
caned foods, natural toxins, irradiated food products,
Toxic Chemicals, and so many others.
Suggested Added Control Measures for Insidious
In the following, authors suggest some common control
measures for all categories of hazards including the
insidious hazards in food industry based on enhanced
HACCP or ISO-22000 system. These control measures
for hazards in general and insidious hazards in
particular, must be taken by a professional HACCP
coordinator/team and whenever it's needed, with
preferably the assistance of external experts or
consultants and should include:
Training all food handlers on the correct and hygienic
ways of hand washing, food handling, processing,
delivering and storaging.
Training food handlers with disabilities on how to mind
their psychiatric symptoms at work in order to ease or
master their stress.
Reducing food cross contamination and workplace
Using food grade packaging and rubbing materials
Hiring external experts, trainers and consultants
whenever it's needed.
Developing a flow diagram depicting an operation from
primary steps or production process to consumption.
Modifications should be made whenever it's needed.
Developing and revising food safety plan
Preparing an enhanced list of hazard analyses together
with suggested measures needed to control or eliminate
Controlling and monitoring the cyberspace through
Preparing an inventory of eventual or possible insidious
hazards with clear identification of the controlling
Developing and instituting preventive measures needed
to prevent or reduce all categories of identified hazards.
Establishing and developing preventive or risk control
measures to reduce all hazards including the insidious
to acceptable levels.
Preparing correct labeling for all food products mainly
those containing ingredients of possible insidious
Varying choices or using more than one sweetener in a
food company's products. (Some sweeteners enhance
each other’s sweetness; blends often use less of each,
reducing your exposure to any one sweetener).
Establishing critical limits (CLs) for the determined
critical control points CCPs.
Establishing or developing monitoring procedures for
each CCP, taking into consideration that monitoring
procedures work and are both tolerable and feasible for
the food organization.
Improving quality control and implementing a
reasonable security measures at production facilities
based on vulnerability assessment and that in order to
prevent from possible terrorist attacks.
Establishing and developing a procedure as a corrective
action system under HACCP and ISO-22000.
Avoiding ergonomic hazards in food industry by the
effective design of a job or jobsite and by better
designed tools or equipment that meet food handlers'
needs in terms of physical environment and job tasks.
Evaluating working conditions from an ergonomics
standpoint involves looking at the total physiological
and psychological demands of the job on the food
Providing adequate ventilation in the form of hoods and
forced air as stated in the internationally well defined
standards and codes or in accordance to the required
standards in the country of the manufacturer.
Disallowing stock build-up of toxic, flammable, or
Having efficient and appropriate clean-up agents for
Having suitable safety equipment available (e.g.,
extinguishers and respirators).
Ensuring that all possible problems are fixed. Revise
critical controls and/or monitoring procedures
Establishing a Verification of the System; Test or verify
periodically the developed security program or plans in
order to ensure that it works properly.
Finally, establishing effective record keeping for the
HACCP and ISO-22000 systems applied is one of the
most important issues. This would include records of all
categories of hazards and their control methods, the
monitoring of safety requirements and action taken to
correct potential problems.
Safe food may be defined as a product which contains
no physical, chemical or microbial organisms or by-
products of those organisms which if consumed by
human will result in illness, injury, or death. The
definition purposely does not use the term contaminants
because many of the potential hazards in food that
HACCP and ISO-22000 systems are designed to
address are typically found in or on the food. It is their
concentration, numbers or size that creates potential
safety problems. However, in the present study, we
discuss the insidious hazard; this group of hazards
includes different categories which also can effects in
one way or another food safety. One of the most
important categories is the food handlers themselves.
Beside the unsafe conditions which may face the food
handlers and can affect the working condition, mental
health is one of the most important factors that may
prevent food borne illness. The food-handler's hygiene
is one of the most important issues that also can prevent
The second category of the insidious hazards was the
electronic hazards. There is a great possibility of
terrorist threats to food and water supplies aimed at
Crippling the Cyberspace in many food establishments
worldwide. HACCP and ISO-22000 can play roles in
protection such threat by controlling all the system for
all food production.
Many studies show that food exposed to genetic
engineering modifications may pose serious risk to
human's health and also bad effect to our environment.
Governments should ensure that non-genetically
modified foods continue to be widely available and
affordable to consumers, and that GMF are labeled in a
consistent and understandable manner. Also, export of
GMF to developing countries should be carefully
monitored to ensure that packaging, labeling and
possible environmental consequences are fully
We don't tend to think about what is invisible to us, or
what pesticide, fertilizers and other chemicals which
exposure in our bodies can do, some of these chemicals
can developmental delays, behavioral disorders, and
Sugar can also paralyze the intestinal function and may
cause immune system failure. They called it the white
poison and it can be also count under the insidious
hazards. This white poison can also ruin pancreas,
adrenaline gland and endocrine system.
Finally, controlling measures for all hazards including
the insidious is the key to have much safer food
production controlled by enhanced HACCP and ISO-
1- Michael R. Taylor and Sandra A. Hoffmann.
Redesigning food safety: using risk analysis to build a
better food safety system (2001). Resources for the
2- James S. Cullor. HACCP (Hazard Analysis
Critical Control Points): Is It Coming to the Dairy?
(1997). Journal of Dairy Science. Vol. 80 No. 12,
3- Mohamad Azzam F. Sekheta, Abeer H.
Sahtout, Nizam F. Sekheta, Medhia Kapkovic and Nela
Pantovic. The HACCP Implementation and the Mental
Illness of Food Handlers as the 4th Eventual Hazard
(2005). Internet Journal of Food Safety. 6, 5-10.
4- Mohamad Azzam F. Sekheta, Abeer H.
Sahtout, Abdel Sattar A. Airoud, Mirvana A. Airoud,
Farid N. Sekheta and Nela Pantovic. A Preventive
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