Cutting Edge: A2B Adenosine Receptor Signaling Provides Potent Protection during Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Center for Inflammation and Hypoxia, University of Tübingen, Germany.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 05/2009; 182(7):3965-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0802193
Source: PubMed


Gastrointestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury significantly contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critical illness. In this study, we hypothesized a protective role for extracellular adenosine signaling in intestinal IR injury. Initial profiling studies of mucosal scrapings following murine IR demonstrated selective induction of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) transcript. Moreover, gene-targeted mice for the A2BAR showed more profound intestinal IR injury compared with controls. In contrast, A2AAR(-/-) mice exhibited no differences in intestinal injury compared with littermate controls. In addition, selective inhibition of the A2BAR resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and injury during IR. Furthermore, A2BAR agonist treatment (BAY 60-6583) protected from intestinal injury, inflammation, and permeability dysfunction in wild-type mice, whereas the therapeutic effects of BAY 60-6583 were abolished following targeted A2BAR gene deletion. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the A2BAR as a novel therapeutic target for protection during gastrointestinal IR injury.

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Available from: Melanie L. Hart, Oct 01, 2014
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    • "Results Bay 60-6583 Promotes Melanoma Growth In Vivo by Inducing an Immune-Suppressive Environment in the Tumor Tissue We first investigated the effect of Bay 60-6583, a selective A 2b R agonist [26] [27] [28] "
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    ABSTRACT: The A2b receptor (A2bR) belongs to the adenosine receptor family. Emerging evidence suggest that A2bR is implicated in tumor progression in some murine tumor models, but the therapeutic potential of targeting A2bR in melanoma has not been examined. This study first shows that melanoma-bearing mice treated with Bay 60-6583, a selective A2bR agonist, had increased melanoma growth. This effect was associated with higher levels of immune regulatory mediators interleukin-10 (IL-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and accumulation of tumor-associated CD11b positive Gr1 positive cells (CD11b(+)Gr1(+)) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Depletion of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells completely reversed the protumor activity of Bay 60-6583. Conversely, pharmacological blockade of A2bR with PSB1115 reversed immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment, leading to a significant melanoma growth delay. PSB1115 treatment reduced both levels of IL-10 and MCP-1 and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cell number in melanoma lesions. These effects were associated with higher frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD8 positive (CD8(+)) T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells and increased levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-like cytokines. Adoptive transfer of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells abrogated the antitumor activity of PSB1115. These data suggest that the antitumor activity of PSB1115 relies on its ability to lower accumulation of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and restore an efficient antitumor T cell response. The antitumor effect of PSB1115 was not observed in melanoma-bearing nude mice. Furthermore, PSB1115 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of dacarbazine. These data indicate that A2bR antagonists such as PSB1115 should be investigated as adjuvants in the treatment of melanoma.
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    • "Significantly, the anti-inflammatory adenosine pathway is coordinately induced following injury/inflammation, with both CD73 (the extracellular adenosine-generating enzyme) and adenosine receptors (Adora2a, Adora2b) simultaneously induced [12]. Furthermore, by screening for the relative activities of multiple Adoras, studies have revealed that Adora2b (also known as the A2B receptor) is a potent anti-inflammatory receptor [9], [10], [11], [13], [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-inflammatory signals play an essential role in constraining the magnitude of an inflammatory response. Extracellular adenosine is a critical tissue-protective factor, limiting the extent of inflammation. Given the potent anti-inflammatory effects of extracellular adenosine, we sought to investigate how extracellular adenosine regulates T cell activation and differentiation. Adenosine receptor activation by a pan adenosine-receptor agonist enhanced the abundance of murine regulatory T cells (Tregs), a cell type critical in constraining inflammation. Gene expression studies in both naïve CD4 T cells and Tregs revealed that these cells expressed multiple adenosine receptors. Based on recent studies implicating the Adora2b in endogenous anti-inflammatory responses during acute inflammation, we used a pharmacologic approach to specifically activate Adora2b. Indeed, these studies revealed robust enhancement of Treg differentiation in wild-type mice, but not in Adora2b(-/-) T cells. Finally, when we subjected Adora2b-deficient mice to endotoxin-induced pulmonary inflammation, we found that these mice experienced more severe inflammation, characterized by increased cell recruitment and increased fluid leakage into the airways. Notably, Adora2b-deficient mice failed to induce Tregs after endotoxin-induced inflammation and instead had an enhanced recruitment of pro-inflammatory effector T cells. In total, these data indicate that the Adora2b adenosine receptor serves a potent anti-inflammatory role, functioning at least in part through the enhancement of Tregs, to limit inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Finally, another study suggests that anti-inflammatory signaling events of netrin-1 involve the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR), particularly during conditions of hypoxia-elicited inflammation [9]. While the mechanisms of how netrin-1 interacts with the A2BAR remain unclear, this study demonstrates that netrin-1 signaling events enhance adenosine-dependent tissue protection from hypoxia [9], [17], [22], [23], [24], [25]. This assumption would be consistent with other studies on the role of the A2BAR in myocardial ischemia [23], [25], vascular leakage [26], [27], intestinal inflammation [24], [28], [29], or acute lung injury [22], [30], where hypoxia-elicited induction of the A2BAR [31] attenuates organ inflammation and dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: The netrin family of secreted proteins provides migrational cues in the developing central nervous system. Recently, netrins have also been shown to regulate diverse processes beyond their functions in the brain, incluing the ochrestration of inflammatory events. Particularly netrin-1 has been implicated in dampening hypoxia-induced inflammation. Here, we hypothesized an anti-inflammatory role of endogenous netrin-1 in acute kidney injury (AKI). As homozygous deletion of netrin-1 is lethal, we studied mice with partial netrin-1 deletion (Ntn-1(+/-) mice) as a genetic model. In fact, Ntn-1(+/-) mice showed attenuated Ntn-1 levels at baseline and following ischemic AKI. Functional studies of AKI induced by 30 min of renal ischemia and reperfusion revealed enhanced kidney dysfunction in Ntn-1(+/-) mice as assessed by measurements of glomerular filtration, urine flow rate, urine electrolytes, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Consistent with these findings, histological studies indicated a more severe degree kidney injury. Similarly, elevations of renal and systemic inflammatory markers were enhanced in mice with partial netrin-1 deficiency. Finally, treatment of Ntn-1(+/-) mice with exogenous netrin-1 restored a normal phenotype during AKI. Taking together, these studies implicate endogenous netrin-1 in attenuating renal inflammation during AKI.
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