Psychosis in Children With Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3440 Market Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Current Psychiatry Reports
(Impact Factor: 3.24).
05/2009; 11(2):99-105. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-009-0016-y
Velocardiofacial syndrome, now known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), is estimated to affect more than 700 children born in the United States each year. Some clinical studies have found increased rates of schizophrenia in adults with 22qDS. However, these studies have been limited by small sample size and possible ascertainment bias. The psychiatric disorders most commonly reported in children and adolescents with 22qDS have been attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, and major depression. Psychotic symptoms have been observed in 14% to 28% of children with 22qDS, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. A 5-year follow-up study of 22qDS children who reported psychotic symptoms at baseline found they had an increased risk for a subsequent psychotic disorder. Thus, a broad differential diagnosis should be considered when 22qDS children present with psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the full extent of the psychopathology associated with 22qDS.
Available from: Martin Styner
- "deletion but has also been reported in humans as a consequence of prenatal ethanol exposure . Individuals with DiGeorge syndrome and FASD also share a substantially increased incidence of depression and psychotic disorders , . Particularly notable are findings relative to schizophrenia, which is common in DiGeorge syndrome and also occurs as part of FASD , . "
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ABSTRACT: Prenatal ethanol exposure is the leading preventable cause of congenital mental disability. Whereas a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) requires identification of a specific pattern of craniofacial dysmorphology, most individuals with behavioral and neurological sequelae of heavy prenatal ethanol exposure do not exhibit these defining facial characteristics. Here, a novel integration of MRI and dense surface modeling-based shape analysis was applied to characterize concurrent face-brain phenotypes in C57Bl/6J fetuses exposed to ethanol on gestational day (GD)7 or GD8.5. The facial phenotype resulting from ethanol exposure depended upon stage of insult and was predictive of unique patterns of corresponding brain abnormalities. Ethanol exposure on GD7 produced a constellation of dysmorphic facial features characteristic of human FAS, including severe midfacial hypoplasia, shortening of the palpebral fissures, an elongated upper lip, and deficient philtrum. In contrast, ethanol exposure on GD8.5 caused mild midfacial hypoplasia and palpebral fissure shortening, a shortened upper lip, and a preserved philtrum. These distinct, stage-specific facial phenotypes were associated with unique volumetric and shape abnormalities of the septal region, pituitary, and olfactory bulbs. By demonstrating that early prenatal ethanol exposure can cause more than one temporally-specific pattern of defects, these findings illustrate the need for an expansion of current diagnostic criteria to better capture the full range of facial and brain dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It involves the loss of genetic material on the short arm of one of the chromosome 22 alleles. Until advanced testing was available, this syndrome was known by various names including
DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. This syndrome has a varied presentation with significant abnormalities including congenital heart disease, hypocalcemia, immunologic deficiencies, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. A multidisciplinary approach is required to
diagnose and manage the varied manifestations.
Available from: Michael G Elliot
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ABSTRACT: We used data from studies of copy-number variants (CNVs), single-gene associations, growth-signaling pathways, and intermediate phenotypes associated with brain growth to evaluate four alternative hypotheses for the genomic and developmental relationships between autism and schizophrenia: (i) autism subsumed in schizophrenia, (ii) independence, (iii) diametric, and (iv) partial overlap. Data from CNVs provides statistical support for the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia are associated with reciprocal variants, such that at four loci, deletions predispose to one disorder, whereas duplications predispose to the other. Data from single-gene studies are inconsistent with a hypothesis based on independence, in that autism and schizophrenia share associated genes more often than expected by chance. However, differentiation between the partial overlap and diametric hypotheses using these data is precluded by limited overlap in the specific genetic markers analyzed in both autism and schizophrenia. Evidence from the effects of risk variants on growth-signaling pathways shows that autism-spectrum conditions tend to be associated with up-regulation of pathways due to loss of function mutations in negative regulators, whereas schizophrenia is associated with reduced pathway activation. Finally, data from studies of head and brain size phenotypes indicate that autism is commonly associated with developmentally-enhanced brain growth, whereas schizophrenia is characterized, on average, by reduced brain growth. These convergent lines of evidence appear most compatible with the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia represent diametric conditions with regard to their genomic underpinnings, neurodevelopmental bases, and phenotypic manifestations as reflecting under-development versus dysregulated over-development of the human social brain.
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