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Neuropsychological Interpretations of Objective Psychological Tests

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... Two types of motor dexterity were assessed (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000): the gross movements of the fingers, hands, and arms, and the fine finger dexterity necessary in assembly tasks hands simultaneously as many pins as possible within 30 s. In the fourth trial, the participants used both hands in a continuous motion to create as many assemblies as possible within 1 min (Golden et al., 2000;Spreen & Strauss, 1998). ...
... Two types of motor dexterity were assessed (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000): the gross movements of the fingers, hands, and arms, and the fine finger dexterity necessary in assembly tasks hands simultaneously as many pins as possible within 30 s. In the fourth trial, the participants used both hands in a continuous motion to create as many assemblies as possible within 1 min (Golden et al., 2000;Spreen & Strauss, 1998). For the first two trials, the number of pins placed in 30 s was scored, whereas in the third trial, the number of pairs of pins placed in 30 s was scored. ...
... For the first two trials, the number of pins placed in 30 s was scored, whereas in the third trial, the number of pairs of pins placed in 30 s was scored. In the fourth trial, the number of assemblies formed within 1 min was scored (Golden et al., 2000;Spreen & Strauss, 1998). ...
Article
Objective: In Taiwan, caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs), with high caffeine but low alcohol concentrations compared to those sold in Western countries, are commonly consumed at work and have been associated with work-related injuries. However, the effects on cognitive and motor functions and self-perception have not been examined. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers (mean age: 32.6 ± 2.7) participated in the study. Each participant visited our laboratory 4 times at intervals of at least 1 week and was assigned to one of 4 trials in a counterbalanced order at each visit: placebo, alcohol, caffeinated energy drink, and CAB. They completed the subjective perception ratings, go/no-go tasks, Stroop color-word tests, Purdue pegboard tests, and the standardized field sobriety test. We used analysis of variance to examine the intraindividual differences in the performance. Results: Consuming alcohol of 0.23 g/kg typically consumed by Taiwanese CAB drinkers caused significant impairments in fine and crude motor functions; caffeine (1.5 mg/kg) did not antagonize these effects but led to an improvement in response speed in the go/no-go task. The subjective perceptions produced by alcohol were not masked by caffeine. Conclusions: CABs that contains a higher ratio of caffeine to alcohol did not counteract the motor function impairments induced by alcohol.
... Regardless of which account one prefers, one important implication is that children might be more susceptible to incongruity and interference effects than are adults (MacLeod, 1991;Wright & Wanley, 2003), for example because of differences in how their reading level relates to word meaning, or differences in the extent and control of semantic processes. Investigations comparing child and adult performance might therefore assist diagnosis of certain developmental impairments (e.g., dyslexia -Everatt et al., 1999;Faccioli et al., 2008;Wright, 2014), or even point us to key psychological Stroop processes that may lie beneath those developmental issues themselves (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000;Rand et al., 1963). ...
... Of potentially greater significance, such a comparison could reveal differences between children and adults which have not yet been demonstrated. In turn, such differences would pave the way for the use of dual/ composite Stroop tasks (e.g., mixed vs. unmixed conditions) to reinvestigate the associations between Stroop performance and the presence, severity, or even feigning of various impairments (Arentsen et al., 2013;Cannon, 2003;Golden et al., 2000). ...
... First, in contrast to Ikeda et al. (2013) and Penner et al. (2012) whose tasks were largely in the manual domain, Stroop's original task used verbal responses. Thus, vocal tasks in some sense may have the strongest claim to being Stroop tasks (Golden et al., 2000;MacLeod, 1991;MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). However, since one is hard-pressed to identify a robust child-adult study that assesses the Stroop interference effect (as distinct from the incongruity effect) on the more traditional vocal task, our first aim was to provide such a child-adult comparison. ...
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A rich body of research concerns causes of Stroop effects plus applications of Stroop. However, several questions remain. We included assessment of errors with children and adults (N = 316), who sat either a task wherein each block employed only trials of one type (unmixed task) or where every block comprised of a mix of the congruent, neutral, and incongruent trials. Children responded slower than adults and made more errors on each task. Contrary to some previous studies, interference (the difference between neutral and incongruent condition) showed no reaction time (RT) differences by group or task, although there were differences in errors. By contrast, facilitation (the difference between neutral and congruent condition) was greater in children than adults, and greater on the unmixed task than the mixed task. After considering a number of theoretical accounts, we settle on the inadvertent word-reading hypothesis, whereby facilitation stems from children and the unmixed task promoting inadvertent reading particularly in the congruent condition. Stability of interference RT is explained by fixed semantic differences between neutral and incongruent conditions, for children versus adults and for unmixed versus mixed task. We conclude that utilizing two tasks together may reveal more about how attention is affected in other groups.
... The contrast in findings may suggest that effortful retrieval demanded in recall is impaired in these patients, and that their performance is facilitated with specific retrieval cues and meaning. 31 In addition, impaired word list recall but not word pair recall may suggest an impairment in organizing information rather than an impairement in verbal memory per se. 31 Lower scores on word list recall at follow-up were not associated with seizure control or surgical status, which suggests that this course of development may be related to an underlying abnormal neural substrate rather than to the effects of seizures or surgical resection. ...
... 31 In addition, impaired word list recall but not word pair recall may suggest an impairment in organizing information rather than an impairement in verbal memory per se. 31 Lower scores on word list recall at follow-up were not associated with seizure control or surgical status, which suggests that this course of development may be related to an underlying abnormal neural substrate rather than to the effects of seizures or surgical resection. We are not aware of any other follow-up studies that have similarly found declines in word list recall among patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. ...
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Objective: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first two years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long-term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and four to eleven years after. Method: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05 [SD: 4.21] years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Verbal and visual memory were assessed at baseline and follow-up using standardized tests of recall of stories, faces, word-pairs, and word-lists. Results: Improvements over time were not found; outcomes were largely independent of surgical status. Those who were seizure-free at follow-up had better story recall at both times (p =.028), and did not show improvement. Among patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy, significant declines in word-list recall were found over time irrespective of surgical or seizure status (p =.010). Effects of laterality of seizure focus were evident only when examining patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); patients with left TLE had lower story recall scores compared to patients with right TLE at long-term follow-up (p =.043). Significance: Patients who became seizure-free had some advantages in memory, but did not show improvements over time. These findings have important implications for understanding potential outcomes from surgery or continued use of antiepileptic medications.
... performance, the patient will usually drag the same errors in the subsequent ROCF immediate and delayed recall scores, added to the possible memory errors that may arise. This would generally result in a similar or worse score in these following subtests [10]. It is unexpected to obtain a much better performance in ROCF immediate and delayed recall when ROCF copy is highly impaired (as shown in Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1). ...
... In the current study, the difference in the average GS values for both hands of pruners was 4.6% (Fig. 6.). This result does not comply with the general premise that the dominant hand should have a 10% higher grip strength than that of the nondominant hand (Golden et al., 2002). However, in their study, Ekşioğlu (2016) reported that the difference was 3% for males and 5% for females. ...
Article
Background;Winter pruning is an important procedure to sustain the yield and quality of vineyards. Pruning shears are commonly used in this stage. Handling pruning shears may cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Physical load on pruners at varying intensities and repetitive movements increase the risk of muscle strength and hand-wrist disorders. Grip strength (GS) is well accepted measure of muscle strength. The ambient temperature also affects pruners during winter pruning. Purpose;The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different type of pruning shears, working ambient temperatures, work experiences of pruners, anthropometric values of the pruners and working hours on the GS values of professional pruners. Methods;The study was conducted with the participation of professional volunteer pruners during winter pruning in Sultanas’ vineyards. The GS values determined from both hands of pruners in a group of rural workers (n = 18), was evaluated five different times during continuous 18 days of the pruning period. The GS values of pruners were measured using a digital hand dynamometer. The standard anthropometric measurement set was used to determine the anthropometric values of the pruners. Results;The average GS values of pruners’ the dominant and non-dominant hands were found to be 363 ± 89 N and 347 ± 86 N, respectively. Except working hours, all other parameters were found r-value and p-value” for correlation with GS. GS decreased with increased age (r = −0.473, p = 0.000). Furthermore, the effect of pruning shears on GS was statistically significant. For dominant hand, the highest GS was observed with the pruning shear with an anvil blade (386 ± 86 N); the lowest GS was observed with the pruning shear with a rotating lower handle (296 ± 55 N). Changes in the temperature of the work environment during a long pruning period had a significant effect on the GS values. The GS values increased with decreasing work environment temperature. Conclusions;GS values of the dominant hand had a greater value than that of the non-dominant hand which is reported in the literature. The study finding for anthropometric dimensions and GS values of pruners was significant. An adverse effect between work ambient temperature and GS values was revealed in winter pruners. GS values were not statistically significant, however, there was found slightly increasing and decreasing effects during the morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The type of the pruning shears affected the GS values. Relevance to industry;It is believed that the findings will inform ergonomists about the potential risk of MSDs during pruning. The results obtained in this study will contribute to ergonomic solutions in a new-product design, in particular choosing the more appropriate equipment to meet the needs of pruners.
... The Rule Shift Cards Test (RSCardsT) is commonly used to evaluate perseverance trends and the ability to switch from one pattern to another, by taking into account the errors and the time taken to complete the task involved. The performance profile is indexed to a score based on the number of errors and total time to complete the test 7 (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000;Wilson, Alderman, Burguess, Hazel, & Evans, 2003). The Trail Making Test (TMT) (Reitan, 1992) is a test divided into two parts: part A (TMTA) evaluates attention and processing speed, and involves sequential linking of numbers from 1 to 25, verbally; and part B (TMTB) that assesses the cognitive flexibility and sequential alternation. ...
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Postural instability is one of the most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease and appears to be related to cognitive deficits. This study aims to determine the cognitive factors that can predict deficits in static and dynamic balance in individuals with Parkinson's disease. A sociodemographic questionnaire characterized 52 individuals with Parkinson's disease for this work. The Trail Making Test, Rule Shift Cards Test and Digit Span Test assessed the executive functions. The static balance was assessed using a plantar pressure platform, and dynamic balance was based on the Timed Up and Go Test. The results were statistically analysed using SPSS Statistics software through linear regression analysis. The results show that a statistically significant model based on cognitive outcomes was able to explain the variance of motor variables. Also, the explanatory value of the model tended to increase with the addition of individual and clinical variables, although the resulting model was not statistically significant The model explained 25-29% of the variability of the Timed Up and Go Test, while for the anteroposterior displacement it was 23-34%, and for the mediolateral displacement it was 24-39%. From the findings, we conclude that the cognitive performance, especially the executive functions, is a predictor of balance deficit in individuals with Parkinson's disease.
... Furthermore, oxy-Hb changes in the PFC of responders to SSRIs with antipsychotics still showed smaller activation of the PFC compared to those of control subjects during the Stroop congruent task, although this task is easier than the Stroop incongruent task. The 27 and Shaywitz and Shaywitz suggested that attention function plays a role in reading. 28 Therefore, the Stroop congruent task might measure attentional function underlying reading. ...
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Objective We investigated oxyhemoglobin change in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) who showed different responses to pharmacotherapy during neuropsychological tasks with near-infrared spectroscopy. Subjects and methods A total of 42 patients with OCD (mean age: 35.6±9.6 years, 14 men, 28 women) and healthy control subjects (mean age: 35.4±9.7 years, 13 men, 29 women) were selected. Patients with OCD were divided into three groups (responders to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), responders to SSRIs with antipsychotics, and nonresponders to SSRIs and SSRIs with antipsychotics) based on pharmacological response. We investigated oxyhemoglobin change in the PFC of subjects during Stroop tasks and a verbal fluency test with near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Responders to SSRIs showed smaller activation compared to control subjects during the Stroop incongruent task and verbal fluency test, but not during the Stroop congruent task. In contrast, responders to SSRIs with antipsychotics showed smaller activation compared to control subjects during all three tasks. Conclusion Our results suggest that activation of the PFC during Stroop tasks might predict responses to pharmacotherapy of patients with OCD.
... The neurological motor evaluation included the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) [Trouillas et al., 1997], considered one of the most reliable semiquantitative ataxia scales used in clinical practice [Saute et al., 2012]. For neuropsychological evaluation, the following tests were administered: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for a global measure of cognitive function [Folstein et al., 1975], the Digit Span test [Blackburn and Benton, 1957] for verbal working memory, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (RAVLT) [Savage and Gouvier, 1992] for verbal learning, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test (RCFT) [Loring et al., 1990] for visuospatial abilities and executive functions, the Boston naming test [Nicholas et al., 1989] for measure of aphasia, the Trail making test (TMT) [Bowie and Harvey, 2006] and the Stroop test [MacLeod, 1991] for attention, the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) [Ruff and Parker, 1993] for visualmotor processing, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA) [Sumerall et al., 1997] for measure of verbal fluency, and the Stroop Color and Word test to examine the effects of interference on reading ability and attention and assess cognitive functions related to the frontal cortex [Espe-Pfeifer and Wachsler-Felder, 2000]. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) activity and motor and cognitive impairment in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: Twelve patients with genetically confirmed SCA6 and 14 age matched healthy controls were imaged with RS-fMRI. Whole brain gray matter was automatically parcellated into 1000 regions of interest (ROIs). For each ROI, the first eigenvariate of voxel time courses was extracted. For each patient, Pearson correlation coefficients between each pair of ROI time courses were calculated across the 1000 ROIs. The set of average control correlation coefficients were fed as an undirected weighted adjacency matrix into the Rubinov and Sporns (2010) modularity algorithm. The intranetwork global efficiency of the thresholded adjacency sub-matrix was calculated and correlated with ataxia scores and cognitive performance. Results: SCA6 patients showed mild cognitive impairments in executive function and visual-motor processing compared to control subjects. These neuropsychological impairments were correlated with decreased RS functional connectivity (FC) in the attention network. Conclusions: Mild cognitive executive functions and visual-motor coordination impairments seen in SCA6 patients correlate with decreased resting-state connectivity in the attention network, suggesting a possible metric for the study of cognitive dysfunction in cerebellar disease. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... The CVLT (Delis et al., 1987) is a measure of verbal learning and memory used extensively in clinical neuropsychology to assess short-term and long-term memory as well as executive functioning (Delis, Massman, Butters, & Salmon, 1991). Qualitative indices of learning and memory, such as learning strategies (e.g., semantic versus serial clustering), comparisons of types of errors (e.g., intrusions and perseverations), and effects of interference on recall can be assessed using this task (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000). The CVLT involves the oral presentation of two 16-word lists (List A and B), consisting of four sets of four words from four semantic categories. ...
Article
Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects’ memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.
... This is consistent with a disturbance in encoding or retrieval from memory but no deficit in information storage (Rodriguez, 2012). The problems in recall might be further compounded by a primary deficit in visual scanning abilities or limited analysis of the visual fields, leading to the omission of significant details and even whole sections of the figure (Golden et al., 2002). ...
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Objectives: Deficit in visuospatial functions can influence both simple and complex daily life activities. Despite the fact that visuospatial deficit was reported in schizophrenia, research on visuospatial functions as an independent entity is limited. Our study aims to elucidate the impact of visuospatial deficit in comparison with verbal deficit on global functioning and quality of life in the first psychotic episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (FES). The significance of clinical symptoms and antipsychotic medication was also studied. Methods: Thirty-six FES patients and a matched group of healthy controls (HC group) were assessed with a neuropsychological battery focused on visuospatial (VIS) and verbal (VERB) functions. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the cumulative effect of VERB and VIS functions, psychiatric symptoms (PANSS) and antipsychotic medication on global functioning (GAF) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) in the FES group. Results: The FES group demonstrated significant impairment both in VIS and VERB cognitive abilities compared to the HC group. Antipsychotic medication did not significantly affect either VIS or VERB functioning. PANSS was not related to cognitive functioning, apart from the Trail Making Test B. In the FES group, the GAF score was significantly affected by the severity of positive symptoms and VERB functioning, explaining together 60% of GAF variability. The severity of negative and positive symptoms affected only the Physical health domain of WHOQOL-BREF. The degree of VERB deficit was associated with both Physical and Psychological health. Although we did not find any relation between VIS functioning, GAF, and WHOQOL-BREF, a paradoxical finding emerged in the Environment quality domain, where a worse quality of the environment was associated with better VIS functioning. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the deficit in VIS functions is an integral part of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, rather than a side effect of symptomatology or antipsychotic medication. Moreover, VERB functioning was a better predictor of GAF and WHOQOL-BREF than VIS functioning. Given the findings of negative or missing effect of VIS deficit on WHOQOL-BREF and GAF, the accuracy of these measures in evaluating the impact of global cognitive deficit on everyday life in schizophrenia could be questioned.
... The pegboard consists of a board with two parallel rows of 25 holes, into which cylindrical metal pegs are placed by the examinee. The test involves a total of four trials [24]. The subsets for preferred, non-preferred, and both hands require the test person to place the pins in the holes as quickly as possible, with the score being the number of pins placed in 30 s. Purdue Pegboard trial number four was chosen as the representative clinical endpoint as it summarizes trial numbers 1 to 3 well by adding them up, and therefore should show the potential differences more clearly. ...
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A wide range of endpoints and methods of analysis can be observed in occupational health studies in the context of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Comparison of study results is therefore difficult. We investigated the association between different clinical endpoints and the presence of upper extremity WMSDs in a healthy working population. Furthermore, the influence of socio-demographic, work-related, and individual predictors on different endpoints was examined. Two self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 70 workers and employees. In addition, a standardized physical examination and an industry test were performed in this cross-sectional study. Correlations between WMSDs and clinical endpoints were analyzed with the Spearman method and prediction ellipses. Multiple regression models were used to study the strength of associations with a pre-defined set of potential influencing factors. The prevalence of WMSDs was 56% (39/70). Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score/pain under strain showed the strongest correlations with WMSDs. When analyzing the correlation between WMSDs and pre-selected predictors, none of the predictors could be identified as a risk factor. The DASH score remains a close candidate for best surrogate endpoint for WMSDs detection. Standardized analysis methods could improve the methodological quality of future occupational health studies.
... A socio-demographic questionnaire included self-report measures and a battery of pen-paper neuropsychological tests to assess executive functions: attention and working memory (Digit Span from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-WAIS-III), fine motor control, learning speed, stress flexibility (Trail Making Test-TMT) and executive functioning, abstract thinking and the ability to shift cognitive strategies (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST) (Cavaco et al., 2008(Cavaco et al., , 2015Fernandes, 2013;Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2002;Heaton, Chelune, Talley, Kay, & Curtiss, 2001;Rey, 1959;Tulsky et al., 2003). ...
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p> We examined the presence of the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and explored associations/correlations between sleep variables, anthropometric measures, cognitive performance, and psychological distress in severely obese patients. We also sought to verify the relationship between the Cognitive Reserve (CR) and the OSAS. Sixty-one patients who required treatment for severe obesity performed a neuropsychological evaluation and an overnight polysomnography. Most of the patients were female in the age group of 50 years. The incidence of the OSAS defined by Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was 65.6%. The Severe Apnea group was the biggest, with a statistically significant number of males, significantly higher anthropometric measures, and with a higher percentage of patients with low CR than the other groups . Cognitive performance was significantly affected by sleep parameters, sleep efficiency and REM sleep duration. Great daytime sleepiness and cognitive complaints were correlated with distress symptoms. The female gender, advanced age, the highest weight, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, and oxygen saturation significantly contributed to the onset of the OSAS. The incidence of the OSAS is higher in severely obese patients. Anthropometric measures, cognitive performance, and psychological distress symptoms are influenced by sleep parameters and sleep efficiency. There is a high percentage of patients with Severe Apnea and low CR. </em
... There is a need for more efficient and systematic methods of useful meme collection. The Jungian word association test may be an existing technique that may identify unconscious conflictual memes or complexes, and may deserve another look (Golden et al., 2000;Mohan, 2000). Computerized meme scan may be developed. ...
Book
Genes, Memes, Culture, and Mental Illness: Toward an Integrative Model Hoyle Leigh What produces mental illness: genes, environment, both, neither? The question has been asked in various forms, and answers debated, for many centuries. According to a groundbreaking new book, the answer can be found in memes-replicable units of information linking genes and environment in the memory and in culture-whose effects on individual brain development can be benign or toxic. The latest work from pioneering psychiatrist Hoyle Leigh, Genes, Memes, Culture, and Mental Illness reconceptualizes mental disorders as products of stressful gene x meme interactions, and introduces a biopsychosocial template for meme-based diagnosis and treatment. A range of therapeutic modalities, both broad-spectrum (e.g., meditation) and specific (e.g., cognitive-behavioral), for countering negative memes and their replication are considered, as are possibilities for memetic prevention strategies. With characteristic depth and accessibility, the author: Outlines the roles of genes and memes in the evolution of the human brain. Elucidates the creation, storage, and evolution of memes within individual brains. Examines culture as a carrier and supplier of memes to the individual. Examines the exchange of memes between the individual and surrounding culture. Proposes mental health as a democracy of memes within individual brains. Provides specific examples of gene x meme interactions that can result in anxiety, depression, and other disorders. Proposes a multiaxial gene x meme model for diagnosing mental illness. Details broad-spectrum and specific meme-oriented treatment strategies. Identifies areas of meme-based prevention for at-risk children. Defines specific syndromes in terms of memetic symptoms, genetic/memetic development, and meme-based treatment. For psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists, physicians, medical students, and graduate students interested in culture and mental health and illness, Genes, Memes, Culture, and Mental Illness will enhance their theoretical knowledge and daily practice as well as stimulate new discussion on some of the most enduring issues in their fields.
... The Purdue pegboard test consists of a board with two parallel rows with 25 holes into which cylindrical metal pegs are placed by the examinee. The test involves a total of four trials [8]. The subsets for preferred, non-preferred, and both hands require the patient to place the pins in the holes as quickly as possible, with the score being the number of pins placed in 30 seconds /assembly 60 seconds. ...
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This innovate ve interdisciplinary study deals with influence of fine motor skill level (finger dexterity) of individual on his measurement results in metrology practice. The main objective of this study was determinate fine motor skill level of individuals using a motor test. Further determinate the potential effect of different fine motor skill levels on accuracy of measuring using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper. Fine motor skill test and metrological test were implemented. Pursuant the results of fine motor skill test were probands divided into 2 groups. The groups are significantly different on accuracy of measurement (p=0,006). Pearson coefficient shows a significant correlation r = - 0.66 between the Purdue Pegboard test and a measurement error. Results confirmed that the fine motor skill of the upper limbs (especially finger coordination) significantly influence accuracy of measurement using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper.
... The cognitive functions that were previously reported to involve the thalamus, such as working memory, attention, and verbal fluency were tested using the spatial working memory (SWM) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (48). The number of participants with neuropsychological assessment data for each test is included in the Supplement. ...
Article
Background: Disruption in the thalamus, such as volume, shape, and cortical connectivity, is regarded as an important pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia. However, there is little evidence of nuclei-specific structural alterations in the thalamus during early-stage psychosis, mainly because of the methodological limitations of conventional structural imaging in identifying the thalamic nuclei. Methods: A total of 37 patients with first-episode psychosis and 36 matched healthy control subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity-based segmentation of the thalamus was performed using diffusion tensor imaging, and averages of the diffusion kurtosis values, which represent microstructural complexity, were estimated using diffusion kurtosis imaging and were compared in each thalamic nucleus between the groups. Results: The mean kurtosis values in the thalamic regions with strong connections to the orbitofrontal cortex (F1,70 = 8.40, p < .01) and the lateral temporal cortex (F1,70 = 8.46, p < .01) were significantly reduced in patients with first-episode psychosis compared with those of the healthy control subjects. The mean kurtosis values in the thalamic region with strong connection to the orbitofrontal cortex showed a significant correlation with spatial working memory accuracy in patients with first-episode psychosis (r = .36, p < .05), whereas no significant correlation between these variables was observed in the healthy control subjects. Conclusions: The observed pattern of reduced microstructural complexity in the nuclei not only highlights the involvement of the thalamus but also emphasizes the role of the higher-order nuclei in the pathophysiology beginning in the early stage of schizophrenia.
... The commonality of the errors across the number of tests may identify the impaired brain structures or networks. Qualitative analysis of tests with the definition of errors (Golden et al., 2000;Strauss et al., 2006) is widely applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment or neurodegenerative diseases (for instance, see Collie and Maruff, 2002;Thompson et al., 2005) that are also known to present with generalized cognitive deficits. The qualitative characterization of cognitive performance might be beneficial in addressing diffuse cognitive alterations presumably caused by the dysconnectivity of the distributed brain networks. ...
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The current evidence of cognitive disturbances and brain alterations in schizophrenia does not provide the plausible explanation of the underlying mechanisms. Neuropsychological studies outlined the cognitive profile of patients with schizophrenia, that embodied the substantial disturbances in perceptual and motor processes, spatial functions, verbal and non-verbal memory, processing speed and executive functioning. Standardized scoring in the majority of the neurocognitive tests renders the index scores or the achievement indicating the severity of the cognitive impairment rather than the actual performance by means of errors. At the same time, the quantitative evaluation may lead to the situation when two patients with the same index score of the particular cognitive test, demonstrate qualitatively different performances. This may support the view why test paradigms that habitually incorporate different cognitive variables associate weakly, reflecting an ambiguity in the interpretation of noted cognitive constructs. With minor exceptions, cognitive functions are not attributed to the localized activity but eventuate from the coordinated activity in the generally dispersed brain networks. Functional neuroimaging has progressively explored the connectivity in the brain networks in the absence of the specific task and during the task processing. The spatio-temporal fluctuations of the activity of the brain areas detected in the resting state and being highly reproducible in numerous studies, resemble the activation and communication patterns during the task performance. Relatedly, the activation in the specific brain regions oftentimes is attributed to a number of cognitive processes. Given the complex organization of the cognitive functions, it becomes crucial to designate the roles of the brain networks in relation to the specific cognitive functions. One possible approach is to identify the commonalities of the deficits across the number of cognitive tests or, common errors in the various tests and identify their common “denominators” in the brain networks. The qualitative characterization of cognitive performance might be beneficial in addressing diffuse cognitive alterations presumably caused by the dysconnectivity of the distributed brain networks. Therefore, in the review, we use this approach in the description of standardized tests in the scope of potential errors in patients with schizophrenia with a subsequent reference to the brain networks.
... These structural brain alterations have been reported previously 19 . For example, McDonald and colleagues found that the GM density was not significantly changed in breast cancer patients before chemotherapy but showed decreased GM density in bilateral MFG and cerebellum after 1 month of chemotherapy 20 . We also found that decreased gray matter density in the right MFG was correlated with impaired verbal fluency performance in the breast cancer group. ...
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To investigate chemotherapy dosage-related cognitive impairment and its neural mechanisms in breast cancer (BC) patients. Twenty-eight breast cancer patients after each chemotherapy cycle and matched 29 healthy control subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed to compare group differences in the gray matter for the whole brain. Furthermore, mediation analysis was conducted to explore the role of brain structures in chemotherapy dosage-related cognitive impairment. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in gray matter for the whole brain of BC patients after chemotherapy. The results revealed that the gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right fusiform area, and bilateral cerebellum was decreased in the BC patients compared to controls. The number of chemotherapy cycles was negatively associated with general cognitive capacity, verbal fluency and digit span performance in the BC patients. In addition, decreased gray matter density in the right middle frontal gyrus could mediate the chemotherapy dosage effects on verbal fluency performance. These findings indicate that the dose-response relationship between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment may depend on the decreases in gray matter density of the frontal cortical structures.
... We also found a significant effect of hand dominance asymmetry, in which the dominant hand was significantly stronger than the non-dominant hand in both sexes, with an average difference being slightly higher for males (5.5%) than for females (4.2%) across all age categories. These mean differences were lower than the reported average of 10% higher grip strength for the dominant hand compared with the non-dominant hand for both sexes reported in previous studies [61,74,87]. Interestingly, we found that the difference in hand strength between the hands seemed to vary with age in both sexes (Table S1), but the differences were not significant. ...
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Although hand grip strength is critical to the daily lives of humans and our arboreal great ape relatives, the human hand has changed in form and function throughout our evolution due to terrestrial bipedalism, tool use, and directional asymmetry (DA) such as handedness. Here we investigate how hand form and function interact in modern humans to gain an insight into our evolutionary past. We measured grip strength in a heterogeneous, cross-sectional sample of human participants (n = 662, 17 to 83 years old) to test the potential effects of age, sex, asymmetry (hand dominance and handedness), hand shape, occupation, and practice of sports and musical instruments that involve the hand(s). We found a significant effect of sex and hand dominance on grip strength, but not of handedness, while hand shape and age had a greater influence on female grip strength. Females were significantly weaker with age, but grip strength in females with large hands was less affected than those with long hands. Frequent engagement in hand sports significantly increased grip strength in the non-dominant hand in both sexes, while only males showed a significant effect of occupation, indicating different patterns of hand dominance asymmetries and hand function. These results improve our understanding of the link between form and function in both hands and offer an insight into the evolution of human laterality and dexterity.
... The pegboard consists of a board with two parallel rows of 25 holes each into which cylindrical metal pegs are placed by the examinee. The test involves a total of four trials [22]. The subsets for preferred, non-preferred, and both hands require the test person to place the pins in the holes as quickly as possible, with the score being the number of pins placed in 30 sec. ...
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Background To investigate the association between different clinical endpoints and the presence of upper extremity work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in a healthy working population. Furthermore, the influence of socio-demographic, work-related and individual predictors on different endpoints was examined.Methods Two self-completion questionnaires were administered to 70 workers and employees. In addition, a standardized physical examination and an industry test were performed in this cross-sectional study. Correlations between WMSDs and clinical endpoints were analysed with the Spearman method. Depending on the type of dependent endpoint, linear or logistic multivariate regression models were used to study the strength of associations with a pre-defined set of potential influencing factors.ResultsThe prevalence of WMSDs was 56% (39/70). Correlations between WMSDs and the DASH score / pain under strain (VAS) were by far the strongest ones. Independent predictors could not be identified as risk factors for WMSDs, but there was some correlation between these factors.Conclusions The DASH score, used in the primary analysis of the study data, remains a close candidate for best surrogate endpoint for WMSD detection. The VAS has to be examined for this role in further research. Our analysis should help to improve the methodological quality of future occupational health studies through improved standards.Trial registrationThis study was registered at ClinicalTrials.org with the identifier NCT03014128, on January 9, 2017.
... Les principales tâches de fluence sont : la fluence sémantique (produire des exemplaires d'une catégorie sémantique, par exemple les animaux) ; la fluence alphabétique (ou formelle ou phonologique ou orthographique) (produire des mots débutant par une lettre, par exemple la lettre p) ; la fluence alternée (tâche la plus chargée en fonctions exécutives et sollicitant le plus les ressources d'attention). Dans la SEP, la fluence peut être évaluée par différents tests : Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) [67] ou plutôt Word List Generation (WLG) qui évaluent la production de mots commençant par une lettre imposée (en français, sont validées les lettres P, R et V). ...
Article
Résumé Les troubles cognitifs sont fréquents chez les patients atteints de sclérose en plaques, avec des degrés d’intensité divers. Ils peuvent impacter de manière significative la vie quotidienne et professionnelle des patients, ainsi que leur qualité de vie. Le dépistage de ces troubles est donc important et les neurologues doivent s’investir dans leur évaluation afin de proposer une prise en charge adaptée. Les liens entre cognition et comportement sont souvent intriqués. Il peut être utile de rappeler le vocabulaire neuropsychologique définissant les différents symptômes les plus souvent observés dans la sclérose en plaques. Ceci permet aussi de visiter clinique et anatomie. Nous proposons un lexique qui définit 118 termes susceptibles d’aider les neurologues dans la compréhension des troubles de la cognition et du comportement chez leurs patients, de faciliter leur écoute dans un entretien, de prescrire quand il le faut une expertise de première ligne ou plus spécialisée, de lire des travaux scientifiques où ces données sont de plus en plus citées et de communiquer en utilisant un vocabulaire commun.
... EF measures were grouped according to the hypothetical common underlying cognitive process [66,67,68]. Table 1 shows a summary of performance-based EF measures, score type, factor loadings and percentage of variance explained by each cognitive domain. ...
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Certain personality traits and cognitive domains of executive functions (EF) are differentially related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adolescents. This study aimed to analyze the five-factor model (FFM) personality characteristics in adolescents with ADHD, and to examine whether EF mediate the relationships between FFM personality traits and ADHD symptoms. A comprehensive diagnostic assessment, including ADHD clinical interviews, ADHD rating scales, neuropsychological EF testing (i.e., working memory, flexibility and inhibition) and a personality assessment was carried out in a sample of 118 adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 control participants, 68% males), aged 12 to 16 years, and their parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD had lower scores than control participants on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and higher scores on Neuroticism. Structural equation models (SEM) showed that Conscientiousness directly influenced inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, while Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Extraversion directly affected hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Only Conscientiousness exerted indirect effects on inattention, but not on hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, via EF; higher scores on Conscientiousness were related to higher scores on EF, which in turn were related to lower scores on inattentive symptoms. These findings corroborate the relationships between ADHD symptoms, FFM personality traits and EF and indicate the mediating effect of EF on the relationship between Conscientiousness and inattention.
... Five of these tests (Trailmaking: Part B, Digit Symbol and Digit Span subtests from the W AIS , Grooved Pegboard and Finger Tapping) have been described previously and the changes in each analyzed over the first year of CAPD (1). The remaining three tests (Trail-making: Part A; the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test; and the Benton Visual Retention Test (4) have been added to the battery recently. ...
Article
This paper describes a method used to assess cognitive dysfunction (and hence neurotoxicity) in individual CAPD patients. An “impairment index” ranging from 0.0 (no impairment) to 1.0 (severe impairment), was calculated on the basis of a patient's performance on eight short psychometric tests. Findings suggested that the index is sensitive to organic changes in renal patients and that it is not strongly influenced by emotional or psychosocial factors. Some distinct subgroups of patients have been identified according to the degree of initial (pre-treatment) dysfunction; one of these subgroups appears to have a poor prognosis.
... The pegboard consists of a board with two parallel rows of 25 holes each into which cylindrical metal pegs are placed by the examinee. The test involves a total of four trials [32]. The subsets for preferred, non-preferred, and both hands require the patient to place the pins in the holes as quickly as possible, with the score being the number of pins placed in 30 s. ...
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To assess the prevalence of upper extremity work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among surgical device mechanics compared to a control group, a total of 70 employees were included and assigned to three occupational groups (grinders, packers, and control). Personal factors, work exposure, manual skill, and complaints were assessed by two self-administered questionnaires and an industry test. WMSDs were diagnosed in a standardised clinical examination. The two-one-sided t-tests (TOST) procedure was used to test the clinical equivalence of the respective grinding and packaging groups vs. the control group in terms of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score. Thirty-nine study participants (56%) experienced at least one WMSD at the elbow, forearm, and/or wrist, mainly with signs of epicondylitis and nerve entrapment at the medial elbow. The risk of grinders developing upper extremity WMSD was about 2.5-times higher and packers had an 8.6-fold higher risk of a clinically relevant DASH > 29 compared to the control group. However, these differences were not statistically significant. The groups were also proven to be clinically equivalent in terms of DASH score. Surgical device mechanics do not seem to have worse DASH values or be at higher risk of upper limb WMSDs compared to a control group. This is the first study to analyse and compare different workplaces in this industry that are also common in other industries.
... A sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire to collect personal and social characteristics and relevant clinical data was administered. A paper and pencil neuropsychological battery of evaluations was given to assess the following: attention and working memory [Wechsler Intelligence Digit Span for Adults (WAIS)-III] 30 ; fine motor control and learning speed (digit symbol from the WAIS-III) 31 ; processing speed (search symbol from the WAIS-III) 30 ; level of education, culture and acquired knowledge (vocabulary from the WAIS-III) 30 ; perceptual/visuospatial ability [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Rey Figure (RCF)] 32 (Fig. 1); retention, consolidation, storage, and retrieval of verbal information and episodic memory [ (Fig. 2). ...
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Introduction: Obesity is a significant risk factor for multiple comorbidities, and its relation to neurocognitive disfunction is particularly important in cognitive decline, especially in middle age. Due to their impact on neurodegeneration, we sought to explore neuropsychological profile, cognitive reserve and emotional distress in patients with severe obesity. Material and methods: We used a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, neuropsychological tests and a symptom self-reported scale of emotional distress. We evaluated the cognitive performance of 120 patients, aged between 18 and 65 years, in treatment for their severe obesity in Portugal, between May 2012 and December 2015. Results: Cognitive performance was below the mean for the Portuguese population, for immediate recall, visuoperception, resistance to interference and cognitive flexibility. Cognitive reserve was mostly low, especially in the older groups and groups with low professional status and increased associated with better cognitive outcomes. Emotional distress was shown to be higher in our sample compared with a normative sample. The risk factors evaluated were important in the worsening of cognitive functions. Cognitive performance decreased with age. Discussion: Severe obesity was associated with a poorer cognitive performance of the sample. The cognitive reserve was greater in the younger groups. There was a significant presence of emotional distress, especially among women. Conclusion: Severe obesity is associated with an impairment in cognitive and emotional performance, aggravated by aging, cognitive reserve, and comorbidity. This study emphasizes the need for preventive actions, such as neuropsychological screening, in the detection of changes and the design of better interventions.
... Регуляторные функции и рабочую память оценивали при помощи следующих когнитивных тестов: Кембриджская нейропсихологическая тест-батарея (CANTAB) [60], тест n-back [61], тест вербальной беглости (COWAT) [62], тест словесно-цветовой интерференции Струпа (Stroop Color-Word Interference Test) [63], Trail Making Test (TMT) и висконсинский тест сортировки карточек (WCST). Внимание исследовали при помощи вербального и визуального тестов, теста непрерывности работы (CPT) [64], теста оценки устойчивости внимания из батареи CANTAB [60] и теста возможностей внимания (TAP) [65]. ...
Article
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a relatively new method of non-invasive therapy of mental and neurological diseases that has great potential of therapeutic and diagnostic application. In schizophrenia, TMS may exert a positive effect on cognitive deficit. However this issue remains open. The authors analyze recent studies focused on the dynamics of neurocognitive deficit in TMS therapy and consider clinical effects of TMS in schizophrenia. The analysis has shown that TMS is successfully implemented in treatment of auditory positive symptoms and studies on its effect on negative symptoms of schizophrenia are perspective. Procognitive effect was found in working memory domain, and partially in perception domain within the perception of faces and facial expressions. The data on regulative functions, attention, speech, and nondeclarative memory remains controversial. It has been concluded that further research is needed to clarify the place of TMS in schizophrenia therapy.
... The SI test has been widely used to examine frontal dysfunction, both in patients with focal frontal lesions and those without [41,55,[59][60][61][62][63]. However, our current results indicate that, compared to SI interference, RI interference is more closely related to activity in the prefrontal and cingulate cortices. ...
... The RAVLT is a well-validated, list-learning measure of verbal memory and is one of the most commonly used memory assessment tools in applied settings (Rabin, Barr, & Burton, 2005). The RAVLT was selected for the present study as it is often considered a "purer" measure of verbal memory (Golden, Espe-Pfeifer, & Wachsler-Felder, 2000). Because the word list cannot be categorized in any meaningful way (as with other list-learning tasks), the examinee is unable to rely on executive compensatory strategies. ...
Article
Subjective cognitive complaints increase with age. Although subjective cognitive difficulties have been linked to cognitive impairment and psychological distress, some studies have failed to establish a link between subjective cognitive complaints and present or future cognitive impairment. The present study examined the interactive, longitudinal effects of age, psychological distress, and objective cognitive performance on subjective cognitive function. Older adults (N = 147, M<sub>age</sub> = 74.17) were assessed biannually for up to 6 years. Subjective cognitive function, psychological distress, and neuropsychological testing were obtained at each assessment. In multilevel models with single predictors, age, poorer average task-switching, and poorer memory predicted worse subjective cognitive functioning. Both average levels and within-person deviations in distress predicted worse subjective cognitive function. There were two significant interactions: one between average distress and chronological age, and the other between average memory and within-person distress. Task switching performance and distress had an additive effect on subjective cognitive function. Both individual differences (i.e., between-person differences) and fluctuations over time (i.e., within-person changes) contributed to worse subjective cognitive function. Psychological distress may help explain the relationship between objective cognitive performance and subjective cognitive function and should be assessed when patient concerns about cognitive functioning arise.
Chapter
Historically, research efforts have been lacking in the investigation of age-related changes in the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive adaptation of mentally retarded adults. Much remains unknown about how the central nervous system (CNS) ages in this population (Wisniewski & Merz, 1985). While nearly 25 years of effort have been directed at elucidating aspects of cognitive development in mentally retarded children (Hodapp & Zigler, 1995), research on the effects of aging has been limited to the last 10 years.
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Aim: The prevalence of obesity has been steadily increasing and is a major worldwide public health problem. It is associated with multiple medical and psychological conditions and recent research supports a link to several cognitive deficit domains, including executive functioning. The aim of this article is to describe socio-demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of a sample of candidates for bariatric surgery (BS) and to compare their performance with normative values. Method: Between May 2012 and May 2013 we evaluated the neuropsychological performance of 42 patient candidates for BS at the Morbid Obesity Consultation at Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte (CHLN). Results: The population was predominantly female and education was equally distributed between basic, secondary and tertiary levels. The neuropsychological results showed a significant decrease on Recall (p < .01), Learning (p < .10), Nonverbal Memory (p < .001), Cognitive Flexibility (p < .01) and Resistance to Interference (p < .05). Conclusion: Despite the limitations inherent to a small sample, the results obtained in the Portuguese population coincide with those of earlier studies; namely that obesity differentially effects instrumental functions.
Chapter
Anxiety disorders are far more prevalent than any other mental health disorder in the United States, including depression and substance abuse (Barlow, 1988). Despite this fact, neuropsychological investigations of anxiety-based disorders in humans are only beginning to be undertaken. This reflects, in part, the changing conceptualization of the nature of anxiety disorders and the ongoing efforts to refine further their diagnostic classification system (viz., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). The absence of a unified conceptual framework and the ongoing development of a diagnostic classification system have imposed serious limitations on an examination of the human neuropsychological aspects of the anxiety disorders.
Article
Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.
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Trough a functional approach of memory, Nairne, Thompson and Pandeirada (2007) investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information. The authors found, trough a task of rating words in different scenarios that participants showed higher levels of memorization when words are rated in a survival scenario, comparatively to others deep processing control conditions. In this investigation, we looked up to replicate the survival processing effect in a sample of older adults with a clinical diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In an incidental learning task, twenty participants with MCI and the same number of healthy older adults participants were asked to rate common nouns for their relevance in a survival scenario in and in a control condition concerning a home changing scenario. When the recall of the rated words was requested, MCI participants and controls showed higher levels of retention of the words rated in the survival condition. These findings suggest that memory systems would be “tuned” to remember informations that are processed for fitness, perhaps as a result of survival advantages accrued in an ancestral past. Offering higher levels of retention, even in older adults with cognitive decline, the survival processing may be one of the best encoding procedures yet discovered in the memory field. Additionally, the clinical and control groups were studied in concern to the cognitive functioning and there were found statistically significant differences between both groups in the following cognitive functions: processing speed, crystallized intelligence, attention, executive functions, g factor (mental energy), fluid intelligence, reasoning and visual-perceptual skills. Overall, there were also found moderate and high values of correlation between episodic memory tasks, speed of processing and verbal working memory/executive functions, in both groups.
Chapter
When school-aged children are referred to the clinician for diagnosis, it is helpful to assess educational achievement since often academic problems are associated with a broad range of behavioral dysfunction.1 Assessing performance in school subject areas is also important in monitoring a child’s learning progress as well as in preparing school programs or interventions. Achievement tests attempt to measure the effects of a relatively standardized set of academic experiences such as that obtained in the public school system. This is in contrast to readiness tests, for example, the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, which try to predict how well prepared a child might be for school.2
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Um die Wirksamkeit von Nootropika beurteilen zu können, muß man sich 3 Fragen vorlegen: 1. Auf „was“ soll ein Nootropikum einwirken? Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage muß genau definiert werden, was unter „hirnorganischem Psychosyndrom im Alter“ (HOPS) verstanden wird. 2. „Was“ ist ein Nootropikum? Diese Frage ist im einleitenden Beitrag von Coper u. Schulze ausführlich beantwortet worden. 3. „Wie“ kann man während der Anwendung eines Nootropikums zuverlässig „messen“, ob es zu erwünschten Änderungen des „hirnorganischen Psychosyndroms“ in Richtung auf das Behandlungsziel kommt? Das ist die Frage danach, ob es ein zur Beurteilung der klinisch-therapeutischen Wirksamkeit von Nootropika bei hirnorganischen Psychosyndromen geeignetes Instrumentarium gibt.
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Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.
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Clinical neuropsychology has become one of the fastest growing specialty areas in psychology (Golden & Kuperman, 1980), and is now recognized as a distinct and legitimate area of specialized practice. Central to this growth, and well documented throughout this volume, has been the success of neuropsychological testing procedures in detecting the presence and localization of brain dysfunction. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the role of standard cognitive and personality tests in the neuropsychological assessment of adults. The specific assessment devices covered are those measures generally considered to be part of the standard battery employed by traditionally trained clinicians for routine assessment purposes (e. g., the Wechsler tests, Bender-Gestalt, Rorschach, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, etc.). The utility of these testing procedures is first examined in a historical perspective that acknowledges the differences between the clinical psychological and neuropsychological approaches to the assessment of brain dysfunction. The strengths and weaknesses of these tests for neurodiagnostic purposes are next reviewed. Finally, the potential utility of standard cognitive and personality tests as adjuncts to other neuropsychological procedures is discussed in the context of the emerging emphasis on issues of everyday living.
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Memetic diagnosis should be accompanied by a thorough memetic assessment of the patient that includes the early memetic environment, potential gene x meme interaction in childhood, early and recent imitation figures, and recent infusion of stress memes. What memetic diagnosis implies, in addition to the meaning of the memes collected, is the fact that the memes have replicated to become a problem. Thus, it is necessary to identify the cause of the replication as well as to treat the process of replication. The cause of the replication may be (1) imitation and/or empathy, (2) large influx of new memes, (3) replication of dormant resident memes due to either weakening of the dominant memes or new memes augmenting the resident ones, and (4) combination of any of the above, potentially causing a final common pathway dysregulation of the brain. Epigenetic formulation involves the interaction between genes and memes through development, with particular attention to significant stresses and nurturing in early life and recent stresses and social support. These are the factors that may have augmented vulnerability genes and attenuated resilience genes or vice versa, resulting in syndromic mental illness, neurotic traits, or mental health. In this chapter, I briefly describe how memetic assessment should be made, how priming factors and role models should be considered in the biopsychosocial formulation, and anticipate some new methods and techniques that need to be developed to further this aim.
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This masters thesis concerned the relationship between foreign language aptitude and working memory capacity
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Historically, the field of neuropsychology was derived not only from the discipline of psychology, but also from the various related disciplines within the traditional professions of medicine, education, and law (Meier, 1997). The term neuropsychology is a combination of the word neurology, which is defined as a branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its disorders, and psychology, which is defined as the study of behavior or the mind (Finger, 1994). One of the first people to combine the words neurology and psychology into neuropsychology was Kurt Goldstein (Frommer & Smith, 1988) in his book The Organism (1939). Neuropsychology today is used to describe a field of psychology that principally circumscribes the identification, quantification, and description of changes in behavior that relate to the structural and cognitive integrity of the brain (Golden, Zillmer, & Spiers, 1992). Although neuropsychological techniques and questions have long existed, the clinical side of the field did not start to expand until the late 1970s. Most practitioners in the field have been trained within the last two decades, with the majority of those in the last 10 years. Neuropsychologists are most prominently represented professionally by the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association, and the International Neuropsychological Society (INS).
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Because the number of elderly people is rapidly growing, using information and communication technology (ICT) for services to watch single-elder-person households has been attracting attention. Most of these services are aimed at detecting elders' abnormalities. They could become more effective, from the preventive-medicine point of view, if additional functions were added to watch for any decline in the elders' cognitive functions. In this paper, we describe a method for detecting minor declines in elders' cognitive functions, which they may not be aware of, by measuring and analyzing their spiral-tracing ability using a tablet device. We developed such a measurement/ analysis system and applied it to three groups of test participants: young, non-frail elders, and frail elders. This paper first describes the method for analyzing the numbers of out-of-orbit tracing attempts, the numbers of uncompleted attempts, the required time, and the angular velocities, and then refers to these tasks to reveal the elders' characteristics from the analytic results.
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The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40) scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis. Blast exposure was associated with decreased FA in several WM tracts. However, total blast exposure did not correlate well with neuropsychological testing performance and there were no differences in FA based on mTBI diagnosis. Yet, veterans with mTBI performed worse on every neurocognitive test administered. Multiple linear regression across all blast-exposed veterans using a six-factor prediction model indicated that the amount of blast exposure accounted for 11–15% of the variability in composite FA scores such that as blast exposure increased, FA decreased. Education accounted for 10% of the variability in composite FA scores and 25–32% of FA variability in the right cingulum, such that as level of education increased, FA increased. Total blast exposure, age, and education were significant predictors of FA in the left cingulum. We did not find any effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on cognition or composite FA. In summary, our findings suggest that greater total blast exposure is a contributing factor to poor WM integrity. While FA was not associated with neurocognitive performance, we hypothesize that FA changes in the cingulum in veterans with multiple combat exposures and no head trauma prior to deployment may represent a marker of vulnerability for future deficits. Future work needs to examine this longitudinally.
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Article
Abnormalities in auditory P300 test have been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether or not additional electrophysiological tests assist in making the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), and we evaluated P300 changes in patients with non-demented PD and analyzed the correlation between the cognitive features and P300 changes. Twenty patients with PD who had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI group) according to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) 2012 PD-MCI level II criteria, 21 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-Normal group), and 20 control subjects (control group) who were neurologically normal were examined by the standard auditory oddball paradigm. The N100, P200, N200, and P300 latencies and N100-P200, P200-N200, and N200-P300 amplitudes were measured and analyzed. P300 latencies recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz and N200 latency recorded from Fz were significantly longer in the PD-MCI group than in the PD-Normal and the control group (respectively p < 0.001, p = 0.041). P300 amplitude recorded from Fz was significantly lower in PD-MCI group than those in the other groups (p = 0.038). While P300 was obtained in all patients in the PD-Normal and the control group, it was lost in 35% of PD-MCI patients. The results show that P300 provides a diagnostic tool for detecting PDMCI. We suggest that P300 prolongation and loss of P300 potential could be used as supportive parameter in the diagnosis of PD-MCI.
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Objective: To generate normative data for the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. Method: The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the Stroop test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The Stroop-Word, Stroop-Color, Stroop Word-Color and Stroop-Interference scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. Results: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, except on Stroop Interference for Guatemala, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. Age2 affected Stroop-Word scores for all countries, Stroop-Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico and Paraguay; and Stroop-Interference scores for Cuba, Guatemala and Spain. MLPE affected Stroop-Word scores for Chile, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; Stroop-Color scores for Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Spain; and Stroop-Interference scores for Ecuador, Mexico and Spain. Sex affected Stroop-Word scores for Spain, and Stroop-Color scores for Mexico, and Stroop-Interference for Honduras. Conclusions: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the Stroop test in pediatric populations.
Thesis
Hafif Kognitif Bozukluk, bir bireyin kognitif işlevlerinde, o birey için alışıldık olana nazaran bir miktar gerileme olması ama bu gerilemenin bir demans tanısı konmasına yetecek kadar şiddetli olmaması halini tanımlayan bir klinik tablodur (Petersen, 1999). Sözel akıcılık testleri, verilen belirli bir süre içerisinde belirli harf veya semantik kategori grubundan sözcük üretmeye dayanan, geri çağırma ve artikülasyon gibi bilişsel süreçleri kapsayan zorlayıcı bir görevdir (Henry vd., 2004). Zaman içinde, bir kişinin belirli bir harf veya kategoride ürettiği sözcüklerin toplandığı niceliksel analize ek olarak, sözel akıcılık ile beyin süreçleri arasındaki ilişkinin daha kapsamlı yorumlanmasını sağlayan niteliksel analiz yöntemleri kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada Amnestik Hafif Kognitif Bozukluğu olan ve olmayan bireylerden oluşan iki gruba sözel akıcılık testleri uygulanmış, niceliksel ve niteliksel değerlendirmeler sonucunda gruplar arası karşılaştırmalar yapılmıştır. Niceliksel analizde toplam sözcük sayısı, niteliksel analizde ise öbekleme (clustering), geçiş yapma (switching) becerileri ile perseverasyon ve kategori ihlali gibi hata örüntüleri değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, Acıbadem Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Eskişehir Hastanesi Nöroloji Bölümünde Hafif Kognitif Bozukluk tanısı alan ve Standardize Mini Mental Test (SMMT) puanları 24-28 arasında değişen 20 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Kontrol grubu, nörolojik veya psikiyatrik herhangi bir sağlık sorunu olmayan 20 gönüllü katılımcıyı içermektedir. Gruplar yaş, eğitim ve cinsiyet bakımından eşlenmiştir. 49-83 yaş aralığında ve ilköğretim, lise veya üniversite eğitim düzeylerine sahip olan bireyler araştırmada yer almıştır. Her iki gruba da fonemik akıcılık ve semantik akıcılık testleri uygulanmış; nicel ve nitel analizlerle hasta grubunun kontrol grubundan hangi alanlarda farklı performans gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Her iki akıcılıkta toplam sözcük sayısı, öbekleme (seçilen kategoride alt öbek oluşturan sözcük oranı) ve geçiş yapma (sözcük öbekleri arasında geçiş sıklığı) puanları belirlenerek gruplar arası karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Buna ek olarak grupların perseverasyon ve kategori ihlali hataları belirlenerek karşılaştırılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda Amnestik Hafif Kognitif Bozukluk grubunun kontrol grubuna göre her iki sözel akıcılık testinde daha düşük performans gösterdiği gözlenmiş, toplam sözcük sayısı bakımından hem fonemik hem semantik sözel akıcılıkta daha düşük puanlar elde edilmiştir. Fonemik akıcılık testinde geçiş sayı ortalamaları hasta grubunda daha düşük çıkmıştır. Öbek genişliği ve kategori ihlali bakımından hem fonemik hem semantik açıdan anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmamıştır. Öte yandan perseverasyon değerleri ele alındığından semantik akıcılık testinde Hafif Kognitif Bozukluk grubunun daha fazla perseverasyon yaptığı saptanmıştır. Anahtar sözcükler: Sözel akıcılık, öbekleme, geçiş yapma, Hafif Kognitif Bozukluk, demans.
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The age of the HIV-infected population is increasing. Although many studies document gray matter volume (GMV) changes following HIV infection, GMV also declines with age. Findings have been inconsistent concerning interactions between HIV infection and age on brain structure. Effects of age, substance use, and inadequate viral suppression may confound identification of GMV serostatus effects using quantitative structural measures. In a cross-sectional study of HIV infection, including 97 seropositive and 84 seronegative, demographically matched participants, ages 30–70, we examined serostatus and age effects on GMV and neuropsychological measures. Ninety-eight percent of seropositive participants were currently treated with anti-retroviral therapies and all were virally suppressed. Gray, white, and CSF volumes were estimated using high-resolution T1-weighted MRI. Linear regression modeled effects of serostatus, age, education, comorbidities, and magnetic field strength on brain structure, using both a priori regions and voxel-based morphometry. Although seropositive participants exhibited significant bilateral decreases in striatal GMV, no serostatus effects were detected in the thalamus, hippocampus, or cerebellum. Age was associated with cortical, striatal, thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar GMV reductions. Effects of age and serostatus on striatal GMV were additive. Although no main effects of serostatus on neuropsychological performance were observed, serostatus moderated the relationship between pegboard performance and striatal volume. Both HIV infection and age were associated with reduced striatal volume. The lack of interaction of these two predictors suggests that HIV infection is associated with premature, but not accelerated, brain age. In serostatus groups matched on demographic and clinical variables, there were no observed differences in neuropsychological performance. Striatal GMV measures may be promising biomarker for use in studies of treated HIV infection.
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Background: Residual capacity evaluation via neuropsychological testing can facilitate the development of a rehabilitation plan in patients following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: This study aimed to confirm the tasks that patients must perform well for early return to work (RTW) following TBI using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Methods: In total, 40 male and 13 female patients who suffered from neurobehavioral disabilities following TBI were recruited and classified into two groups: the successfully returned to work group (SRTW-G; n = 22) and the unsuccessfully returned to work group (USRTW-G; n = 31). The outcomes assessed by WAIS-III and the time to RTW were compared between the SRTW-G and USRTW-G groups. Multiple logistic regression, multiple regression analysis, and Cox regression were employed to assess differences between the groups. Results: The Comprehension and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests of the WAIS-III were significantly correlated with early RTW more than the other subtests. Conclusions: We found that, as reflected in the two subtests, patients with TBI must be able to perform well in the following tasks for early RTW: retention of information for short time periods, information processing, and social judgment based on the knowledge of the patient's experience.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive tasks simultaneously with the balance training. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After the intervention, the results for mediolateral sway with eyes closed were significantly better for the dual-task group and anteroposterior sway with eyes closed was significantly better for the single-task group. The results suggest superior outcomes for the dual-task training compared to the single-task training for static postural control, except in anteroposterior sway with eyes closed.
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