Conjugated linoleic acid isomers' roles in the regulation of PPARγ and NF-κB DNA binding and subsequent expression of antioxidant enzymes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
Department of Nutrition and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, USA. Nutrition
(Impact Factor: 2.93).
04/2009; 25(7-8):800-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2009.01.003
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have shown health benefits. Because CLA isomers may act as activators for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and may induce antioxidant enzymes, this study was conducted to examine the effects of CLA isomers on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and catalase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with graded concentrations of the 9-cis, 11-trans or the 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA isomer for 24 h.
The 9-cis, 11-trans-CLA treatments resulted in increases in transcription factor DNA binding activities and expression of antioxidant enzymes at 0-25 micromol/L and an increase in lipid peroxidation only at the lowest concentrations (5 micromol/L). The 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA treatments resulted in increases in transcription factor DNA binding activities at 0-25 micromol/L and highest levels of mRNA of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase protein, and lipid peroxidation only at the lowest concentrations (5 micromol/L). The 9-cis, 11-trans-CLA treatments produced expression of antioxidant enzymes, except catalase protein, that were positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. Positive correlations were found between expression of antioxidant enzymes, except catalase protein, and lipid peroxidation for 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA treatments. Although CLA isomers exhibit mostly stimulatory effects in expression of antioxidant enzymes, interestingly, the lowest concentrations of both CLA isomers resulted in increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels.
An understanding of the optimal concentrations of CLA isomers, which stimulate the benefits of antioxidant enzyme induction, may require careful CLA titration to determine predictable and dependable therapeutic strategies against adverse effects, such as pro-oxidants.
Available from: Petra Winkler
- "Very recent studies on PPARγ-DNA binding activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells after treatment with the individual CLA isomers showed that the concentration determines whether CLA isomers exert inhibitory or a stimulatory effects in inflammatory and atherogenic processes, and that microenvironments also influence CLA effects . The tissue dependent differences of action were also evident in mice; t10c12 CLA induced loss of adipose tissue but at the same time decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased fatty acid synthesis in liver . "
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ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is a key regulator in adipose tissue. The rare variant Pro12Ala of PPARgamma2 is associated with a decreased risk of insulin resistance. Being dietary PPARgamma ligands, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) received considerable attention because of their effects on body composition, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and inflammation, although some effects were only demonstrated in animal trials and the results in human studies were not always consistent. In the present study effects of CLA supplementation on genome wide gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies from 11 Ala12Ala and 23 Pro12Pro men were investigated. Subjects underwent four intervention periods (4 wk) in a randomized double blind cross-over design receiving 4.25 g/d of either cis-9, trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, 1:1 mixture of both isomers or a reference linoleic acid oil preparation. After each intervention biopsies were taken, whole genome expression microarrays were applied, and genes of interest were verified by realtime PCR.
The following genes of lipid metabolism were regulated by CLA: LDLR, FASN, SCD, FADS1 and UCP2 were induced, while ABCA1, CD36 and CA3 were repressed. Transcription factors PPARgamma, NFAT5, CREB5 and EBF1, the adipokine NAMPT, members of the insulin signaling cascade SORBS1 and IGF1 and IL6ST were repressed, while the adipokine THBS1 and GLUT4 involved in insulin signaling were induced. Compared to trans-10,cis-12 CLA and the CLA mixture the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer exerted weaker effects. Only CD36 (-1.2 fold) and THBS1 (1.5 fold) were regulated. The CLA effect on expression of PPARgamma and leptin genes depends on the PPARgamma2 genotype.
The data suggest that the isomer specific influence of CLA on glucose and lipid metabolism is genotype dependent and at least in part mediated by PPARgamma.
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ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system is involved in homeostasis processes linked to renal and cardiovascular system and recently has been linked to metabolic syndrome. We analyzed the influence of long term angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril treatment in normotensive adult Wistar rats fed with standard or palatable hyperlipidic diets. Our results show that long term enalapril treatment decreases absolute food intake, serum leptin concentration and body weight gain. Moreover, in adipose tissue, enalapril treatment led to decreased ACE activity, enhanced the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, adiponectin, hormone-sensitive lipase, fatty acid synthase, catalase and superoxide dismutase resulting in prolonged life span. On the other hand, the ACE inhibitor was not able to improve the transport of leptin through the blood brain barrier or to alter the sensitivity of this hormone in the central nervous system. The effect of enalapril in decreasing body weight gain was also observed in older rats. In summary, these results extend our previous findings and corroborate data from the literature regarding the beneficial metabolic effects of enalapril and show for the first time that this ACE inhibitor prolongs life span in rats also fed with palatable hyperlipidic diet, an action probably correlated with adipose tissue metabolic modulation and body weight reduction.
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ABSTRACT: Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric. It is widely used as a kitchen spice and food colorant throughout India, Asia and the Western world. Curcumin is a major constituent of curry powder, to which it imparts its characteristic yellow colour. For over 4000 years, curcumin has been used in traditional Asian and African medicine to treat a wide variety of ailments. There is a strong current public interest in naturally occurring plant-based remedies and dietary factors related to health and disease. Curcumin is non-toxic to human subjects at high doses. It is a complex molecule with multiple biological targets and different cellular effects. Recently, its molecular mechanisms of action have been extensively investigated. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Under some circumstances its effects can be contradictory, with uncertain implications for human treatment. While more studies are warranted to further understand these contradictions, curcumin holds promise as a disease-modifying and chemopreventive agent. We review the evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin from in vitro studies, animal models and human clinical trials.
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