ArticlePDF Available

INTERNATIONALISATION OF THE CURRICULUM AND INTERCULTURAL ENGAGEMENT - A VARIETY OF PERSPECTIVES AND POSSIBILITIES

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Internationalisation of the curriculum is complex and multi-faceted. This paper reports on research conducted in Hong Kong and Australia. A sample of staff and students involved in the same Australian degree in both locations were interviewed for insights into how they constructed internationalisation of the curriculum - what they thought it was, how they thought it could best be achieved and why they thought it was important. What they had to say was both predictable and unexpected. Using critical discourse analysis the implications of their perspectives for course and program development, for the professional development of academic staff and for student services are explored. The central role of intercultural engagement in the process of internationalisation of the curriculum is highlighted.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
INTERNATIONALISATION OF THE CURRICULUM AND
INTERCULTURAL ENGAGEMENT – A VARIETY OF
PERSPECTIVES AND POSSIBILITIES
Dr Betty Leask BA, Dip Ed, M. Applied Linguistics, EdD
University of South Australia
Internationalisation of the curriculum is complex and multi-faceted. This paper
reports on research conducted in Hong Kong and Australia. A sample of staff and
students involved in the same Australian degree in both locations were
interviewed for insights into how they constructed internationalisation of the
curriculum – what they thought it was, how they thought it could best be achieved
and why they thought it was important. What they had to say was both predictable
and unexpected. Using critical discourse analysis the implications of their
perspectives for course and program development, for the professional
development of academic staff and for student services are explored. The central
role of intercultural engagement in the process of internationalisation of the
curriculum is highlighted.
INTRODUCTION
One of the key challenges facing the global university community is the resolution of
contradictory images of the internationalisation of higher education. On the one hand we have
descriptions of approaches to internationalisation focussed on the preparation of graduates for
participation in an increasingly globalised society (Knight and de Wit 1995; Leask 1999;
Kalantzis and Cope 2000; Leask 2001; Leask 2003). On the other hand we have those who
argue that internationalisation in higher education is primarily concerned with the recruitment of
fee-paying international students by universities in the developed rich part of the world to the
immediate and long-term detriment of universities in the developing, poorer parts of the world
(Goodman 1984; Chitoran 1996; Hickling-Hudson 2000; Lee 2000; King 2001; Sharma 2002;
Yang 2002). There are also interim positions where it is argued that there are multiple agendas
(Knight and de Wit 1997; Gallagher 2002; Leask 2003; OECD 2004). The connections and
relationships between internationalisation and higher education are complex and this
complexity is reflected in the ways in which internationalisation is spoken about – the
discourses that construct it. Internationalisation defies orderly, organized and rational analysis.
Its meaning is not fixed, in place or time. On the contrary, different groups construct it
differently at the same time in the same place, at the same time in different places, and at
different times in different places.
This paper provides ‘snapshots’ of the experience of internationalisation through
internationalisation of the curriculum in different places and from different perspectives. It
strives for a deeper understanding of the complexity of internationalisation through exploration
of the construction of curriculum outcomes related to internationalisation in two different cultural
and educational contexts – Adelaide and Hong Kong. The research highlights the need to
embed and integrate intercultural learning into the culture of the university – to assist all staff
and all students to move into potentially uncomfortable intercultural spaces; to learn from and
with each other within those spaces; to challenge their stereotypes and prejudices and to move
2
on from them. It outlines an approach to professional development and student services that
provides multiple opportunities for this to occur.
BACKGROUND
Since 1996 seven Graduate Qualities have been used to assist curriculum planning and to
facilitate curriculum change in all undergraduate programs at the University of South Australia
(UniSA). To ensure that there is a correlation between the needs of the workplace and the
depth achieved in the broad range of skills demonstrated by graduates of different programs,
the balance of Graduate Qualities which will be developed in courses within a program must be
described as part of the program planning and approval process. It is also a requirement that
all Graduate Qualities are developed to some extent in all undergraduate programs. Graduate
Quality #7, which relates to the development of international perspectives, should therefore be
developed in all undergraduate programs, although it will be given more emphasis in some
than in others and may have a different focus in different types of program. Graduate Quality
#7 is the official representation of internationalisation in the curriculum and a range of
resources have been developed to assist staff and students to interpret this Graduate Quality.
The University of South Australia (UniSA) delivered its first ‘offshore’ or ‘transnational’ program
in Hong Kong over 10 years ago. Business Programs delivered in both Adelaide and Hong
Kong follow the same curriculum and require the same assessment tasks. They are delivered
primarily by Australian staff, but academic support is also provided by local tutors who act as
‘cultural translators’ for the content provided by the visiting Australian academics - the cultural
outsiders in the offshore location (Leask 2004). Such sites of interaction offer a rich source of
research data for the exploration of issues related to internationalisation of the curriculum in an
international and intercultural environment. This paper reports on one small research study in
this area, the findings of this study in relation to intercultural engagement and their implications
for professional development for academic staff and services for students.
The research study consisted of two small, related case studies of staff and student
constructions of Graduate Quality #7 (international perspectives) undertaken over a twelve
month period. Five focus group interviews were conducted with students and eight 1:1
interviews with staff. All those interviewed were actively involved in UniSA undergraduate
Business programs taught in Adelaide and Hong Kong. In Hong Kong the programs are offered
in collaboration with a local partner institution. In the Hong Kong case study staff employed by
the partner institution (referred to as ‘local tutors’), Adelaide-based staff who travelled to Hong
Kong to teach and Hong Kong based students were interviewed. In the Adelaide case study
domestic and international students and the academic staff who taught them (all of whom had
also taught in Hong Kong) were interviewed.
The case studies incorporated a number of data-gathering techniques in order to compare the
construction of internationalisation in Adelaide and Hong Kong - a complex issue with cross
cultural as well as physical, positional (staff/student) and personal boundaries. The main
source of data for the two case studies was the transcripts of the tape-recordings of the focus
group and 1:1 interviews. Sections of the transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using
an approach to critical discourse analysis informed by the work of Fairclough (1989; 1992) and
Foucault (1972; 1981). This approach allowed exploration of the connections, patterns and
recurring themes in the responses of staff and students in different locations to questions about
internationalisation of the curriculum.
The research question in each case study was ‘How do staff and students in this cultural and
educational context construct Graduate Quality #7 (international perspectives) and the roles of
teachers and learners in its development’. What did they think international perspectives were
and how would they know if they had developed them (students) ... or their students had
3
developed them (staff)? What characteristics would students who had international
perspectives show? How could the development of international perspectives be assessed?
What roles did teachers and learners play in the process of developing them?
The methodology provided opportunities for staff and students in both locations to speak about
internationalisation of the curriculum ‘in context’ at the local, personal and professional level.
The multiple perspectives gained in the case studies allowed triangulation of interview data
within and across the case studies. This assisted in clarifying the constructions of
internationalisation within each context and across positional, physical and cultural contexts.
WHAT ARE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES?
The way in which staff and students in Hong Kong and Adelaide constructed international
perspectives, the outcomes of an internationalised curriculum, in their discourse was very
similar. They were related to globalisation; concerned with understanding difference and
diversity and the role that culture plays in that and with effective communication with cultural
others. They were likely to affect the away students think and act. They were seen as complex,
multi-layered and multi-dimensional and therefore very difficult to assess. All involved in it
appreciated the complexity of internationalisation. For example, while ‘difference’ needed to be
understood on both a global as well as a local scale, this was not enough. Practical skills that
would enable effective communication at the local level in spite of fundamental personal and
cultural differences and contextual factors such as roles and responsibilities in the workplace
were also highlighted as being an important aspect of internationalisation of the curriculum.
Self-awareness was also said to be closely related to the development of an understanding of
difference. It was seen as developing concurrently with an understanding of others but also
enabling that development. The development of international perspectives was therefore
viewed as more of a personal integrative process than a set of ideas and/or skills able to be
transmitted generically - a process requiring considerable effort on the part of students and
particular skills and knowledge on the part of teachers.
THE ROLE OF TEACHERS
All groups interviewed constructed the role of the teacher in the development of international
perspectives in students as being primarily concerned with modifying and adapting the
curriculum. There was, however, variation in the way in which the different groups constructed
this curriculum adaptation.
The Adelaide-based staff highlighted the need for teaching staff to modify and adapt their
teaching style to suit the needs of different groups of students and different cultural contexts
(Hong Kong and Adelaide). In order to do this they require, of course, quite sophisticated
international perspectives themselves. Students were more concerned with content than
teaching methodology, with the provision of international examples, but they were also
concerned with the teacher’s role in changing the way students think. Students saw the latter
as an important outcome of the development of international perspectives related to personal
growth, respect and tolerance for difference. But it was also related to the ability to operate in
an increasingly globalised and multi-culturally diverse business world and the personal
application of complex perspectives within professional contexts. These perspectives highlight
how important it is that the internationalisation of content is not seen as an end in itself, but
rather as an end to a means – a strategy which will assist learners to become more aware of
their own and others cultures. However awareness is not enough, nor is tolerance and respect.
What students talked about was the ability to actively and effectively engage with cultural
others. Awareness, tolerance and respect are all important enabling factors of engagement,
rather than end-points.
4
For the local Hong Kong tutors the focus was very much on adapting the curriculum brought by
the Adelaide-based staff to the local Hong Kong context, providing appropriate Hong Kong or
Chinese examples to illustrate principles and theories and working closely with students to
encourage and coax them to change their thinking, to be more open, aware and understanding
of cultural others. Their role was thus constructed as one of ‘cultural translator and mediator’
(Leask 2004). The Adelaide-based staff who travelled to teach in Hong Kong saw their role as
‘teacher in Hong Kong’ as being different from their role as ‘teacher in Adelaide’. In Hong Kong
they were more concerned with coming to terms with the cultural context of the teaching and
learning environment than they were in Adelaide. They were very concerned with the need to
be flexible and creative in their teaching in order to meet the needs of the culturally challenging
learning environment in Hong Kong. And while this was also a concern in Adelaide due to
increasing diversity in the student population it was less of a concern than in Hong Kong. This
is more akin to ‘contextualisation’ than ‘internationalisation’ – adapting content and teaching
style to fit the local context, making it relevant and understandable to students, rather than
internationalisation of the curriculum.
THE ROLE OF STUDENTS
Both staff and students interviewed for the Adelaide case study saw all students, international
and domestic, as needing to develop their international perspectives and international students
as able to contribute positively to this process. All students from other cultural backgrounds,
whether they were enrolled in a program taught in Adelaide or Hong Kong, were also seen as
being able to assist staff to develop their own international perspectives, although much more
effort was put into this when staff were teaching in Hong Kong than when they were teaching in
Adelaide. Cultural diversity within the student body was thus seen as a valuable resource for
internationalisation of the curriculum. It was also, however, seen as requiring effort and
planning in order for the benefit to be realised.
THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERCULTURAL ENGAGEMENT
Academic staff believed strongly that they had learned a great deal from their teaching in Hong
Kong, that it had transformed them in some way and this was a significant part of this
experience. All said that teaching in Hong Kong had helped them to develop their own
international perspectives, both personally and within the discipline, as they were able to learn
from students. However this was a process that had required considerable personal effort to
deliberately create intercultural learning opportunities for themselves within and outside class.
Academic staff based in Adelaide and travelling to Hong Kong to teach are the cultural
outsiders in the offshore location. They are thus in a similar position to international students on
exchange in another country—they are strangers, foreigners, in the host culture. As for some
international students, for some teachers it is the first time that their own ‘taken for granted
culture becomes visible to them or they realise that other people hold stereotypes and
prejudices about them’ (Stier 2003, p. 80). The imperative to work towards intercultural
understanding in this situation is very strong. The interviews with Adelaide-based staff teaching
in Hong Kong indicated that teaching offshore is both an intellectual challenge and an
emotional journey, one which requires academic staff, as strangers in a strange land, to come
to terms with the perceptions that staff and students in Hong Kong have of them, with the
differences and similarities between Hong Kong and Adelaide that confront them and
challenge their stereotypes and prejudices, and which can lead to feelings of frustration,
confusion and disorientation. It was also a process for which there was no professional or
‘workload’ recognition and for which they felt unprepared.
Intercultural competence, the ‘understandings, competencies, attitudes, language proficiencies,
participation and identities necessary for successful cross-cultural engagement’ (Heyward
2002, p. 10) is a recurring theme in the discourses of internationalisation in higher education.
Definitions of internationalisation in higher education have repeatedly emphasised the
5
intercultural. The preparation of ‘faculty, staff and students to function in an international and
intercultural context’ (Knight and de Wit 1995), the process of integration of ‘an international,
intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of postsecondary
education’ (Knight 2003) stress the ‘intercultural’ as an important part of internationalisation.
The descriptions that academic staff gave of their learning experiences in Hong Kong were
descriptions of dynamic intercultural learning – processes and activities which developed their
skills, knowledge and attitudes and assisted them to relate, interact and function interculturally.
They then transferred their learning to their teaching in Adelaide, their intercultural learning
‘there’ thus enriching their teaching ‘here’, ‘at home’. This strong theme of teacher as
intercultural learner and, related to this, the need for teachers to be flexible and adaptable to
new cultural environments as higher education itself becomes increasingly ‘globalised’, has
implications for staff induction and professional development.
Intercultural learning and internationalisation of the curriculum
Intercultural learning is clearly an important part of internationalisation of the curriculum in any
context. Knight (2003) describes the intercultural as ‘relating to the diversity of cultures that
exist within countries, communities, and institutions’. Intercultural engagement and learning is
not, however, an easy thing to achieve. As Paige (Paige 1993, p. 1) points out, ‘professional
intercultural educators know that communicating and interacting with culturally different others
is psychologically intense’ and has several risk factors associated with it, including risk of
embarrassment and risk of failure (p. 13). ‘Intercultural education strives to develop critical
engagement, self-reflection and sensitivity towards any aspect of interaction and
communication between “self” and “others”’ (Papademetre 2003, p. 1). It involves the
development of understandings of how the languages and cultures of others influence their
thoughts, values, actions and feelings, and it is argued that this cannot occur unless we also
understand the ways in which our own language and culture influences our actions, reactions,
values and beliefs. This is complex and challenging and involves students and staff moving
into a ‘third place’ (Lo Bianco, Liddicoat et al. 1999, p. 13), a meeting place between different
cultures where there is recognition of the manifestation of cultural difference, and where equal
and meaningful reconstructive cross-cultural dialogue can occur. This place may be
simultaneously uncomfortable, challenging, enriching and exciting.
However, intercultural learning is often assumed to be an automatic outcome and benefit of
intercultural contact whether that be contact resulting from having a range of cultures together
on campus (AEI 1998, p. 2) and in class. The assumption is that proximity intercultural
contact intercultural learning/competence. Given that ‘Australia now has one of the highest
proportions of international students on campus of any country in the world’ (Smart, Volet et al.
2000, p. 9), we would therefore expect there to be high levels of intercultural competence
amongst the university community in Australia. However, research in Australia and overseas
into the interaction and engagement between different cultural groups on campus (Volet and
Ang 1998; Robertson, Lane et al. 2000) does not support the crude proximity intercultural
contact intercultural learning/competence equation. If intercultural learning does not occur
automatically as a result of intercultural contact ‘at home’ it is probably therefore unlikely that it
will be an outcome of offshore teaching for either staff or students without strategic
intervention.
A FRAMEWORK FOR STAFF AND STUDENT DEVELOPMENT
The relationship of international perspectives to ways of thinking and doing is multi-dimensional
and has implications for staff and students, for what is taught and how it is taught, for
professional development and for staff induction.
The development of international perspectives is complex and difficult, exciting and valuable
for staff and students. Their lives are busy. The development of international perspectives in
6
students requires strategic planning and particular types of support. Staff and students offshore
and onshore will have different needs at different times. The development of international
perspectives needs to be incremental and take account of the dynamic social, educational and
personal contexts within which staff and students work. A conceptual framework for the
development of teaching and learning services to assist the incremental development of
international perspectives in all students and staff is described here. It is built around themes
and sub-themes which emerged from the two case studies. The themes around which
professional development for staff is organised are ‘mirrored’ for student services – and these
services should be provided for all students – international and domestic students. The primary
themes for academic staff development are ‘teacher as intercultural learner’, ‘teaching as an
intercultural conversation’ and ‘teacher as manager of the intercultural learning environment’.
The primary themes for the delivery of services to students are ‘students as intercultural
learners’, ‘learning as an intercultural conversation’ and ‘students as managers of their own
intercultural learning’.
Table 1: A framework for staff and student development of international perspectives
Teachers as
intercultural learners
Teaching as an
intercultural
conversation
Teachers as managers
of the intercultural
learning environment
Students as
intercultural learners
Strategies for developing
intercultural and
international perspectives
in and out of class
Setting intercultural
learning goals within your
profession/course
Providing/using feedback
for intercultural learning
(students)
Learning as an
intercultural
conversation
Communicating effectively
interculturally in and out of
class
Making the most of
intercultural talk in and out
of class to achieve your
goals
Strategies to get the most
out of group work for
intercultural learning
Students as
managers of their
own intercultural
learning
Resources for intercultural
learning
Communicating effectively
across cultures in and out
of class
Assessment of
international perpectives
(staff)/ How will I know
how I’m going? (students)
The framework also identifies nine sub-themes associated with the six primary themes. The
sub-themes provide a conceptual framework for the development of workshops and resources
offered as part of induction, foundational professional development and ongoing professional
development for staff and, for students, workshops and learning support resources for
orientation, for integration into course materials and for continuous and end-point evaluation of
their development of international perspectives. In some instances resources could be ‘stand
alone’ (for example, a Teaching Guide for staff on Strategies for developing intercultural and
international perspectives in and out of class and a Learning Guide for students on the same
topic); in others the focus may be more devolved, such as integration of a range of suggestions
into course booklets for students and a range of Teaching Guides for staff around the sub-
theme of Making the most of intercultural talk in and out of class to achieve your goals. The
framework allows for all staff and all students to be supported in similar ways to achieve
incremental goals. However, the framework is not an end point – evaluation of the
effectiveness of the framework and the strategies which sit within it should be undertaken
regularly and used to review the provision of services to support the development of
international perspectives in all students.
7
CONCLUSION
Internationalisation of the curriculum provides challenges and opportunities for both students
and staff. Opportunities for transformational intercultural engagement with cultural others are
abundant in Australian higher education but the challenges are varied and complex. For the
challenges to be met, strategically planned professional development and student services for
all students and staff are needed. Services need to take account of the needs of students and
staff from diverse backgrounds working in diverse contexts and the complexities associated
with moving into a ‘third place’ – a meeting place between cultures, a place of challenge and
opportunity.
REFERENCES
AEI (1998). International Skills for Young Australians. Canberra, Australian International
Education Foundation in the Department of Employment Education Training and Youth Affairs:
22.
Chitoran, D. (1996). "Increasing demands and diminishing resources in higher education - The role
of international academic cooperation." The Courier ACP-EU(Sept-Oct): 56-58.
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. Essex, Longman.
Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge. London, Routledge.
Foucault, M. (1981). The History of Sexuality Volume 1: An Introduction. Harmondsworth,
Middlesex, Penguin.
Gallagher, M. (2002). Benefits and challenges of internationalising education. XIII triennial
conference of The International Association of University Presidents, Sydney.
Goodman, N. (1984). The Institutionalization of Overseas Education. Bridges to Knowledge -
Foreign Students in Comparative Perspective. E. Barber, P. Altbach and R. G. Myers. Chicago, The
University of Chicago Press: 7-18.
Heyward, M. (2002). "From international to intercultural: Redefining the international school for a
globalised world." Journal of Research in International Education 1(1).
Hickling-Hudson, A. (2000). The Future of the Caribbean University. The University in
Transformation: Global Persectives of the Futures of the University. S. Inayatullah and J. Gidley.
Westport, Conn, Bergin and Garvey.
Kalantzis, M. and B. Cope (2000). Towards an inclusive and international higher education.
University and diversity: Changing perspectives, policies and practices in Australia. R. King, D. Hill
and B. Hemmings. Wagga Wagga, Keon Pubications: 30-53.
King, K. (2001). Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise. Conference on
Higher Education and its socio-political context. Tilburg. 2003.
Knight, J. (2003). Updating the Definition of Internationalization. International Higher Education,
Centre for International Higher Education, Boston College. 2003.
8
Knight, J. and H. de Wit (1995). Strategies for Internationalisation of Higher Education: Historical
and Conceptual Perspectives. Strategies for Internationalisation of Higher Education. H. de Wit.
Amsterdam, EAIE.
Knight, J. and H. de Wit, Eds. (1997). Internationalisation of higher education in Asia Pacific
countries. Amsterdam, EAIE.
Leask, B. (1999). Internationalisation of the Curriculum: Key challenges and strategies. "The State
of the Art in Internationalising the Curriculum - International Perspectives" Seminar in association
with 'International Education: the Professional Edge" 1999 Australian International Education
Conference: IDP Education Australia, Fremantle.
Leask, B. (2001). "Bridging the Gap: Internationalising University Curricula." Journal of Studies in
International Education 5(2): 100-115.
Leask, B. (2003). Beyond the numbers - levels and layers of internationalisation to utilise and
support growth and diversity. 17th IDP Australian International Education Conference, ,,
Melbourne, Australia.
Leask, B. (2004). Transnational Education and Intercultural Learning: Reconstructing the Offshore
Teaching Team to Enhance Internationalisation. Australian Universities Quality Forum, Adelaide,
S.A., Australian Universities Quality Agency.
Lee, M. (2000). Chapter 16 The impacts of globalization on education in Malaysia. Globalization
and education : integration and contestation across cultures. N. P. Stromquist and K. Monkman.
Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield: 315-332.
Lo Bianco, J., A. J. Liddicoat, et al. (1999). Intercultural competence: from language policy to
language education. Striving for the Third place: Intercultural competence through language
education. C. Crozet, A. J. Liddicoat and J. Lo Bianco. Canberra, Language Australia.
OECD (2004). Internationalisation and Trade in Higher Education Opportunities and Challenges.
Paris, OECD.
Paige, M., R. (1993). Chapter 1 On the nature of intercultural experiences and intercultural
education. Education for the Intercultural Experience. M. Paige, R. Yarmouth, Maine, Intercultural
Press.
Papademetre, L. (2003). Division of Education Arts and Social Sciences, Internationalisation
Workshop Notes. Adelaide, University of South Australia.
Robertson, M., M. Lane, et al. (2000). "International Students, Learning Environments and
Perceptions: a case study using the Delphi technique." Higher Education Research and
Development 19(1): 89-102.
Sharma, V. (2002). WTO, GATS and the Future of Higher Education in India -II. People's
Democracy.
Smart, D., S. Volet, et al. (2000). Fostering Social Cohesion in Universities: Bridging the Cultural
Divide. Canberra, Department of Education Training and Youth Affairs.
9
Stier, J. (2003). "Internationalisation, Ethnic Diversity and the Acquisition of Intercultural
Competencies." Intercultural education 14(1): 77-91.
Volet, S. E. and G. Ang (1998). "Culturally mixed groups on international campuses: an
opportunity for inter-cultural learning." Higher Education Research and Development 17(1).
Yang, R. (2002). "University internationalisation: its meanings, rationales and implications."
Intercultural education 13(No.1): 81-95.
... Nesta linha, muito se discorre sobre a necessidade de "unificação" dos planos de estudo dos cursos universitários para facilitar a mobilidade acadêmica, mas também podemos considerar a diversidade dos planos de estudo como um fator enriquecedor da mobilidade acadêmica, ainda que constatemos uma certa reticência em não se alcançar os conteúdos normativos curriculares, no aproveitamento dos créditos e um certo temor em perder a própria identidade cultural ao abrir o currículo a outras formas de fazer e ser. Sobre as competências dos professores neste processo, tomamos como referência o estudo de Leask (2005), centrado nos professores internacionais e nas características que estes devem ter para promover a aprendizagem em contexto internacional e intercultural. A partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, a autora analisa a percepção dos professores sobre suas destrezas e as expectativas que os alunos tem com relação aos seus professores internacionais. ...
... Evidencia-se, pelo detalhe das respostas analisadas, que não houve, em nenhum caso, espaço para um intercâmbio cultural além de meras informações sobre serviços, a fim de comparar os sistemas. Este dado é relevante na construção de um currículo de formação de professores para a internacionalização, caso a universidade tenha a intenção de investir nesse sentido, conforme analisamos no apartado teórico, a partir dos apontamentos realizados no estudo de Leask (2005) sobre os professores internacionais como gestores de entornos interculturais. Neste sentido, poderia integrar o currículo do Programa de Atividades de Aperfeiçoamento Pedagógico -PAAP, que segundo a Pró-Reitoria de Graduação da UFRGS, proporciona aos docentes da UFRGS a possibilidade de formação continuada, a partir da reflexão de natureza didático-pedagógica acerca do fazer docente. ...
Article
Full-text available
To the developing countries, the internationalisation, educational as well, is a defying process to the sovereign insertion in a globalised world. Being academic mobility one of the possible ways to internationalisation, it becomes imperative to define the national and institutional objectives of this mobility, so that the criteria for this quality process could be clearly defined. In this paper, we will discuss this process highlighting the intercultural dimension in the academic mobility as one of its qualitative pillars. Beyond briefly commenting the academic mobility in Brazil and also in one of its major universities that is prominent in internationalisation policies, we will present an exploratory study that employed documental analysis and a questionnaire, designed to learn about students' satisfaction with mobility as well as the university's actions to promote academic excellence. Our conclusion is that the institutional actions that promote the quality of student incoming mobility in classroom as well as in other students' activities and academic extension programmes are fragile and incipient.
... Students' exposure to cultures different from their own would increase their awareness of diversity and inclusion issues. Thus, intercultural engagement and learning is necessary, yet cannot be easily achieved because it is complex and challenging as it entails understanding of how cultures and languages of others affect one's personal thoughts, values, actions and feelings (Leask, 2010). ...
Article
This paper investigates how courses and topics about diversity and inclusion are being integrated into the Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum among selected library schools in the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It also examines the characteristics and roles of culturally responsive LIS faculty in teaching cultural diversity-related issues. In addition, it discusses the approaches, challenges and barriers in advancing cultural competencies of LIS graduates. This study used a mix of qualitative survey research and content analysis of LIS course offerings. Findings show that ASEAN LIS education is inadequate in terms of integration of diversity and inclusion in core courses. Teaching cultural competence and diversity is a lifelong learning process of understanding and appreciating cultural similarities and differences. LIS students may develop their cultural competence through personal experience by engaging in library internship with all library types, community immersion and collaborative group work with diverse members. Infusing diversity-related issues and the principle of inclusion into the LIS curriculum is not easy, yet important and necessary.
... In addition, whilst theories about international education and the internationalization of the curriculum view transformative learning as being central (Bond .2 2003;Leask 2005), the majority of the literature on international students' g learning experiences tends to position this student cohort from a problem-based w vantage as opposed to transformative learning. In the media, international students •gjj are often constructed as 'commercial products' and their images are linked to b-l 'transformations' and 'contributions' to the institutions and host countries but W) ¦S predominantly in the economic sense. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
span style="font-size: 12px;">This chapter aims to explore the theory of transformative learning as a possible explanation for the changes international students make in their journey to negotiate higher education. The chapter is derived from a doctoral study that involved international Chinese and Vietnamese students' adaptation to Australian higher education academic practices (Tran 2007). Within this chapter, trans formative learning is viewed as a changing process in which international students construct reality through revisiting their existing assumptions and moving towards life-changing developments in their personal and professional perspectives (Cranton 2002; Mezirow 2000). It will be argued in this chapter that international students' process of negotiating higher education is a dynamic interplay between challenges and transformative power. Cross-border intercultural experiences are intimately linked to opportunities for self-transformation, and the challenging experiences that international students go through indeed foster the conditions for professional development and life-enhancing changes to take place. Given the current lack of theoretical and empirical research on the transformative power of international students, there is a critical need for more research on the trans formative characteristics of international students and how best to capitalize on their potential. In this chapter, I draw on excerpts from two rounds of interviews with individual international students to illustrate the specific ways in which international students have the capacity to transform their own learning and develop life-enhancing skills. The discussion shows that they experience evolution in professional outlook, attitudes and personal qualities through the process of critical self-reflection and adaptation to disciplinary demands in higher education. The chapter also highlights the contradictions regarding the discursive practices within the current context of international education export.</span
Chapter
The study is mainly based on a critical literature review as well as analysis of publicly available materials on the Australian Government's New Colombo Plan (NCP). The authors argue that the existing normative frames on outward student mobility (OSM), as reviewed through analysis of the Australian Government's NCP policy and the relevant literature, tend towards an unhelpful polarization that encourages a discourse. It is often fused with ideological elements imposed by institutional, government, corporate, and scholarly sources. It is difficult to locate literature which assesses the participating outward-bound students' voices and aspirations without prejudice. Thus, the existing normative frames covering OSM in Australian higher education require revision.
Article
Full-text available
Discutir competências interculturais na educação superior brasileira pressupõe um olhar para os aspectos culturais e desenvolvimento de competências nesse contexto, conceitos diretamente entrelaçados com discussões acerca da qualidade. A predominância de “formatos monoculturais arcaicos” que reproduzem diversas formas de racismo ou ainda um ambiente que se fundamenta em uma interculturalidade funcional nos instiga a nutrir reflexões sobre a evolução do contexto da educação superior na América Latina. Além disso, competências é um tema fundamental no ambiente educacional, visto que, preparar os discentes para o mundo global já é mais do que uma realidade. Essa pesquisa buscou analisar a percepção dos discentes quanto ao conceito de competências e competências interculturais e suas práticas em uma universidade pública brasileira. O caminho percorrido foi uma pesquisa de campo, qualitativa, estudo de caso, com uso de questionário e da Análise Textual Discursiva (ATD). Os principais resultados trouxeram confirmação teórica da predominância no Brasil do conceito de competências como input, o conceito de competências interculturais como uma ramificação deste e polissêmico, bem como os elementos (contexto, atores sociais e práticas) como essenciais para o desenvolvimento de competências interculturais na educação superior.
Article
Full-text available
Internationalization of curriculum (IoC) has garnered momentum, with many universities around the world now viewing graduate students as global citizens. One aspect of IoC that lacks clarity is the students’ perception of internationalization of graduate attributes. In this study, we explored graduate student’s perceptions of the graduate attributes that need to be included in the curriculum to become internationalized. Advanced stage PhD students (n=6) were interviewed about the relevance of internationalization of specific graduate attributes. A set of six specific questions were posed in the interview that was conducted as a group discussion and was recorded and transcribed. 5 out of 6 students observed that schools, faculties, and universities need to sponsor workshops and seminars regularly which will help students absorb attributes such as cultural and religious tolerance, societal awareness, stress management, building resilience which will help them fit well into any work environment. Another important factor was the need for more exchange programs and conference participation that will expose them to different work environments worldwide and help them recognize how their peers approach similar endeavors. Our study offers insights into what aspects of graduate attributes need to be addressed at the faculty and university levels to promote the IoC.
Book
Learning and Teaching Across Cultures in Higher Education contains theoretical rationale, resources and examples to help readers understand and deal with situations involving contact between learners or educators from different cultural backgrounds, as well as giving insights into the new global context of higher education.
Chapter
This chapter tells what was learnt when three instructors from the University of Pretoria were involved in the design, development and presentation of eighteen months of coursework for a Master’s degree programme in ICT for Education at the Sudan University of Science and Technology in Khartoum; and adapted a programme presented in one country to deal with the challenges of teaching at an institution thousands of kilometres away, where technological infrastructure, time, policy, language, religion and even the weather played an often disruptive role. Examples are shared to demonstrate how the instructors and students negotiated shared understanding of issues of teaching and learning, as well as the nature of learning tasks and assessment criteria in cross-cultural situations.
Chapter
Internationalization of the curriculum (IoC) has been widely discussed in the literature but there is little research regarding the link between internationalization and language policies in higher education institutions. This chapter offers a comprehensive literature review indicating there is a gap in systematic research on designing effective curricula which could be used to justify the need for IoC. In particular, the author discusses a preliminary questionnaire survey analysing students' opinions on the usefulness of a short English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course within the context of Erasmus teaching in University of Basilicata, Italy. The main findings of the investigation indicated that Italian and International postgraduate students showed specific preferences towards academic writing skills that need to be taught in short seminars giving prominence to guided teaching activities. Finally, the author offers some implications emphasising the importance of a careful examination of the process of internationalization and its relationship to the implementation of language policies within the departmental curriculum.
Book
Full-text available
----- Full access also available at: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED432918 ------
Article
Full-text available
Transnational or 'offshore' programs—those taught in countries outside Australia by Australian universities, usually with an 'offshore' partner—are an important area of international activity in which most Australian universities are currently engaged. Transnational education has grown rapidly from a 'cottage industry' (a few programs run for a few students by a few universities in a few locations) to 'core business' (an integral and important part of the program profiles of many Australian universities). This paper explores the relationship of transnational education programs to internationalisation and intercultural learning at the University of South Australia—a large provider of such programs around the world. It is based on a case study of staff and students in a business program taught in two locations—Hong Kong and Adelaide—which investigated their constructions of internationalisation. The paper argues that such programs provide a unique opportunity for teachers to become intercultural learners, learning which has the potential to enhance their teaching onshore, thereby improving the quality of 'internationalisation at home'.
Article
Full-text available
This article is a case study of how one university is internationalizing all its courses so that all graduates will demonstrate an international perspective as professionals and citizens. This focus on courses and their teaching, learning, and assessment promotes international education, multiculturalism, and the recognition of intercultural issues relevant to professional practice. The first section deals with structural options and pathways for course design when internationalizing curricula and the defining characteristics of such options. The second and final section of the article outlines ways in which an internationalized curriculum broadens the scope of the subject to include international content and/or contact and sets up teaching and learning to assist in the development of cross-cultural communication skills. Internationalizing university curricula is a powerful and practical way of bridging the gap between rhetoric and practice to including and valuing the contribution of international students.
Article
Full-text available
This article defines intercultural literacy as the competencies, understandings, attitudes, language proficiencies, participation and identities necessary for effective cross-cultural engagement. A new multidimensional and developmental model for intercultural literacy is proposed with reference to previous culture shock and cross-cultural adjustment models, and some implications for international schools are suggested. International schools, it is argued, are in a unique position to develop understandings and practice in relation to intercultural literacy. Not only can they do so—but they should.
Article
Full-text available
Essays concerning second language teaching as a means of promoting intercultural competence include: "Intercultural Competence: From Language Policy to Language Education" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat, Joseph Lo Bianco); "Linguistic Diversity, Globalisation and Intercultural Education" (Jagdish Gundara); "French Linguistic and Cultural Politics Facing European Identity: Between Unity and Diversity" (Genevieve Zarate); "A 'Syntax of Peace'?" (Joseph Lo Bianco); "Language and Intercultural Competence" (Richard D. Lambert); "Global English for Global Citizens" (Michael Singh, Linda Singh); "Questions of Identity in Foreign Language Learning" (Michael Byram); "From 'Sympathetic' to 'Dialogic' Imagination: Cultural Study in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Jo Carr); "The Challenge of Intercultural Language Teaching: Engaging with Culture in the Classroom" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Adult ESL: What Culture Do We Teach?" (Helen FitzGerald); "Teaching Conversation for Intercultural Competence" (Anne-Marie Barraja-Rohan); "Australian Perspectives on (Inter)national European Narratives" (Piera Carroli, Roger Hillman, Louise Maurer); "'Justification'--The Importance of Linguistic Action Patterns for the Success of Intercultural Communication" (Winfried Thielmann); and "Striving for the Third Place: Consequences and Implications" (Anthony J. Liddicoat, Chantal Crozet, Joseph Lo Bianco). (MSE)
Article
Full-text available
One of the major educational goals of the internationalisation of higher education is to prepare students to function in an international and inter-cultural context. Cultural diversity on university campuses creates ideal social forums for inter-cultural learning, yet, one of the most disturbing aspects of the internationalisation of higher education in Australia is the lack of interactions between local and international students from Asian backgrounds. This article examines the factors which students believe are affecting the formation of mixed groups for the completion of academic tasks. It also explores the nature of change in students' perceptions after a successful experience of mixed group work. The focus on both local and international students' appraisals of the situation highlights the two-way, interactive nature of group formation and shows how both parties share some responsibility in the lack of cultural mix.
Article
Full-text available
terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
Article
This paper sheds light on the pedagogical processes involved in intercultural study environments and their effects on students. Studying "abroad" or in an ethnically diverse context "at home" is described metaphorically as an academic, cultural, intellectual and emotional journey that facilitates the acquisition of intercultural competencies as well as personal growth. It is stressed that universities have much to gain from approaching internationalisation and ethnic diversity in an integrated fashion. The situational character of the teacher's role in this process is also stressed. The discussion arrives at an interactive model of intercultural learning.