Death in Heart Failure A Community Perspective

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Circulation Heart Failure (Impact Factor: 5.89). 07/2008; 1(2):91-7. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.107.743146
Source: PubMed


Mortality in heart failure (HF) remains high but causes of death are incompletely defined. As HF is heterogeneous syndrome categorized according to ejection fraction (EF), the association between EF and causes of death is important, yet elusive.
Community subjects with HF were classified according to preserved (> or =50%) and reduced EF (<50%). Deaths were classified as coronary heart disease (CHD), other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular. Among 1063 persons with HF, 45% had preserved EF with less cardiovascular risk factors and less coronary disease than those with reduced EF. At 5 years, survival was 45% (95% CI 43%-49%) and 43% of the deaths were non-cardiovascular. The leading cause of death in subjects with preserved EF was non-cardiovascular (49%) vs CHD (43%) for subjects with reduced EF. The proportion of cardiovascular deaths decreased from 69% in 1979-1984 to 40% in 1997-2002 (p=0.007) among subjects with preserved EF contrasting with a modest change among those with reduced EF (77% in to 64%, p=0.08). Advanced age, male sex, diabetes, smoking and kidney disease were associated with an increase risk of all cause and cardiovascular death. After adjustment, preserved EF was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death but not all cause death.
Community subjects with HF experience a persistently high mortality and a large proportion of deaths are non-cardiovascular. Subjects with preserved EF have less cardiovascular disease before death, are less likely to experience cardiovascular deaths than those with reduced EF and the proportion of cardiovascular deaths declined over time.

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    • "Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, which is becoming a major problem in public health in recent decades [1] [2]. Despite many new achievements in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, the morbidity and mortality associated with HF still remain high [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim We aimed in this study to assess the role of left atrial (LA), in addition to left ventricular (LV) indices, in predicting exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods This study included 88 consecutive patients (60 ± 10 years) with stable HF. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions, ejection fraction (EF), mitral and tricuspid annulus peak systolic excursion (MAPSE and TAPSE), myocardial velocities (s′, e′ and a′), LA dimensions, LA volume and LA emptying fraction were measured. A 6-min walking test (6-MWT) distance was performed on the same day of the echocardiographic examination. Results Patients with limited exercise performance (≤ 300 m) were older (p = 0.01), had higher NYHA functional class (p = 0.004), higher LV mass index (p = 0.003), larger LA (p = 0.002), lower LV EF (p = 0.009), larger LV end-systolic dimension (p = 0.007), higher E/A ratio (p = 0.03), reduced septal MAPSE (p < 0.001), larger LA end-systolic volume (p = 0.03), larger LA end-diastolic volume (p = 0.005) and lower LA emptying fraction (p < 0.001) compared with good performance patients. In multivariate analysis, only the LA emptying fraction [0.944 (0.898–0.993), p = 0.025] independently predicted poor exercise performance. An LA emptying fraction < 60% was 68% sensitive and 73% specific (AUC 0.73, p < 0.001) in predicting poor exercise performance. Conclusion In heart failure patients, the impaired LA emptying function is the best predictor of poor exercise capacity. This finding highlights the need for routine LA size and function monitoring for better optimization of medical therapy in HF.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · IJC Heart and Vessels
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    • "The primary outcome was 7-day mortality, which is temporally close to the acute HF visit, and therefore clearly of importance to the physician in the ED. Prior studies have found that mortality among HF patients is primarily cardiovascular [29, 30], and therefore deaths will often be related to the cardiovascular disease with which the patients presented at the index ED visit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute decompensated heart failure is a common reason for presentation to the emergency department and is associated with high rates of admission to hospital. Distinguishing between higher-risk patients needing hospitalization and lower-risk patients suitable for discharge home is important to optimize both cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes. However, this can be challenging and few validated risk stratification tools currently exist to help clinicians. Some prognostic variables predict risks broadly in those who are admitted or discharged from the emergency department. Risk stratification methods such as the Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade and Acute Heart Failure Index clinical decision support tools, which utilize many of these predictors, have been found to be accurate in identifying low-risk patients. The use of observation units may also be a cost-effective adjunctive strategy that can assist in determining disposition from the emergency department.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    • "Recently, Henkel et al. published complementary results. They found that HFPEF patients have less cardiovascular disease before death and are less likely to experience cardiovascular death than those with reduced EF, and that the proportion of cardiovascular deaths declined over time [26]. Such observations have also been reported by Tribouilloy et al. [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relevance of electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony has been demonstrated in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Preserved ejection fraction is present in as many as 50% of patients with chronic heart failure. Recent small studies suggest that both electrical and mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony are sometimes present in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). These data remain controversial and a robust validation of this hypothesis has to be achieved. In the present paper, we review in detail the concepts and try to justify the ongoing KaRen registry. This is a prospective, multicentre, international, observational study to characterize the prevalence of electrical or mechanical dyssynchrony in HFPEF and the resultant effect on prognosis. Patients are enrolled currently at the time of an acute congestive episode. The diagnosis of HFPEF is made according to clinical data, natriuretic peptides and echocardiography for the measurement of ejection fraction. Once stabilized, patients return for a hospital check-up. They undergo clinical and biological evaluation, electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography. Thereafter, patients are followed every six months, for at least 18 months for mortality, and heart failure-related and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations. KaRen aims to characterize electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony and to assess its prognostic impact in HFPEF. The results may improve our understanding of HFPEF and generate answers to the question of whether or not dyssynchrony could be a target for cardiac resynchronization therapy in HFPEF.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Archives of cardiovascular diseases
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