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An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka

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A general description of Sri Lanka and its bioclimatic zones are presented. The history of the Island's orchid taxonomy is briefly reviewed. An updated checklist is presented for the country's orchid flora using recent information. New species, new records and nomenclatural changes from previous lists are annotated with appropriate references. This work lists 188 species belonging to 78 genera with one endemic genus (Adrorhizon Hook. f.) and 55 endemic species. A new name, Bulbophyllum jayaweerae Fernando et Ormerod, is proposed for Cirrhopetalum roseum Jayaweera. Illegitimacy of the name Saccolabium virescens Gardner ex Lindl. is discussed and this species is described as a new taxon, Robiquetia virescens Ormerod et Fernando. K K K K Keywords: eywords: eywords: eywords: eywords: Sri Lanka, Orchids, Bulbophyllum jayaweerae, Robiquetia virescens, New name, New taxon
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Rheedea
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Samantha Suranjan Fernando and Paul Ormerod
1
Post Graduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
E-mail: sasurh@yahoo.com
1
P.O. Box 8210, Cairns 4870, Queensland, Australia.
E-mail: wsandave@bigpond.net.au
Abstract
A general description of Sri Lanka and its bioclimatic zones are presented. The history of the Island’s orchid taxonomy is
briefly reviewed. An updated checklist is presented for the country’s orchid flora using recent information. New species,
new records and nomenclatural changes from previous lists are annotated with appropriate references. This work lists 188
species belonging to 78 genera with one endemic genus (Adrorhizon Hook. f.) and 55 endemic species. A new name,
Bulbophyllum jayaweerae Fernando et Ormerod, is proposed for Cirrhopetalum roseum Jayaweera. Illegitimacy of the
name Saccolabium virescens Gardner ex Lindl. is discussed and this species is described as a new taxon, Robiquetia virescens
Ormerod et Fernando.
KK
KK
K
eywords:eywords:
eywords:eywords:
eywords: Sri Lanka, Orchids, Bulbophyllum jayaweerae, Robiquetia virescens, New name, New taxon
Introduction
Sri Lanka is a pear shaped island in the Indian Ocean
lying in the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula (Fig.
1). It lies between 5° 55’ - 9°51’ North latitudes and
79° 41’ - 81°54’ East longitudes and covers a total area
of 65,609.8 km² consisting of 64,453.6 km² of land area
and 1,156. 2 km² of inland waters. The island has a
maximum length of about 435 km and a maximum
width of about 225 km. Its natural vegetation is
principally determined by the rainfall pattern and
elevation.
The Island has three peneplains. The first is from sea
level to 900 m. In the north and north-east to the
south-east is a large flat lowland that gets low
quantities of rain (<2000 mm per year) from the north-
east monsoon. This comprises the dry zone. The
vegetation principally comprises of drought tolerant
hardy species and orchids are not abundant here. The
south-western part of this peneplain gets an average
5000 mm of rainfall per year mainly from the south-
western monsoon. The rainfall occurs without a dry
month in the year, creating an aseasonal wet climate.
This area represents the wet zone. The lower area of
the wet zone consists of lowland wet forests. Tall
forests with several strata are characteristic of this
vegetation. Orchid diversity is very high in this area.
Figure 1. Figure 1.
Figure 1. Figure 1.
Figure 1. Main bioclimatic zones of Sri Lanka.
Dry Zone
Northern
Intermediate zone
Eastern
Intermediate Zone
Submontane
Zone
Montane
Zone
Lowland
Wet Zone
Vol. 18(1)
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2008
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An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
In between the wet and dry zones, there is a narrow
transitional zone called the intermediate zone. The
eastern side of the intermediate zone mainly consists
of savannah type of forest vegetation.
The second peneplain is from 900 to 1100 m. The
submontane zone is found in this altitudinal range.
This is a transistional zone between the lowland wet
zone and the montane zone. Forests in these areas
harbour the country’s richest orchid diversity. The
third peneplain continues to the highest mountains,
such as Pidurutalagala (2220 m). Montane forests are
found in this area (see Fig. 3 a-f).
Orchidaceae is one of the largest families in Sri Lanka.
It is distributed in almost all terrestrial vegetation
types and occupies various habitats.
Historical Background
Sri Lanka has a long history of botanical collections.
Many pioneers of botanical literature have cited
numerous records from Sri Lanka. Among these
species, orchids are an interesting group. Paul
Hermann (1646-1695) was a German born Dutch
botanist and the first European botanist to make a
collection of plants from Sri Lanka. He got
employment in the Dutch East India Company as a
ship’s Medical Officer and thus reached Sri Lanka
where he spent eight years collecting plants and
animals during 1670-1677. Here, he made an
impressive collection of dried plants and drawings.
He joined as Chair of Botany at the University of
Leiden in 1679 and in a matter of a few years the
Leiden Botanical Garden became the finest one in
Europe. He did not publish anything about his Sri
Lankan collection which was passed on to Johannes
Burman, Carl Linnaeus and others. His premature
death in 1695 prevented its availability to the
botanists of his time. His collection included two
orchids, Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. and
Peristylus cubitalis (L.) Kraenzlin, the very first Sri
Lankan orchids made known to the outside world.
These plants were to wait for scientific naming till
1753 when Linnaeus gave them their binomials. Some
of Hermann’s manuscripts were edited by W. Sherard
who included a few descriptions and reduced figures
of Sri Lankan plants in Paradisus Batavus in 1698.
Sherard also published a useful booklet on
Hermann’s herbarium and illustrations called
Museaum Zeylanicum (1717). Johannes Burmann
(1707-1778), a Dutch physician and botanist at
Amsterdam (Fig. 2) and a friend and correspondent
of Linnaeus, utilized Museaum Zeylanicum and
Hermann’s specimens to compile an alphabetical list
of Sri Lankan plants called Thesaurus Zeylanicus
(1737). Linnaeus also helped him in the preparation
of this book. In appreciation of Burman’s work,
Linnaeus later commemorated him with a genus
Burmannia.
Hermann’s collection remained unknown till 1744
when the five volume set was sent to Linnaeus who
immediately started working on it and produced his
Flora Zeylanica in 1747. Linnaeus’ binomial
nomenclature was not inaugurated at that period
and hence, no species in Flora Zeylanica were named
in the modern sense but they are referred to as the
Linnaean genera. Linnaeus gratefully dedicated this
work to Günther who sent the Hermann set to him.
Hermann was commemorated by the genus
Hermannia L.
J. G. König (1728-1785), from his travels, cited
several specimens of Sri Lankan native orchids,
some with their Sinhala names (Seidenfaden, 1995a).
He made collections in Sri Lanka in the years 1777,
1780 and 1781. He is commemorated by the genus
Koenigia L. (Polygonaceae) and many species e.g.
Murraya koenigii.
During the English colonial period, botanical
gardens were established in Sri Lanka and many
botanical works began. Alexander Moon (?-1825)
made a large number of herbarium collections and
wrote A Catalogue of the Indigenous and Exotic Plants
Growing in Ceylon (1824). He is immortalized by the
genus Moonia (Asteraceae) and several species like
Vanilla moonii. James Macrae (?-1830) collected many
orchid specimens from the country and sent them
Figure 2. Figure 2.
Figure 2. Figure 2.
Figure 2. Johannes Burmann
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 3
Figure 3Figure 3
Figure 3Figure 3
Figure 3.
aa
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a. Savannah type vegetation in eastern intermediate zone;
b.b.
b.b.
b. Dry zone forest;
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cc
c. Arid zone scrub forest;
d.d.
d.d.
d. Montane grassland;
ee
ee
e. Inside of
mountain to montane forest;
f f
f f
f. Submontane zone forest (all photographs by S.S. Fernando).
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An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Figure 5. Figure 5.
Figure 5. Figure 5.
Figure 5. H. Trimen
to Lindley (1799-1865) for naming. He is
commemorated by Flickingeria macraei.
Colonel J. T. Walker and Mrs. A. W. Walker (fl.1830-
1840) gathered an extensive collection of orchid
specimens and sent them to England. Among these
were specimens from Adam’s Peak, one of the
country’s richest orchid habitats.The Walkers are
suitably remembered by many orchids - Vanilla
walkerae, Liparis walkeriae, Thrixsperum walkeri etc.
George Gardner (1812-1849) was a British botanist
and explorer who became the superintendent of
Peradeniya Botanical Garden. Gardner made an
extensive collection of Ceylon plants which included
many orchids. Unfortunately, he died at the early
age of 37. He is commemorated by the genus
Gardneria Wall. (Strychnaceae) and many orchids -
Hetaeria gardneri, Oberonia gardneriana, Peristylus
gardneri etc.
Following Gardner came another British naturalist
of immense caliber and energy by the name of George
Henry Kendrick Thwaites (1812-1882) (Fig. 4). He
spent 31 years in the island and laid a strong
foundation for botanical studies and heavily
contributed to the science. His Enumeratio was a
comprehensive flora published in five parts during
1858-1864. All the then orchids (145 species) were
treated with his critical comments and observations.
He also initiated the series C. P. (Ceylon Plants)
numbers most of which are the basis of hundreds of
species. He is commemorated by many orchids like
Figure 4. Figure 4.
Figure 4. Figure 4.
Figure 4. G. H. K. Thwaites
Eria thwaitesii, Bulbophyllum thwaitesii, Liparis
thwaitesii, Malaxis thwaitesii, Oberonia thwaitesii, Vanda
thwaitesii etc.
When Thwaites retired in 1880, Henry Trimen (1843-
1896) (Fig. 5) joined Peradeniya Botanic Garden as
its next Director. Trimen was amply qualified to
adorn the post and made several lasting
improvements in the garden. His magnum opus was
Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon three volumes of which
appeared between 1893 and 1895. They are
considered as a model for a tropical flora. Paralysis
and deafness did not permit him to complete the
series. The volume containing Orchidaceae was
completed by J. D. Hooker (1898). Trimen is
commemorated by the orchids Bulbophyllum trimenii,
Liparis trimenii, Peristylus trimenii etc.
While working for the Flora of British India, Joseph
Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) had already treated the
Orchidaceae in detail including materials from
Ceylon (1888-1890). Hence, when Trimen was
incapacitated Hooker was the natural choice. Hooker
dealt with 158 species in 61 genera. Arthus Hugh
Garfit Alston (1902-1958) brought out the final
volume of the series incorporating changes and
additions in 1931. A revision of the entire flora was
begun in 1968 in collaboration with the Smithsonian
institution. Orchidaceae authored by Don Jayaweera
was published in 1982.
Don Martin Arthur Jayaweera (1912-1982) (Fig. 6) was
the son of an Ayurvedic physician who instilled in
him a keen interest in plants. After formal education,
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 5
3. Find out current endemic species.
At present, the number of endemic species is
vastly reduced from that in previous publications,
especially with the rapid development of south
Indian botanical literature.
In the present work, Sri Lankan orchids are
arranged genus wise alphabetically and under each
genus, species also alphabetically. Endemics are
marked with an
*
and adventive taxa with #.
Literature base for new species and taxonomic and
status changes from Jayaweera (1981) and
Senaratne (2001) are noted. Under distribution is/
are stated the main bioclimatic zone/s of each
species.
Acampe Lindley
Fol. Orchid. 4:1.1835.
Acampe ochracea (Lindl.) Hochr., Bull. New York
Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910. Saccolabium ochraceum Lindl.,
Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 2. 1842.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Sinhala: Kuda Namba
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatter & Mc Cann, J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 495. 1932. Epidendrum
praemorsum Roxb., Pl. Corom. 34. t. 43. 1795.
Saccolabium wightianum (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
6: 62. 1890.
Distribution: Northern and Eastern intermediate
zones.
he went to England for higher education. When he
came back in 1945 Jayaweera was appointed
Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Peradeniya. He made extensive collections from
remote areas of Sri Lanka. He sent a large collection
of orchids to B. J. Premasuriya, an artist at PDA who
illustrated them for publications. He also exchanged
herbarium specimens with leading orchidologists like
Dr Leslie Garay (AMES) and published many
novelties in Sri Lankan orchids. He passed away at
the age of 70. He is commemorated by Phreatia
jayaweerae, Bulbopyllum jayaweerae, the latter named
in this contribution.
Among all these publications (Table 1), Jayaweera’s
(1981) work is the major reference currently available
TT
TT
T
able 1. able 1.
able 1. able 1.
able 1. Number of orchid species described in many leading works on Sri
Lankan plants.
Publication Genera Species Endemic
Moon, 1824 10 17 -
Thwaites,, 1864 65 145 -
Trimen, 1885 57 165
Hooker in Trimen, 1896 61 158 67
Hooker, 1888-1890 57 151 76
Willis, 1911 61 161 78
Abeywickrama, 1959 67 160 -
Ekanayake, 1975 66 166 87
Jayaweera, 1981 69 168 74
Sumithraarachchi, 1986 68 170 74
Senaratna, 2001 67 170 65
Fernando et al. 2003 69 173 66
Present list 78 188 55
Figure 6. Figure 6.
Figure 6. Figure 6.
Figure 6. Don Martin Arthur Jayaweera
in the country. Senaratna (2001) and Fernando et al.
(2003) have mainly based their work on Jayaweera’s
book with a few changes. Though Jayaweera’s
chapter was published in 1981, the manuscript was
completed as far back as 1975 (pers. comm., Prof. M.
D. Dassanayake, General Editor, Flora of Ceylon
project). During this period there were many changes
with new information on orchid systematics.
Our modest attempt here is to
1. Solve some nomenclatural problems and species
ambiguity existing in previous lists.
2. Include new name changes and species records.
We found several distribution records new to Sri
Lanka from various literature sources and internet
databases but most were doubtful. Thus, we have
considered only the precise records with citings
of herbarium specimens or live plants, giving
notes at relevant places.
Courtesy : National Botanic Garden, Sri LankaCourtesy : National Botanic Garden, Sri Lanka
Courtesy : National Botanic Garden, Sri LankaCourtesy : National Botanic Garden, Sri Lanka
Courtesy : National Botanic Garden, Sri Lanka
6
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Acampe rigida (Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Smith) P. F. Hunt,
Kew Bull. 24: 98. 1970. Aerides rigida Buch.-Ham. ex J.
E. Sm. In Rees, Cyclop. 39.1819. Saccolabium
longifolium Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:62. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Sinhala: Maha Namba
Acanthephippium Blume
Bijdr. 353. 1825.
Acanthephippium bicolor Lindl., Edwards. Bot. Reg.
20: t. 1730. 1835. Fig. 8a
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
* Adrorhizon Hook. f.
in H. Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 4:161.1898.
* Adrorhizon purpurascens (Thwaites) Hook. f. in
H. Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 4: 161. 1898.
Dendrobium purpurascens Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
298. 1861. Coelogyne purpurascens (Thwaites) Hook.
f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 842. 1890. Fig. 8b
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Aerangis Rchb. f.
Flora 48: 190. 1865.
Aerangis hologlottis (Schltr.) Schltr., Beih. Bot.
Centralbl. 36 (2): 117. 1918. Angraecum hologlottis Schltr.,
Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 82. 1906. Fig. 8f
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: The species has a scattered distribution in
tropical east Africa (Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania)
(World Checklist of Monocots, 2007).
Aerides Lour.
Fl. Cochinch. 525. 1790.
Aerides ringens (Lindl.) C. E. C. Fischer in Gamble,
Fl. Madras 1442. 1928. Saccolabium ringens Lindl., Gen,.
Sp. Orch. 221. 1833. Aerides lineare Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
India 6: 47. 1890.
Distribution: Eastern Intermediate zone.
Agrostophyllum Blume
Bijdr. 368.1825.
* Agrostophyllum zeylanicum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
5: 824. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Angraecum Bory
Voy. îles Afrique 1: 359. 1804.
Angraecum zeylanicum Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc.,
Bot. 3: 40. 1858. Mystacidium zeylanicum (Lindl.)
Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 9: 90. 1885. Fig. 8c
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This species is also recorded from the Seychelles
(World Checklist of Monocots, 2007).
Anoectochilus Blume
Bijdr. 411. 1825.
Anoectochilus elatus Lindl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1:178.
1857.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: Ormerod (2004) recorded this Indian species
from Sri Lanka after examining a specimen from Sri
Lanka ( Jayaweera 46, AMES).
* Anoectochilus regalis Blume, Coll. Orch. Archip.
Ind. 46. 1858. A. frederici-augusti Rchb. f., Hamburger
Garten- Blumenzeitung 16: 177. 424. 1860. A. neglectus
Blume, Coll. Orchid. 47. 1858. [Wanna Ladja
Cingalensium Koen. in sched., nom. nud.] A. setaceus
non Blume: Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 305.
1985.
Distribution: Lowland wet to submontane zone.
Sinhala: Wana raja
Note: Correct name for this species is A. regalis Blume,
an endemic species of Sri Lanka. A. setaceus Blume,
with which this has often been confused, is found in
Java (Comber, 1990).
Aphyllorchis Blume
Bijdr. t. 16, f. 77. 1825.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 57. 1877.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Apostasia Blume
Bijdr. 423. 1825.
Note: Jayaweera treated Apostasiaceae as a separate
family. This genus was unknown to Jayaweera when
Figure 7.Figure 7.
Figure 7.Figure 7.
Figure 7. Discovery of Apostasia in Sinharaja forest as it appeared in Ceylon
Observer (1964).
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 7
Figure 8.Figure 8.
Figure 8.Figure 8.
Figure 8.
a.a.
a.a.
a. Acanthephippium bicolor Lindl.;
bb
bb
b. Adrorhizon purpurascens (Thwaites) Hook. f. ;
c.c.
c.c.
c. Angraecum zeylanicum Lindl.;
dd
dd
d. Apostasia wallichii R.
Br.;
e e
e e
e. Arundina minor Lindl.;
ff
ff
f
..
..
. Aerangis hologlottis (Schltr.) Schltr (photographs: a by P. Samaravikrama; b,d,f by S.S. Fernando; c by Priyadarshana;
e by P. Anthony).
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8
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
he accompanied Dr Leslie Garay to Sinharaja forest
in 1964, where it was collected and identified as
Apostasia (see also Fig. 7). Now the consensus is to
treat it as a subfamily of Orchidaceae (Dressler, 1993;
Chase et al., 2003; World Checklist of Monocots, 2007).
Apostasia wallichii R. Br. in Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar.
1: 75. 1830. Fig. 8d
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Arundina Blume
Bijdr. 401.1825.
# Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr., Bull. New
York Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910.
Bletia graminifolia D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 29. 1825.
English: bamboo orchid
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
* Arundina minor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 125.
1831. Fig. 8e
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: A. minor Lindl. has been synonymised under
A. graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr., a widespread taxon
found in disturbed areas (World Checklist of
Monocots, 2007). After examining floral,
morphological and habitat characters, these two taxa
have been clearly distinguished in Sri Lanka as
different entities. We prefer to keep them separate.
Bromheadia Lindley
Edwards Bot. Reg. 27 (App.): 90. 1841.
*Bromheadia srilankensis Kruizinga & de Vogel,
Orchid Monogr. 8: 112. 1997. Fig. 9b
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: A specimen (Fernando s.n., 04-1977) deposited
in Kew collected from Sinharaja forest from Sri Lanka
was described as a new species (Kruizinga & de
Vogel, 1997).
Bulbophyllum Thouars
Hist. Orchid.: f. 93-97. 1822, nom. cons.
Note: We have treated Bulbophyllum in the broad sense
and therefore, include Trias Lindley and Cirrhopetalum
Lindley in it.
* Bulbophyllum crassifolium Thwaites ex Trimen,
J. Bot. 23: 244 .1885. Trias crassifolia (Thwaites ex
Trimen) Sathish, Blumea 34: 108. 1989.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Bulbophyllum elegans Gardner ex Thwaites, Enum.
Pl. Zeyl. 298. 1861. Fig. 9a
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: This species has been recorded from
Agastyamala in Kerala (CSK 1426, 1430 TBGT ), India
by Sathish and Manilal (1994: 59).
* Bulbophyllum elliae Rchb. f. in Walper’s, Ann. Bot.
Syst. 6: 263. 1861.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
* Bulbophyllum jayaweerae Fernando et Ormerod,
nom. nov. Basionym: Cirrhopetalum roseum Jayaweera,
Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Uni. 20,4:108, t. XVII, 1963. B.
elliae non Rchb.f.: Seidenfaden, Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(1):
145. 1973.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: This species has been confused with B. elliae
Rchb. f. for a long period of time due to the mix of
C.P. numbers from PDA and other herbaria.
Jayaweera (1963) described this species as
Cirrhopetalum roseum and afterwards synonymised it
under B. elliae Rchb. f. (Seidenfaden, 1974). But Garay
and Romero-Gonzalez (1999) argue, using shapes of
the petals, sepals and coloration as distinguishing
characters, that this is a valid species.
The name Bulbophyllum roseum Ridl. 1896 [now Trias
rosea (Ridl.) Seidenf. 1976], a species from Malaya and
Indochina already exists. Therefore, Jayaweera’s C.
roseum needs a new name in Bulbophyllum.
Bulbophyllum macraei (Lindl.) Rchb. f. in Walper’s,
Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 263. 1861. Cirrhopetalum macraei
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 59.1830. Fig. 9f
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: Srinivasan and Chitra (1989) recorded this
species from Tamil Nadu, India. Furthermore, it has
been recorded as far away as Japan and Taiwan.
Bulbophyllum maskeliyense Livera, Ann. Roy. Bot.
Gard. (Peradeniya) 10: 142. 1926.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: This species has been recorded from the
Western Ghats, India (Muktesh Kumar and Sequiera,
2000).
* Bulbophyllum petiolare Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
298.1861. Fig. 9e
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Bulbophyllum purpureum Thwaites, Enum. Pl.
Zeyl. 298. 1861.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 9
Figure 9.Figure 9.
Figure 9.Figure 9.
Figure 9.
aa
aa
a. Bulbophyllum elegans Gardner ex Thwaites;
bb
bb
b. Bromheadia srilankensis Kruizinga & de Vogel;
cc
cc
c. Bulbophyllum wightii Rchb. f.;
d.d.
d.d.
d. Bulbophyllum thwaitesii Rchb. f.;
ee
ee
e. Bulbophyllum petiolare Thwaites;
ff
ff
f. Bulbophyllum macraei (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (photographs: a,e,f by P. Samaravikrama;
b,c by S.S. Fernando; d by I. Priyadarshana).
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10
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
* Bulbophyllum thwaitesii Rchb. f., J. Bot. 12: 199.
1874. Cirrhopetalum thwaitesii (Rchb. f.) Hook. f., Fl.
Brit. India 5: 777. 1890. Fig. 9d
Distribution: Lowland wet, submontane to montane
zones.
* Bulbophyllum tricarinatum Petch, J. Indian Bot. 3:
148. 1923.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Bulbophyllum trimenii (Hook. f.) J. J. Sm., Bull.
Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, II, 8: 28. 1912. Cirrhopetalum
trimenii Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4: 158.
1898.
Distribution: Montane zone.
* Bulbophyllum wightii Rchb. f. in Walper’s, Ann.
Bot. Syst. 6: 262.1861. Cirrhopetalum wightii Thwaites,
Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 299. 1861. Cirrhopetalum grandiflorum
Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5: t. 1658. 1852. Fig. 9c
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Calanthe R. Br.
Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573. 1821, nom. cons.
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl.: 250. 1833. Centrosis sylvatica Thouars, Orch. Iles.
Aust. Afr. T. 35, 36. 1822. Calanthe purpurea Lindl.,
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 249. 1833.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Note: The name Calanthe purpurea Lindl. was recently
synonymised with the widespread C. sylvatica
(Thouars) Lindl. (World Checklist of Monocots, 2007).
Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames, Philipp. J. Sci.,
2: 326. 1907. Orchis triplicata Willemet, Usteri Ann.
Bot. 18:52. 1796. Limodorum veratrifolium Willd., Sp.
Pl. 4: 122. 1805. Calanthe veratrifolia (Willd.)Ker-Gawl.,
Bot. Reg. 9: t.720.1823.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Corymborkis Thouars
Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 318. 1809.
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.) Blume, Coll.
Orchid. 125. 1859. Hysteria veratrifolia Reinw., Nov.
Pl. Ind. Gen. Syll. Pl. Nov. 2:15. 1825-26. Corymbis
veratrifolia Rchb. f. in Flora 48: 184. 1865.
Distribution: Lowland wet to submontane zone.
Cheirostylis Blume
Bijdr. 413. 1825.
Cheirostylis flabellata Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient.
5(1): 16. t. 1727. 1851.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Cheirostylis parvifolia Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 25
(Misc.): 19. 1839.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Chiloschista Lindley
Edward’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1522. 1832.
Chiloschista fasciata (F.v. Muell.) Seidenf. &
Ormerod, Oper. Bot. 124: 64.1995. Sarcochilus fasciatus
F. v. Muell., Fragm. 5: 202. 1866. Chiloschista pusilla
sensu Schltr., Fed. Repert. Beih. 4: 275. 1919.
Sarcochilus wightii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 37. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet to submontane zone.
Note: This species was wrongly called Chiloschista
pusilla (W.) Schltr. by Schlechter who was influenced
by Hooker’s citation of some synonyms, especially
Epidendrum pusillum Koen. ( = Taeniophyllum pusillum
(Willd.) Seidenf. & Ormerod, a Malesian entity)
(Seidenfaden, 1995 a). Our species has been confused
with the above entity. C. fasciata is restricted to Sri
Lanka and Southern Deccan (Seidenfaden, 1995 b).
Chrysoglossum Blume
Bijdr. 337. 1825.
Chrysoglossum ornatum Blume, Bijdr. 338. 1825.
Ania maculata Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 301. 1861.
Chrysoglossum maculatum (Thwaites) Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
India 5: 784. 1890.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Cleisostoma Blume
Bijdr. 362. 1825.
Cleisostoma tenuifolium (L.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 23: 175. 1972. Epidendrum tenuifolium L.,
Sp. Pl. 2: 952. 1753. Sarcanthus peninsularis Dalz.,
Hooker’s J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 3: 343. 1851.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Coelogyne Lindley
Coll. Bot. t. 33. 1821
Coelogyne breviscapa Lindl., Fol. Orchid. Coelogyne
5: 4. 1854.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Coelogyne odoratissima Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.
41. 1830.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Coelogyne zeylanica Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl.
Ceylon 4: 161. 1898. Panisea zeylanica (Hook. f.) Aver.,
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 11
Bot. Zhurn. SSSR. 73(3): 432. 1988.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: The plant recorded and figured as C. uniflora
Lindl. from South India by Joseph (1987) appears to
represent C. zeylanica (Clayton, 2002).
Cottonia Wight
Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5 (1): 21. 1851.
Cottonia peduncularis (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Cat. Orch.
Samml. Schiller, ed. 3: 22. 1857. Vanda peduncularis
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 216. 1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet to Northern and Eastern
intermediate zones.
English: Bee orchid
Crepidium Blume
Bijdr. 387. 1825.
Crepidium purpureum (Lindl.) Szlach., Fragm. Flor.
Geobot. Supp. 3: 131. 1995. Microstylis purpurea Lindl.,
Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 20. 1830. Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.)
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 673. 1891.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Cryptostylis R. Br.
Prodr. 317. 1810.
Cryptostylis arachnites (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Bog. 48.
1844. Zosterostylis arachnites Blume, Bijdr. 418. 1825.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Cyclopogon C. Presl
Reliq. Haenk. 1(2): 93, pl. 13. 1827.
Cyclopogon obliquus (J. J. Sm.) Szlach., Fragm.
Florist. Geobot. 39 (2): 125. 1994. Spiranthes obliqua J.
J. Sm., Bull. Dep. Agric. Indes Neerl. 43: 74. 1910.
Pelexia obliqua (J.J. Sm.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 28(4):
345. 1982.
Distribution: Locality unknown.
Note: This is based on a specimen (Jayaweera 3011)
deposited in Kew collected from Sri Lanka. This is a
native species of neotropical countries but is found
as an adventive in Hong Kong, Java, Samoa and Sri
Lanka (Cribb & Ormerod, 1999; Ackerman, 2000).
Cymbidium Swartz
Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 70. 1799.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw., Nova Acta Regiae
Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 73.1799. Epidendrum aloifolium L.,
Sp. Pl. 2: 953. 1753. Epidendrum ensifolium L., Sp. Pl. 2:
954. 1753. Cymbidium haematodes Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch.
Pl. 162. 1830.
Distribution: Lowland intermediate and dry zones.
Sinhala: Visha duli
Cymbidium bicolor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 164.
1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone
Sinhala: Visha duli
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw., Nova Acta Regiae
Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 77. 1799. subsp. haematodes (Lindl.)
Du Puy & P. J. Cribb ex Govaerts, World Checklist
Seed Pl. 3 (1): 20. 1999.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Cyrtosia Blume
Bijdr. 396. 1825.
Cyrtosia javanica Blume, Bijdr. 396. 1825. Galeola
javanica (Blume) Benth. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:
88. 1890.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Dendrobium Swartz
Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6:82. 1799.
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) C. E. C. Fisher in
Gamble, Fl. Madras 8:1416. 1928. Limodorum aphyllum
Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1: 34, pl. 41. 1795. Dendrobium
macrostachyum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 78. 1830.
Distribution: Lowland wet, submontane and
intermediate zones.
Sinhala: Poson mal, Kaputu wesak mal
Note: The name has been changed according to
Christenson & Wood (2003).
# Dendrobium crumenatum Swartz, J. Bot.
(Schrader) 2: 237. 1799.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
English: pigeon orchid, white dove orchid
Sinhala: sudu pareyi mal
Note: An adventive species, not native to Sri Lanka.
Dendrobium diodon Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 89. 1877.
*subsp. diodon Fig. 10d
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Note: This species has been recorded from
Kanniyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India by
Gopalan and Henry (1988) with a new subspecies (D.
diodon subsp. kodayarensis Gopalan & Henry,
Holotype: Gopalan 81452, CAL).
12
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Dendrobium haemoglossum Thwaites, Enum. Pl.
Zeyl. 429. 1864.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: D. haemoglossum is closely related to D. salaccense
and may prove to be a variant of it.
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orchid. Pl. 78. 1830.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
English: primrose orchid
* Dendrobium maccarthiae Thwaites, Bot. Mag. 81:
t. 4886. 1855.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Sinhala: Wesak mal
Note: The description in Lavarack et al. (2000:148)
belongs to a different entity, probably a hybrid.
Dendrobium nutantiflorum A. D. Hawkes & A. H.
Heller, Lloydia 20: 122. 1957. Dendrobium nutans
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 90. 1830. non Presl 1827.
Distribution: Montane submontane zones.
Note: The name D. nutans Lindl. 1830 is homonymised
by D. nutans Presl 1827, a different species.
Dendrobium panduratum Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc.,
Bot. 3: 19. 1858. * subsp. panduratum
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: This subspecies has been recorded from India
(Manilal and Sathish, 1985). Later, Gopalan and
Henry (1990) described it as a new subspecies
endemic to South India (D. panduratum Lindl. subsp.
villosum).
Didymoplexis Griff.
Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 4: 383, t. 17. 1844.
Didymoplexis pallens Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 4:
383, t. 17. 1844.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This is based on a specimen (D. Chatterjee 505)
deposited in CAL collected from Kankaniya Mullaha
in Sri Lanka in 1956 (Misra, 2004). The identity of the
specimen requires confirmation. Another two
specimens from Peradeniya are deposited at PDA
(Coll: K. M. Gunapala, 20 May1982 and D. S. A.
Wijesundara, June 1994).
Didymoplexis seidenfadenii Sathish & Ormerod in
Manilal & Sathish, Orch. Memories 182. 2004.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This species has been recorded from Sri Lanka
by C. S. Kumar and P. Ormerod (C. S. Kumar & K. S.
Manilal, 2004).
Dienia Lindley
Bot. Reg. Sub t. 825. 1824.
Note: There are several recent revisions of the
subtribe Malaxidae, especially on the genus
Malaxis Sw. At present the above Sri Lankan
genus has been segregated into three genera,
Dienia Lindl. 1824, Crepidium Blume 1825 and
Seidenfia Szlach. 2001 (Margonska & Szlachetko,
2001). However, the genus Seidenfia is a doubtful
concept with erroneous typification. Therefore,
we have decided to omit the generic concept
Seidenfia from the present checklist. It is likely
that nearly all the South-East Asian segregations
of Malaxis will be considered to belong to a broad
concept of Dienia.
Dienia ophrydis (J. König) Ormerod & Seidenf.,
Contrib. Orchid Fl. Thailand XIII: 18. 1997.
Epidendrum ophrydis J. König in Retz., Observ. Bot.
6:46. 1771. Malaxis latifolia J. E. Sm. in Rees Cycl.
22: Malaxis n. 3. 1812. Microstylis latifolia (Sm.) J. J.
Sm., Fl. Buitenz. 6: 248, fig. 185. 1905.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Diplocentrum Lindley
Edwards Bot. Reg. 18: sub t. 1522. 1832.
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg.
18: sub t. 1522. 1832.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Diploprora Hook. f.
Fl. Brit. India 6: 26. 1890.
Diploprora championi (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
6: 26. 1890. Cottonia championii Lindl., Hooker’s J. Bot.
Kew Gard. Misc. 7: 35. 1855.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Disperis Swartz
Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21:218. 1800.
Disperis neilgherrensis Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient.
5: t. 1719. 1851. Disperis zeylanica Trimen, J. Bot. 23:
245. 1885. Disperis walkeriae Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 101.
1877.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: All Asian taxa of the genus Disperis were
recently synonymised with the widespread D.
neilgherrensis Wight (Kurzweil, 2005).
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 13
Epipogium Gmelin ex Borkhausen
Tent. Disp. Pl. German. 139. 1792.
Epipogium roseum (D.Don) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc.,
Bot. 1: 177. 1857. Limodorum roseum D. Don, Prodr.
Fl. Nepal. 30. 1825. Galera nutans Blume, Bijdr.
416. 1825. Epipogium nutans (Blume) Rchb. f.,
Bonplandia 5: 36. 1857.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Eria Lindley
Bot. Reg. 11: t. 904.1825.
Note: The six Sri Lankan species traditionally placed
in Eria would, according to a recent phylogenetic
treatment (Cribb & Ng in Pridgeon et al. 2005), be
placed in at least four genera. We feel that much
more samplings are needed before these changes can
be accepted. The Sri Lankan species (E. articulata, E.
braccata, E. muscicola var. oblonga) would probably
be placed in Conchidium Griff. but it seems to us that
apart from having a somewhat similar habit that
these taxa are not that closely related. Thus, we treat
Eria in the traditional sense until a better
circumscription of the various resurrected genera
becomes available.
* Eria articulata Lindl., J.Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 47.1858.
Conchidium articulatum (Lindl.) Rauschert, Feddes
Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 94: 444. 1983. Alvisia
tenuis Lindl., Fol. Orch. 1. 1859.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Eria bicolor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 65. 1830.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
English: Lily of the valley orchid
Eria braccata (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 46.
1858. Dendrobium braccatum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 75.
1830. Conchidium braccatum (Lindl.)Brieger,
Orchideen 1(11-12): 751. 1981.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
* Eria lindleyi Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 299. 1861.
Fig. 10f
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Eria muscicola (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Linn. Soc: Bot. 3:47.
1858. var. oblonga Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br. As. Soc.
9:88.1885. Dendrobium muscicola Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orchid. Pl. 75. 1830. Conchidium muscicola (Lindl.)
Rauschert, Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 94:
444. 1983. Eria velutina Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
299. 1864, non Lindl. 1840.
Distribution: Lowland wet to montane zone.
Note: The Sri Lankan variation of this species may
represent a separate species (Seidenfaden, 1982).
* Eria thwaitesii Trimen J. Ceyl. Br. As. Soc. 9: 88.1885.
E. velutina Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 299. 1864, non
Lindl. nom. illeg. Fig. 10a
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
* Eria tricolor Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 429. 1864.
Fig. 10c
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Erythrodes Blume
Bijdr. 410. 1825.
* Erythrodes latiloba Ormerod, Lindleyana 17 (4):
201. 2002. Erythrodes humilis non (Blume) J. J.
Sm.: Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 1981.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: This species was confused with E. humilis
(Blume) J. J. Sm. and E. blumei (Lindl.) Schltr. which
are two closely related Malayan species. By
examining the specimens (Sledge 1146, C.P. 598 and
Macrae 59) in K and BM, it was distinguished as a
new species (Ormerod, 2002).
Eulophia R. Br. ex Lindley
Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573. 1821. nom. cons.
Eulophia epidendraea (J. Köenig ex Retz.) C. E. C.
Fischer in Gamble, Fl. Madras 1434. 1928. Serapias
epidendraea J. König in Retz., Obs. Bot. 6: 65. 1791.
Limodorum virens Roxb., Pl. Corom. T. 38. 1795.
Eulophia virens (Roxb.)R. Br. ex Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7: sub
t. 573. 1821.
Distribution: Lowland intermediate and dry zones.
Eulophia graminea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 182.
1833.
Distribution: Lowland intermediate zone.
Eulophia pulchra (Thouars) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl.: 182. 1833. Limodorum pulchrum Thouars, Orch. Iles.
Austr. Afr. Pls. 43, 47. 1822. Eulophia macrostachya
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 183. 1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh in Nicolson,
Suresh & Manilal, Interpret. Van Rheede’s Hort.
Malab.: 300. 1988. Wolffia spectabilis Dennst., Schlussel
Hort. Malab. 11, 25, 38. 1818. Eulophia nuda Lindl.,
Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 180. 1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.) J. J. Sm., Orch. Java.
14
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
228. 1905. Cyrtopera zollingeri Rchb. f. in Bonplandia
5: 38. 1857. C. sanguinea Lindl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 32.
1858. Eulophia sanguinea (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
India 6: 8. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Flickingeria A. D. Hawkes
Orchid Weekly 2: 251. 1961.
Flickingeria macraei (Lindl.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot.
Ark. 34: 39. 1980. Dendrobium macraei Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orchid. Pl. 75. 1830. Ephemerantha macraei (Lindl.) P.
F. Hunt & Summerh., Taxon 10: 105. 1961.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Sinhala: Jata makuta
Gastrochilus D. Don
Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 32. 1825.
Gastrochilus acaulis (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.
2: 661. 1891. Cleisostoma acaule Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch.
Pl. 227. 1833. Saccolabium acaule (Lindl.)Hook. f., Fl.
Brit. India 6: 61. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet to submontane zone
Gastrodia R. Br.
Prodr. 330. 1810.
* Gastrodia zeylanica Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov.
Regni Veg. 3: 77. 1906. Gastrodia javanica sensu
Thwaites non (Blume) Lindl. 1840.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: The record from Bangladesh (Khan and Halam,
1989), after examining the detailed drawing, is found
similar to a Didymoplexis species, possibly D. pallens
Griff. by the following characters: branching habit of
stem, lateral sepals deeply separated from petals and
dorsal sepal and bilobed lip. Therefore, G. zeylanica
is retained as an endemic species. The figure in
Jayaweera (1981: 335) and two drawings deposited
at PDA are not G. zeylanica but a Didymoplexis species
(C.P. 3463).
Geodorum Jackson
Bot. Repos. 10: t. 626. 1811.
Geodrum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr., Repert. Spec.
Nov. Regni Veg., Beih. 4: 259. 1919. Limodorum
densiflorum Lam., Encycl. 3: 576. 1792. Geodorum
dilatatum R. Br., Hort. Kew. (ed. 2). 5: 207. 1813.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston in H. Trimen,
Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 6 (Suppl.): 276. 1931. Limodorum
recurvum Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1: 33, pl. 39. 1795.
Distribution: Locality unknown.
Note: Two specimens of G. recurvum deposited at Kew
collected by Walker from Sri Lanka were without
precise locality.
Goodyera R. Br.
in W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. 5: 197. 1813.
Goodyera fumata Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 314.
1861.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Goodyera procera (Ker-Gawl.) Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: t.
39. 1823. Neottia procera Ker-Gawl., Bot. Reg. 8:T.639.
1822.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Goodyera stelidifera Ormerod, Oasis suppl. 3: 6.
2004. Rhamphidia elongata auct. non (Lindl.)Lindl.:
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zey. 1: 313. 1861. Hetaeria elongata
auct. non (Lindl.)Hook. f.: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:
197.1890; Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4: 210. 1898;
Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 2: 296. fig. 131. 1981.
Distribution: Locality unknown.
Note: For quite sometime the only material (C. P. 2739,
K) of this taxon had been wrongly called Hetaeria
elongata (Lindl.)Hook. f. (now H. finlaysoniana
Seidenf.) distributed from Peninsular Malaysia to
Thailand, Myanmar and possibly China. A critical
study of the material at K convinced the correct
generic placement and novelty (Ormerod, 2004).
Habenaria Willd.
Sp. Pl. 4: 44. 1805.
Habenaria acuminata (Thwaites) Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br.
Roy. Soc. 9: 91. 1885. Ate acuminata Thwaites, Enum.
Pl. Eyl. 309. 1861. Fig. 10b
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
6: 133. 1890. Ate virens Lindl., Gen. Sp Orch. Pl. 327.
1835. Habenaria virens non A. Rich & Galeotti:
Abeywickrama, Ceylon J. Sci. Bio. Sci. 2: 1959; Hunt
& Summerhayes, Kew Bull. 20(1) : 51. 1966. Fig. 10e
Distribution: Submontane, montane and eastern
intermediate zones.
Note: This species was originally named Ate virens
Lindl. Wight (1845) named it as Habenaria barbata
nom. nud., by using a separate specimen. Later,
Joseph Hooker validated the name H. barbata (1890).
Abeywickrama (1959) and P.F. Hunt &
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 15
Figure 10. Figure 10.
Figure 10. Figure 10.
Figure 10.
a.a.
a.a.
a. Eria thwaitesii Trimen;
bb
bb
b. Habenaria acuminata (Thwaites) Trimen;
cc
cc
c. Eria tricolor Thwaites;
d d
d d
d. Dendrobium diodon Rchb. f.;
ee
ee
e. Habenaria
barbata Wight ex Hook. f.;
ff
ff
f
..
..
. Eria lindleyi Thwaites (photographs: a-e by S.S. Fernando; f by P. Samarawikrama).
aa
aa
a
bb
bb
b
cc
cc
c
dd
dd
d
ee
ee
e
ff
ff
f
16
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Summerhayes in 1966 independently transferred it
as H. virens (Seidenfaden in Matthew, 1999).
Abeywickrama’s transfer (1959) was illegitimate
because of wrong basionym used (Seidenfaden in
Matthew, 1999) and P.F. Hunt & Summerhayes’
transfer is a homonym of H. virens A. Rich & Galeotti
(1845), a Mexican species (World Checklist of
Monocots, 2007).
Habenaria crinifera Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 323
1835.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Sinhala: Nari Lata
* Habenaria dichopetala Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
309. 1861.
Distribution: Dry zone.
* Habenaria dolichostachya Thwaites, Enum. Pl.
Zeyl. 309. 1861.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Habenaria macrostachya Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.
307. 1835.
Distribution: Lowland wet, intermediate zone and dry
zones.
Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 323.
1835.
Distribution: Intermediate and dry zones.
* Habenaria pterocarpa Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
309. 1861.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Habenaria rhynchocarpa (Thwaites) Trimen, Syst.
Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 91. 1885. Platanthera rhynchocarpa
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 310. 1861.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Distr.
834. 1976. Habenaria platyphylla Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3:
690. 1826.
Distribution: Eastern intermediate zone.
Sinhala: Sudu koka Mala
Note: H. roxburghii Nicolson is a new record for Sri
Lanka (Fernando and Gunasekara, 2005) but its
author was incorrectly cited as R. Br.
Habenaria viridiflora (Sw.) Spreng. Syst. 3: 691. 1826.
Orchis viridiflora Rottler ex Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad.
Nya Handl. 21: 206. 1800.
Distribution: In all zones.
Hetaeria Blume
Bijdr. 409. 1825.
Hetaeria oblongifolia Blume, Bijdr. 410. 1825.
Rhamphidia gardneri Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 313.
1861. Hetaeria gardneri (Thwaites) Trimen, Cat. Pl.
Ceyl. 1: 90. 1885.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This taxon was recently synonymised with the
widespread H. oblongifolia Blume (Ormerod, 2004).
Ipsea Lindley
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 124. 1831.
* Ipsea speciosa Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 124. 1831.
Fig. 11a
Distribution: Montane an submontane zones.
English: Daffodil orchid
Sinhala: Naga meru ala
Liparis A. Rich.
De Orchid. Eur. 30. 1817, nom. cons.
Liparis atropurpurea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 28.
1830.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Liparis barbata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 27. 1830.
Liparis wrayi Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:181. 1890.
Distribution: Submontane zones.
Note: L. barbata was described from a solitary
specimen sent by Macrae to Lindley, which
supposedly had hairs on the lip (Lindley, 1830 -1840).
But later publications did not mention hairiness on
the lip (Trimen 1898, Hooker 1888-1890, Ormerod,
2005a). In Alston (1931: 272) and Jayaweera’s (1981:55)
treatments an entirely different species is described
as L. barbata. Examination of the type (Macrae 6, K-L)
proved that the lip lacked hairs and that many entities
(including L. wrayi Hook. f.) were synonyms. L.
barbata is a widespread species distributed from Sri
Lanka to Samoa (Ormerod, 2005a).
* Liparis brachyglottis Rchb. f. ex Trimen, J. Ceyl.
Br. AS. Soc. 9: 87. 1885.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Liparis cespitosa (Lam.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 11 sub t.
882. 1825. Epidendrum cespitosum Lam., Encycl. Meth.
Bot. 1: 87. 1783. Liparis obscura Hook. f., Hooker’s Icon.
Pl. 19: t. 1886. 1889.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: L. cespitosa (Lam.) Lindl. is the correct name for
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 17
the taxon based on Epidendrum cespitosum Lam. 1783.
In Jayaweera (1981) and Senaratne (2001), it is
incorrectly cited as L. caespitosa (Thouars) Lindl.1825.
Liparis elliptica Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5: t. 1735.
1851.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Liparis nervosa (Thunb. ex Murray) Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orchid. Pl. 26. 1830. Ophrys nervosa Thunb. ex Murray,
Syst. Veg. (ed. 14). 814. 1784.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Liparis thwaitesii Hook. f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 21: t.
2006. 1890. L. barbata non Lindl., Jayaweera, Rev.
Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 2: 55. 1981.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: This was described as a unifoliate species based
on Thwaites, CP 3179 (K). We think this is an error
that arose from incomplete vegetative material
because the two isotypes at PDA are specimens with
two (rarely three) leaves. Furthermore, the flowers
have a suborbicular (not late obovate or cuneate-
oblong as originally described) lip. The figure called
L. barbata Lindl. by Jayaweera (1981: 56) represents
L. thwaitesii. Further studies are required of the type
specimens in the L. wightiana/thwaitesii complex.
However, it seems possible that L. trimenii Ridley is
not a synonym of L. wightiana but an earlier name for
L. thwaitesii.
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl. 31. 1830. Malaxis viridiflora Blume, Bijdr. 8:
392. 1825. Liparis longipes Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl. 30. 1830.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Liparis walkeriae R. Graham, Edinburgh New
Philos. J. 20: 194. 1836.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Liparis wightiana Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 295.
1861. Liparis trimenii Ridley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24:
350. 1888.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Note: See notes under L. thwaitesii concerning the
synonymy of this species.
Luisia Gaudich.
Voy. Uranie: 426. 1829.
Luisia birchea Blume, Rumphia 4: 50. 1849. Luisia
tenuifolia auct. non (L.)Blume: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
6: 24. 1890.
Distribution: Northern and Eastern intermediate
zones.
Note: This species was first collected from Nilgiris and
described as a separate genus Birchea by A. Richard
(1841). Later, Blume transferred it to its current
position (Sathish & Manilal, 2004). Basionym of L.
tenuifolia (L.) Blume 1848 is Epidendrum tenuifolium L.
1753. It is not a true Luisia but is now known as
Cleisostoma tenuifolium (L.) Garay.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl. Fol. Orch. Luisia 3. 1853. Luisia
tristis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 25. 1890. L. teretifolia
auct. non Gaudich.: Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceyl.
2: 210. 1981.
Distribution: Lowland wet to Submontane zone.
Note: L. zeylanica Lindl. was based on Macrae’s
collection from Sri Lanka. L. teretifolia Gaudich does
not occur in Sri Lanka or India.
Malaxis Swartz
Prodr. 8.119. 1788.
Malaxis densiflora (A. Rich.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.
2: 673. 1891. Liparis densiflora A. Rich., Ann. Sci. Nat.
(Ser.2) 15:18. 1841. Seidenfia densiflora (A. Rich.)
Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot., Suppl. 3:122. 1995.
Microstylis versicolor auct. non Lindl.: Wight, Ic. Pl.
Ind. Or. 9. t. 901. 1844-45.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Malaxis discolor (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:
673. 1891. Microstylis discolor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl. 20. 1830. Seidenfia discolor (Lindl.)Szlach., Fragm.
Flor. Geobot., Suppl. 3:122. 1995.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
* Malaxis thwaitesii Bennet, Indian J. Forest. 5:
326.1982. Microstylis lancifolia Thwaites, Enum. Pl.
Zeyl. 297. 1864. Malaxis lancifolia (Thwaites) Kuntze,
Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 673. 1891, non J. E. Sm. 1812. Seidenfia
lancifolia (Thwaites) Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. ,
Suppl. 3:122. 1995.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: The name M. lancifolia (Thwaites) Kuntze 1891
is a homonym of M. lancifolia J. E. Sm. 1812. Therefore,
we use the name proposed by Bennett.
Malaxis versicolor (Lindl.) Abeyw., Ceylon J. Sci.,
Biol. Sci. 2: 247. 1959. Microstylis versicolor Lindl.
Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 21. 1830. Seidenfia versicolor
(Lindl.) Marg. & Szlach., Pol. Bot. Journ. 46 (1): 56.
2001. Microstylis rheedii (Sw.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch.
Pl. 21. 1830, p. p. ; Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. T. 902.
18
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
1844-45.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone to montane forests.
Nervilia Comm. ex Gaudich.
Voy. Uranie 422. 1829.
Nervilia juliana (Roxb.) Schlechter, Bot. Jahrb. Syst.
45: 402. 1911. Epipactis juliana Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3:453.
1832.
Distribution: Intermediate zone.
Note: There is no confirmed specimen of this species
at PDA. Therefore, the occurrence of this species is
doubtful. Yet at PDA, several sheets with differing
foliar morphologies from different localities are
found. This has also been stated by J.D. Hooker (1898:
255).
Oberonia Lindley
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 15. 1830.
Note: Apart from the species enumerated here, two
more species have been included under the genus
Oberonia, O. bicornis Lindl. (Senaratne, 2001) and O.
verticillata Wight (Seidenfaden, 1968). Since there are
no precise records of these species as herbarium
specimens or in literature, we decided to omit the
species from the present list.
* Oberonia claviloba Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 20: 98. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Oberonia dolabrata Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 20: 96. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Oberonia forcipata Lindl., Fol. Orchid. Oberonia: 2.
1859.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Oberonia fornicata Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv.
Uni. 20: 106. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Oberonia longibracteata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Pl. 15. 1830.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
* Oberonia quadrilatera Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 20: 93. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Oberonia recurva Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 25
(Misc.): 14. 1839.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
* Oberonia scyllae Lindl., Fol. Orchid. Oberonia: 5.
1859. Fig. 11c
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Oberonia tenuis Lindl., Fol. Orchid. Oberonia: 3. 1859.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Oberonia thwaitesii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 678.
1890.
Distribution: Lowland intermediate zone.
Note: This species was recorded by Manilal and
Sathish (1984) from Quilon district in Kerala, India
(Sivadasan 15225, CALI).
* Oberonia truncata Lindl., Fol. Orchid. Oberonia: 3.
1859.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Oberonia wallie-silvae Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 20: 101. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Oberonia weragamaensis Jayaweera, Bot. Mus.
Leafl. Harv. Uni. 20: 103. 1963.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Oberonia wightiana Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 25
(Misc.): 14. 1839.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Oberonia zeylanica Hook. f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 18: t.
1782. 1888.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Octarrhena Thwaites
Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 305. 1861.
Octarrhena parvula Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 305.
1861.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Papilionanthe Schlechter
Orchis 9: 78. 1915.
Papilionanthe cylindrica (Lindl.) Seidenf., Descr.
Epidendrorum J.G. König 33. 1995. Aerides cylindrica
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 340. 1833, excl. syn.
Papilionanthe subulata auct. non (Willd.) Garay:
Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon. 2: 202. 1981.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Note: The name P. subulata (Willd.) Garay 1974 is
based on Epidendrum subulatum Koenig and
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 19
incorrectly used for our species, P. cylindrica (Lindl.)
Seidenf. (Seidenfaden , 1995a)
Peristylus Blume
Bijdr. 404. 1825, nom. cons.
Peristylus aristatus Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 300.
1835.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: This species with small undulate leaves was
described based on Macrae’s specimen (Macrae 56)
collected from Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. However, only
flower buds of this specimen remain and Lindley’s
sketch on the type sheet is not a detailed one
(Seidenfaden, 1977). Jayaweera (1981: 370) illustrated
a specimen similar to Macrae 56 with subequal
sidelobes and midlobe. Yet another specimen with a
much shorter midlobe and much larger leaves
(Kostermann 27104, G) was also found collected from
Kandy, Sri Lanka in 1978. It was identified as P.
gracilis Blume (Swiss Orchid Foundation, 2007). C.P.
3081(K) was identified as P. aristatus Lindl. This
species has a much shorter spur and a pair of lobules
at the base of the lip (spur of P. gracilis is twice as
long as the length of the dorsal sepal and does not
have lobules at the base of lip). The later entity is
clearly different from P. gracilis and possibly belongs
to a new species, but further materials are needed
for confirmation.
* Peristylus brevilobus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
311. 1861. Habenaria breviloba (Thwaites) Trimen, J.
Ceyl. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 9: 91. 1885
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Peristylus cubitalis (L.) Kraenzlin, Orchid. Gen. Sp.
Pl. 1: 502. 1898. Orchis cubitalis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 940. 1753.
Habenaria cubitalis (L.) R. Br., Prodr. 12. 1810.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santapau & Kapadia, J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 57: 128. 1960. Coeloglossum
densum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 302. 1832.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: There is a specimen (Laegard 13962) deposited
in AAU collected from Sinharaya (Sinharaja forest),
Sri Lanka (Seidenfaden, 1999).
* Peristylus gardneri (Hook. f.) Kraenzlin, Orchid.
Gen. Sp. 1: 506. 1898. Habenaria gardneri Hook. f., Fl.
Brit. India 6:158. 1890.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Peristylus plantagineus Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.
300. 1835. Habenaria wightii Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br. Roy.
As. Soc. 9: 91. 1885.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Peristylus spiralis A. Rich., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., II,
15: 69. 1841. Habenaria torta Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India
6:159. 1890.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Peristylus trimenii (Hook. f.) Abeywick., Ceylon J.
Sci., Biol. Sci. 2: 151. 1959. Habenaria trimenii Hook. f.,
Fl. Ceylon. 4: 233. 1898. Fig. 11b
Distribution: Eastern intermediate zone.
Phaius Loureiro
Fl. Cochinch. 529. 1790.
Phaius luridus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 300. 1861.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This species is also reported from India
(Abraham & Vatsala, 1981; Sathish Kumar & Manilal,
2004).
Phaius wallichii Lindl. in Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2:
46, t 158. 1831. P. tankervilleae non (Banks ex L’Hérit.)
Blume: Jayaweera, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 153.
1881. Fig. 11d
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
English: Star orchid
Note: Both P. wallichii Lindl. and P. tankervilleae (Banks
ex L’Hérit.) Blume were considered one and the same
species but were recently discovered to be two
different, closely related species. Sri Lankan
specimens at K fell under P. wallichii Lindl. (Cribb et
al. 2004).
Phalaenopsis Blume
Bijdr. 294. 1825.
Note: The genus Kingidium P.F. Hunt is now placed
under this genus (Christenson, 2002).
Phalaenopsis deliciosa Rchb. f., Bonplandia 2: 93.
1854. subsp. deliciosa. Kingidium deliciosum (Rchb. f.)
Sweet, Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 39:1095. 1970.
Phalaenopsis deliciosa Rchb. f., Bonplandia 2: 93. 1854.
P. wightii Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 20: 214. 1862. Doritis
wightii (Rchb. f.) Benth. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:
32. 1890. Aerides latifolium Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.
429. 1864.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Phalaenopsis mysorensis Saldanha, Ind. For. 100:
571. 1974.
20
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Distribution: Isolated hilltops in intermediate and dry
zones.
Note: This species was found on some isolated hills
in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Specimens are
deposited at PDA (S.S.-2004-1, S.S.-2004-2).
Previously, it was considered as endemic to a narrow
range in South India (Christenson, 2006).
Pholidota Lindley ex Hooker
Exot. Fl. 2: t. 138. 1825.
Pholidota imbricata Lindl. in Hooker, Exot. Fl. 2: t.
138. 1825. Pholidota pallida non Lindl.: Jayaweera, Rev.
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 120. 1951.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
English: necklace orchid
Sinhala: Nari ala
Podochilus Blume
Bijdr. 295. 1825.
Podochilus falcatum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 234.
1833.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Sinhala: Maha Patma
Podochilus malabaricum Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient.
5: t. 1748, f. 2. 1851.
Distribution: Lowland wet to submontane zone.
Sinhala: Maha Patma
* Podochilus saxatile Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 235.
1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Sinhala: Kuda Patma
Phreatia Lindley
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 63. 1830.
Phreatia elegans Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 63. 1830.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
* Phreatia jayaweerae Ormerod, Taiwania 50 (3): 185.
2005.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: A new species endemic to Sri Lanka (Ormerod,
2005).
Polystachya Hook.
Exot. Fl. 2: t. 103. 1824, nom. cons.
Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay et Sweet,
Orquideologia 9: 206. 1974. Epidendrum concretum
Jacq., Enum. Pl. 30. 1760.
Distribution: Intermediate, lowland wet, submontane
and montane zones.
Pomatocalpa Breda
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep. III: t. 15. 1827.
Pomatocalpa maculosum (Lindl.) J. J. Sm., Natuurw.
Tijdschr. Ned. - Indië 72: 105. 1912. subsp.
maculosum. Cleisostoma maculosum Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orch.227. 1833. Cleisostoma decipiens Lindl., Edwards’s
Bot.Reg.30: Misc. 11. 1844.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: Endemic status of this species has changed
because of the recent studies of the genus by
Watthana (2006, 2007).
Pomatocalpa spicatum Breda, Gen. Sp. Orchid.
Asclep. Fasc. III t. 15. 1829.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: Names and endemic status of this species have
changed as a result of the recent studies of the genus
by Watthana (2006, 2007).
Pteroceras Van Hasselt ex Hassk.
Flora 25 (2 Beibl.): 6. 1842.
* Pteroceras viridiflorum (Thwaites) Holttum, Kew
Bull. 14: 272. 1960. Aerides viridiflorum
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 430. 1864. Sarcochilus
viridiflorus (Thwaites) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 38.
1890.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Note: According to Pedersen (1993:55) taxonomic
affinity of P. viridiflorum (Thwaites) Holttum is
unclear, but it has been recognized as an endemic
taxon to Sri Lanka. When citing specimens, Jayaweera
has confused the above with an Indian taxon, Loxoma
viridiflora (Dalz.) Pradhan, a clearly different entity.
Rhynchostylis Blume
Bijdr. 285. 1825.
Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume, Bijdr. 286.1825.
Epidendrum retusum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 953. 1753.
Distribution: Eastern Intermediate zone.
English: Batticaloa orchid, Fox-tail orchid
Sinhala: Gurulu Raja
Robiquetia Gaudich.
Voy. Uranie; 426. 1829.
* Robiquetia brevifolia (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus.
Leafl. Harv. Uni. 23: 196. 1972. Saccolabium brevifolium
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 225. 1833.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 21
Figure 11. Figure 11.
Figure 11. Figure 11.
Figure 11. a. Ipsea speciosa Lindl. ;
b b
b b
b. Peristylus trimenii (Hook. f.) Abeywick.;
cc
cc
c. Oberonia scyllae Lindl.; d. Phaius wallichii Lindl.;
ee
ee
e. Robiquetia rosea
(Lindl.) Garay;
ff
ff
f. Zeuxine reginasilvae Ormerod (photographs: a,f by K. Gunawardhana; b-e by S.S. Fernando).
bb
bb
b
cc
cc
c
dd
dd
d
ee
ee
e
ff
ff
f
aa
aa
a
22
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Robiquetia gracilis (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 23: 197 1972. Saccolabium gracile Lindl.,
Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 225. 1833.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Robiquetia rosea (Lindl.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl.
Harv. Uni. 23: 197. 1972. Saccolabium roseum Lindl., J.
Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 36. 1859. Fig. 11e
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Note: This species has been recorded from India (Bhat,
2000), but the plant figure does not match exactly
with the Sri Lankan material.
* Robiquetia virescens Ormerod et Fernando, sp. nov.
Fig. 12
R. virescens (Gardner ex Lindl.) Jayaweera, Rev.
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 255, 1981. nom. illeg. Saccolabium
virescens Gardner ex Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 3: 35.
1858. nom. nud.
Affinis R. brevifolia (Lindl.) Garay sed petalis floribus
oblongis ad oblongo-ellipticis (non oblique late
obovatis) et ostium labello late obliquus (non
brevipatens) differt.
Type: Sri Lanka, Kandy district, Rangala, Corbet’s
Gap, 1290 m, 29 March 1961, D.M.A. Jayaweera 2048
(holotype with sketch, PDA; isotype: PDA).
Epiphytic herb. Roots terete, elongate, emerging from
nodes. Stem slender, terate, weakly flexuous, laxly 5-
8-leaved, 5-12 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm thick; internodes
covered by shallowly ribbed, coriaceous, tubular
sheaths. Leaves oblong-ligulate to linear-ligulate, apex
equally to inequally, obtusely bilobed, thinly
coriaceous, 4-7 cm long, 0.4-1.0 cm wide. Inflorescence
emerging from nodes opposite to leaf lamina, 2.7- 6.8
cm long, peduncle slender, terete, with 3-5 brown
sheathing bracts, 2-4 cm long; rachis subdensely 12-
14 flowered, 1.5-3.2 cm long; floral bracts broadly
triangular, acute, 0.8 mm long. Flowers with pale
green to green sepals and petals, lip with green
midlobe and edges of spur mouth, rest of spur white
to pale green, column pale green to green, anther cap
purple-red; dorsal sepal oblong to oblong-elliptic,
obtuse to shortly truncate, 3.9 mm long, 2.1 mm wide;
lateral sepals obliquely oblong, subacute, 3.8 mm
long, 1.8 mm wide; petals oblong to oblong-elliptic,
subacute to shortly truncate, 3.8 mm long, 1.7 mm
wide; labellum infundibuliform, apex subacute to
obtuse, 9.8 mm long; mouth of labellum oblique, 3.8
mm wide from base of column to midlobe; midlobe
fleshy, deltate, c. 0.7 mm long; column semicylindric-
clavate, 2.1 mm long.
Distribution: Sri Lanka.
Specimens Examined: SRI LANKA, Rangala, Corbet’s
Gap, 1290 m, 18 March 1959, D.M.A. Jayaweera 32
(AMES); sine loc., G.H.K. Thwaites, C.P. 488 ( BM, K-L,
PDA); sine loc. & coll. s.n. (AMES).
Habitat: On trees of submontane forests.
Note: Lindley mentioned Gardner’s manuscript
name Saccolabium virescens in the synonymy of S.
brevifolium Lindl. Jayaweera (1981) provided an
English description and a figure of the former entity
which he transferred to Robiquetia. However, the
name Saccolabium virescens was never validly
published and consequently the name Robiquetia
virescens is until now invalid. We, therefore, have
validated the name R. virescens for this checklist.
Robiquetia virescens is related to R. brevifolia (Lindl.)
Garay but differs from it by having longer (4-7 vs.
1.5-2.0 cm) leaves, flowers with pale green to green
(not deep purple red) sepals and petals, oblong to
elliptic (not obliquely late obovate) petals and much
broader entrance to the lip.
Jayaweera (1981) mentions that there is a white-
Figure 12.Figure 12.
Figure 12.Figure 12.
Figure 12. Robiquetia virescens
Ormerod & Fernando (type specimen at PDA).
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 23
flowered form of R. virescens. His observation was
based on Bernardi 15769 (PDA) which has shorter and
more coriaceous leaves than R. virescens. We are
unsure of the identity of this collection and thus have
excluded it from this list.
Satyrium Swartz
Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 214. 1800.
nom. cons.
Satyrium nepalense D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 26.
1825.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Schoenorchis Reinw. ex Blume
Bijdr. 361. 1825.
Schoenorchis nivea (Lindl.) Schltr., Repert. Spec.
Nov. Regni Veg., Beih. 1: 986. 1913. Saccolabium niveum
Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 224. 1833.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: Gopalan and Henry (1989) have recorded this
species from India.
* Schoenorchis tortifolia (Jayaweera) Garay, Bot.
Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 23: 203. 1972. Saccolabium
tortifolium Jayaweera, Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ.
20: 111. 1963.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Seidenfadeniella Sath. Kumar
in C. S. Kumar & K. S. Manilal, Cat. Ind. Orchids,
43. 1994.
Seidenfadeniella filiformis (Rchb. f.) E. A.
Christenson & Ormerod in Matthew, Fl. Palni Hills
1258. 1999. Saccolabium filiforme Rchb. f., Walp. Ann.
6:887. 1864. Schoenorchis juncifolia auct. non Blume:
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 304. 1864. Saccolabium
chrysanthum Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon
(Suppl.)6: 277. 1931. Schoenorchis chrysantha (Alston)
Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 23: 202. 1972.
Seidenfadeniella chrysantha (Alston) Sathish in Sathish
Kumar & Manilal, Cat. Ind. Orch. 47. 1994.
Distribution: Montane zone.
Note: Sathish Kumar (Sathish Kumar & Manilal,
1994) erected this genus with two species distributed
in India and Sri Lanka. Later, the name of S.
chrysantha (Alston) Sath. Kumar was changed using
an earlier available basionym to Saccolabium filiforme
Rchb. f. 1864 by Christenson & Ormerod (Seidenfaden
in Matthew, 1256: 1999).
Sirhookera Kuntze
Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 681. 1891.
Sirhookera lanceolata (Wight) Kuntze, Revis. Gen.
Pl. 2: 681. 1891. Josephia lanceolata Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind.
Or. 5(1): 19. t. 1742. 1851.
Distribution: Lowland wet, submontane and
montane zones.
Sirhookera latifolia (Wight) Kuntze, Revis. Gen.
Pl. 2: 681. 1891. Josephia latifolia Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind.
Or. 5(1): 19. t. 743. 1851.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Spathoglottis Blume
Bijdr. 400. 1825.
# Spathoglottis plicata Blume, Bijdr. 401. 1825.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zones.
Note: This adventive species is now recorded from
many areas in wet and mid elevation zone in Sri
Lanka, especially near waterways. This is a
common garden plant in most parts of Sri Lanka.
Spiranthes Rich.
De Orchid. Eur. 28. 1817.
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames, Orchidaceae 2:
53. 1908. Neottia sinensis Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 511. 1807.
Distribution: Lowland wet and submontane zone.
Stichorkis Thouars
Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 318. 1809.
Stichorkis disticha (Thouars) Pfitzer in H. G. A.
Engler & K. A. E. Prantl (eds.), Nat. Pflanzenfam.,
Nachtr. 1: 103. 1897. Liparis disticha Lindl., Bot. Reg.
11: sub t. 882. 1826.
Distribution: Montane and submontane zones.
Note: Liparis gibbosa Finet is now placed under this
genus (Pridgeon et al., 2005). This species has been
identified as Liparis disticha Lindl. and L. gibbosa
Finet. The identity of the Sri Lankan material is
not wholly certain, so we have taken a
conservative approach and used the oldest
available name.
Tainia Blume
Bijdr. 354. 1825.
Tainia bicornis (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Bonplandia 5: 54.
1857. Ania bicornis Lindl., Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 37.
1842.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
24
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
Taeniophyllum Blume
Bijdr. 355. 1825.
Taeniophyllum alwisii Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc.,
Bot. 3: 42. 1858.
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
* Taeniophyllum gilimalense Jayaweera, Bot.
Mus. Leafl. Harv. Uni. 20: 144. 1963.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Taprobanea Christenson
Lindleyana 7: 90. 1992.
Taprobanea spathulata (L.) Christenson,
Lindleyana 7 (2): 91. 1992. Epidendrum spathulatum
L., Sp. Pl. 952. 1753. Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng.,
Syst. Veg. 3: 719. 1828.
Distribution: Intermediate and dry zones.
Thrixspermum Loureiro
Fl. Cochinch. 519. 1790.
*Thrixspermum pugionifolium (Hook. f.)
Schlechter, Orchis 5: 57. 1911. Sarcochilus
pugionifolius Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India. 6: 196. 1890.
Distribution: Intermidiate and dry zones.
Thrixspermum pulchellum (Thwaites)
Schlechter, Orchis 5: 57. 1911. Dendrocolla pulchella
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 430. 1864. Sarcochilus
pulchellus (Thwaites) Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br. Roy. As.
Soc. 9: 89. 1885.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: This species was recorded by Manilal and
Sathish (1986) from Palode, Trivandrum district
in India (CU36969, CALI and Sathish Kumar 501,
TBGT). It is a member of the difficult T. hystrix
(Blume) Rchb. f. complex.
Thrixspermum walkeri Seidenf. & Ormerod in G.
Seidenfaden, Descr. Epidendrorum J. G. König
1791: 26. 1995. Thrixspermum complanatum auct.
non (J. G. König) Schltr.: Alston in Trimen, Supple.
Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 277.1931; Jayaweera, Rev. Handb.
Fl. Ceylon 2: 195. 1981. Sarcochilus complanatus
auct. non (J. G. König) Hook. f.: Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
India 6: 41. 1890, p.p.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: The Sri Lankan species was incorrectly
identified as T. complanatum (J. G. König)
Schlechter based on Epidendrum complanatum
Koen. 1791 from Thailand.
Trichoglottis Blume
Bijdr. 359. 1825.
Trichoglottis tenera (Lindley) Rchb. f., Gard. Chron.
1872: 699. 1872. Oeceoclades tenera Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orch. Pl. 236. 1833. Cleisostoma tenerum (Lindl.) Hook.
f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 73. 1890
Distribution: Submontane and montane zones.
Tropidia Lindley
Edward’s Bot. Reg. 19: t. 1618. 1833.
* Tropidia bambusifolia (Thwaites) Trimen, SJ. Ceyl.
Br. Roy. As. Soc. 9: 90. 1885. Cnemidia bambusifolia
Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 313. 1861.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Note: T. bambusifolia (Thwaites) Trimen is an endemic
plant synonymised under T. thwaitesii Hook. f. in
World Checklist of Monocots (2007). No flowering
material has been deposited in Kew (Pers. comm., J.
J. Wood). When flowering and morphological
characters of the two taxa are compared, they can be
distinguished clearly as separate species.
Tropidia thwaitesii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 93. 1890.
Distribution: Lowland wet to dry zone.
Note: This species has been recorded from India (Rao,
1989).
Vanda Jones ex R. Br.
Bot. Reg. 6: t. 506. 1820.
Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don in J. C.
Loudon, Hort. Brit.: 372. 1832. Epidendrum tessellatum
Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1: 34. T. 42. 1795. Vanda roxburghii
R. Br., Bot. Reg. 6: t. 506.1820. Fig. 13
Distribution: Intermediate and dry zones.
English: Anuradhapura orchid, grey orchid
Sinhala: Rassana, Retta
Vanda testacea (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Gard. Chron., n. s.,
8: 166. 1877. Aerides testacea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.
238. 1833. Vanda parviflora Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg.
30: Misc. 57. 1844.
Distribution: Lowland wet, intermediate and dry
zones.
Vanda thwaitesii Hook. f. in H. Trimen, Handb. Fl.
Ceylon 4: 193. 1898.
Distribution: Lowland intermediate zone.
Note: This species was recently recorded in India (C.
S. Kumar and P. C. S. Kumar,1998). It was originally
S.S. Fernando and P. Ormerod 25
Figure 13.Figure 13.
Figure 13.Figure 13.
Figure 13. Selected colour varieties of Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don (all photographs by S. Gunasekhara).
26
An Annotated Checklist of the Orchids of Sri Lanka
described by J.D. Hooker (1898) from Sri Lanka using
two paintings at PDA and Thwaites’ description
(1864) but the original specimen (C.P. 3378) is believed
to be lost. It was originally recorded from
Hunnasgiriya area in Central Province. Since it is not
found from Sri Lanka it is believed to be extinct in
the Island (Jayaweera, 1981).
The appearance of this species can easily be confused
with the widespread V. tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G.
Don which has a wide range of flower colorations
and shapes. Yet, since the type locality has a
considerable amount of forest cover and habitat for
Vandaceous plants, we decided not to omit it from
the list.
Vanda wightii Rchb. f., Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 932. 1864.
Distribution: Not known
Note: This species was rediscovered after 150 years
from Karnataka and Kerala, India (Sathish Kumar et
al. 2007). There is one specimen from Reichenbach
herbarium, Thwaites C.P. 2346 at W collected from
Sri Lanka.
This species can easily be confused with the
widespread V. tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don.
Vanilla Plum. ex Miller
Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 1754.
# Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews, Bot. Repos.
8: t. 538. 1808.
Distribution: Cultivated in lowland wet zone.
* Vanilla moonii Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 312. 1861.
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Vanilla walkeriae Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(2):
12. t. 932. 1844-45.
Distribution: Intermediate and dry zones.
Zeuxine Lindley
Coll. Bot., App.: 1. 1826.
Zeuxine blatteri C. E. C. Fischer, Bull. Misc. Inf.
Kew:76. 1928. Z. flava auct. non (Wall. ex Lindl.)
Trimen Jayaweera, Rev, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 323.
1981.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Zeuxine longilabris (Lindl.) Trimen, Syst. J. Ceyl. Br.
Roy. As. Soc. 9: 90. 1885. Monochilus longilabre Lindl.,
Gen. Sp. Orch. 487. 1840.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
* Zeuxine regia (Lindl.) Trimen, J. Ceyl. Br. Roy. As.
Soc. 9: 90. 1885. Monochilus regium Lindl., Gen. Sp.
Orch. 487. 1840.
Distribution: Submontane zone.
Sinhala: Iru raja
* Zeuxine reginasilvae Ormerod, Taiwania 50 (1): 7.
2005. Z. regia non (Lindl.) Trimen: Jayaweera, Rev.
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2:320. 1981. Fig. 11f
Distribution: Lowland wet zone.
Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst.
45: 394. 1911. Orchis strateumatica L., Sp. Pl. 943. 1753.
Pterygodium sulcatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 45. 1832.
Zeuxine sulcata (Roxb.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. 485.
1840.
Distribution: Lowland wet, submontane and eastern
intermediate zone.
Acknowledgements
We like to extend our thanks to the following people,
the curator and staff of the Herbaria at AMES, BM, K
and PDA for permitting specimen reference; Prof. M.
D. Dassanayake, general editor of Flora of Ceylon
revision project and Dr D.S.A. Wijesundara, Director,
General National Botanic Gardens, Sri Lanka who
gave invaluable information for the work; R.
Govaerts, world checklist programme and Jeffrey
Wood, curator, orchid herbarium at Kew, Dr M. K.
Huda at Chittagong University, Bangladesh and Dr
R. Ganesan, ATREE, India, who provided necessary
literature support; Prof. Mark Chase and Dr Micheal
Fay at Jodrel laboratory, Kew, who gave us current
classification details and the Swiss Orchid
Foundation for important data provided; Dr C.
Sathish Kumar of TBGRI, India, who enriched the
contents of this contribution and continuously
encouraged us. Finally, we are grateful to the
following people for providing their excellent orchid
photographs (names in alphabetical order): Messrs
Imaduwa Priyadarshana, Kitsiri Gunawardhana,
Palitha Anthony, Preedep Samarawikrama and
Samantha Gunasekara. All other photographs are by
the first author.
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... Sri Lankan orchid diversity comprises 188 species placed under 78 genera, with one endemic genus; Adrorhizon Hook. f. and 55 endemic species (Fernando & Ormerod 2008). The most comprehensive treatment of Sri Lankan species of the genus Dendrobium was done by Jayaweera in 1981 and has revised the genus recognising eight species: Dendrobium bambusifolium Par. ...
... Recently the world checklist of selected plant families (http://apps.kew.org) has proposed synonyms for D. bambusifolium, and D. nutans. Three species; D. diodon, D. maccarthiae and D. panduratum are endemic to Sri Lanka according to Jayaweera (1981) whereas Fernando & Ormerod (2008) has reported D. maccarthiae and few subspecies of D. panduratum and D. diodon as endemics to Sri Lanka. ...
... The island is divided into three major climatic zones; wet zone, dry zone and intermediate zone considering the rainfall. Orchid diversity is highest in the wet lowland and montane forest while forests of the intermediate zone (submontane zone) harbour the country's richest orchid diversity (Fernando & Ormerod 2008). ...
... Among these species, orchids form an interesting group. Fernando & Ormerod (2008) have reviewed the contributions to the discoveries of new species in the national orchid flora by the past botanists and taxonomists. The botanist Paul Hermann (1646-1695) was the first botanist who made a collection of plants from Sri Lanka and made an impressive collection of dried plants and drawings. ...
... His collection included two orchids, Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. and Peristylus cubitalis (L.) Kraenzl., the very first Sri Lankan orchids made known to the world (Fernando & Ormerod, 2008). In addition, Konig (1728-1785) made collections of Sri Lankan native orchids and cited several specimens with their local names. ...
... A revision of the entire flora was initiated in 1968 and Martin A. Jayaweera (1912Jayaweera ( -1982 contributed to the revision of Orchidaceae. Fernando & Ormerod (2008) published an updated checklist using recent information of the orchids of Sri Lanka. They attempted to solve some nomenclatural problems, species ambiguity, recent distribution records and find out current endemic species. ...
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Together with Western Ghats, Sri Lanka is a biodiversity hot spot amongst the 35 regions known worldwide. Considering the Sri Lankan orchids, 70.6% of the orchid species, including 84% of the endemics, are categorised as threatened. The distribution of the family Orchidaceae is mostly correlated with the distribution pattern of the main bioclimatic zones which is governed by the amount and intensity of rainfall and altitude. Habitat deterioration and degradation, clearing of vegetation, intentional forest fires and spread of invasive alien species are significant threats to native species. Illegally collection and exporting of indigenous species has been another alarming issue in the past decades. Protection of native species, increased public awareness, enforcement of legislation and introduction of new propagation techniques would certainly bring a beneficial effect to the native orchid flora. Conduct awareness programs, strengthen existing laws, and reviewing the legal framework related to the native orchid flora could be vital for future conservation. Apart from the identification of new species and their distribution, future research on understanding soil chemical and physical parameters of terrestrial habitats, plant association of terrestrial orchids, phenology patterns and interactions of pollinators, associations with mycorrhiza, effect of invasive alien species and impact of climate change species are highlighted.
... The Asian continent is with the highest orchid diversity while Sri Lanka being one of the tropical islands in the Indian Ocean is rich in orchids having nearly 188 species in 78 genera with fifty-five endemic species and one endemic genus. Eight indigenous Dendrobium species; (Fernando & Ormerod 2008). Some of these wild species are very attractive in floriculture, with a high potential of developing as novel cultivars targeting promising features. ...
... Nomenclatural priority was given to Fernando & Ormerod (2008) over taxonomic literature on Jayaweera (1981) and world checklist of Orchidaceae (Govaerts et al. 2006). E. bicolor was selected as the out-group considering its suitability. ...
... The Dendrobium genus comprises more than 1000 species that can be either epiphytic or lithophytic with buds and aerial roots. It is the second largest genus of the Orchidaceae family and is widely distributed in China and many other Asian countries (Fernando and Ormerod 2008;Takamiya et al. 2011;Ng et al. 2012). Dendrobium plants are susceptible to many plant viruses, such as Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) (Hu et al. 1994;Sun et al. 2019). ...
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Dendrobium viroid (DVd) was first reported in China in 2020 and it is the only viroid known to infect Orchidaceae family plants. In this study, we developed a simple reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) method for the rapid detection of DVd in Dendrobium plants. When extracting the sap template from the leaves, they are first clamped between two layers of plastic film and the sap is pressed out and collected with a pipette. Using this sap, DVd was detected by dot‐blot and RT‐PCR methods, the expected amplicons was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The batch‐analysis of field samples revealed that this method can be used to detect DVd rapidly. The detection method also reduces cross‐contamination between different samples and minimizes false positives. Thus, this sap‐direct RT‐PCR method allows effective and rapid DVd detection in the study of Orchidaceae plants.
... Octarrhena is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia, Australia and Oceania from Sri Lanka to Fiji with the highest species diversity in New Guinea (Fig. 1). One species of Octarrhena was reported from each of Sri Lanka (Jayaweera 1981, Fernando & Ormerod 2008, Australia (Clements & Jones 1992, Backhouse et al. 2019, Fiji (Kores 1989, Smith 1991, two species from each of the following regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992), Sumatra (Schuiteman 1999, Comber 2001, Java , Schuiteman 1999, Borneo (Wood & Cribb 1994, Schuiteman 1999, New Caledonia (Morat et al. 1986), three species from Sulawesi (Schuiteman 1999), four species from the Philippines (Agoo 2007), and 39 species from New Guinea (Millar 1978, van Royen 1979, Schuiteman 1999, Schuiteman & de Vogel 2003, Cámara-Leret et al. 2020. Additionally, Govaerts et al. (2020) indicate Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu to be inhabited by some species of Octarrhena. ...
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... The study also unveiled the presence of a suitable habitat for the species in the central province of Sri Lanka (Note: Of the 16 georeferenced collection points provided for MaxEnt analysis, none was from Sri Lanka), which shows the presence of similar type of ecological niche on the island nation (Fig. 1D). After checking in the literature and herbaria's it was found that Fernando & Ormerod (2008) had reported the presence of A. elatus from submountane zone of Sri Lanka, based on Jayaweera's collections. The area is also known to be the type locality of Anoectochilus regalis Blume a species very closely allied to A. elatus. ...
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Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline drastically. Anoectochilus elatus, an orchid species is fragmentally distributed along South Western Ghats. As the habitat of the species is confined, the study aimed to identify the potential factors influencing the distribution of the species and determine suitable habitats for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. The results showed that its distribution was influenced by temperature, precipitation and elevation. Three new potential habitats were discovered for in-situ conservation of the species; two sites previously recorded were found to be under concern due to loss of habitat in light of climate change scenario.
... Study sites.-Information on the possible habitats of I. speciosa was compiled from published information and literature (Jayaweera 1981, Vlas & Vlas 2008, Fernando & Ormerod 2008, Fernando 2013). Based on compiled information, the surveying area was focused on the western slope of the Central Highlands, starting from Nawalapitiya in Kandy district (600 m a.s.l.) to a higher elevation in Ohiya in Badulla district (1850 m a.s.l.). ...
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The Daffodil Orchid, Ipsea speciosa, is a rare endemic terrestrial orchid species found in the highland grasslands of Sri Lanka. Due to the restricted distribution range, this species is considered as an endangered taxon. This study aimed to assess the present state of I. speciosa populations outside of protected areas. During field investigations of nine selected grasslands, the abundance of I speciosa and accompanying plant species composition was determined. The abundance of I. speciosa varied from 2 to 23 flowering plants per site. Species composition in study sites consisted of 41 plant taxa that included 12 invasive species. Habitat deterioration, intentional burning, clearing of vegetation, and spread of invasive alien plant species were found to be the most significant threats to highland grasslands and the orchid. During the survey, we observed the rapid spreading of invasive species in most of the sites which suggests that the terrestrial orchid population could shrink further. Apart from intentional burning, other serious threats to the orchids are various anthropogenic activities such as illegal collection for medicinal purposes and establishing timber plantations that negatively impact native grassland flora including terrestrial orchids. Our results suggest that a continuous monitoring program for I. speciosa should be initiated. Additionally, monitoring of potentially adverse anthropogenic activities is considered to be vital for the conservation of valuable grasslands and native flora of Sri Lanka.
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Despite advances in biodiversity exploration, the origins of Sri Lanka's fauna and flora have never yet been treated in a synthetic work. This book draws together the threads that make up that fascinating 100-million year story. Encompassing the island's entire biota while emphasising the ecology, biogeography and phylogeography of freshwater fishes, it provides a comprehensive context for understanding how the island's plants and animals came to be as they are. The 258-page text contains more than 200 figures, photographs and maps. It provides a clear account of how, when and from where the ancestors of the plants and animals that now inhabit Sri Lanka came. For the first time, the island's unique biodiversity can be understood and appreciated in its historical and evolutionary context in this invaluable sourcebook, designed for scientists, students and biodiversity enthusiasts alike.
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The South East Asian genus Pteroceras is taxonomically rivised, and brief accounts are given on cytology, phytochemistry, ecology, geographical distribution, and diagnostic aspects of morphology. Pteroceras belongs in that subtribe of the Vandeae which has traditionally been called Sarcanthinae (nom. illeg.) and which is here referred to as Aeridinae. 19 species of Pteroceras are recognized in this revision, while 31 formerly proposed taxa are excluded from the genus. 3 entities are treated as “doubtful taxa”. One new species (P. erosolum) is proposed as well as two new combinations (Macropodanthus membraniferus, M. teysmanii). An outline of the taxonomic history of Pteroceras is followed by a discussion of the circumscription and taxonomic position of the genus. It is not difficult to place Pteroceras in a system based upon characters which are currently considered important in the Aeridinae -but, on the other hand, it is also suggested that this system may turn out to be highly artificial. Concerning the future possibilities of creating a more natural system, therefore, several topics are suggested for further study in this subtribe.