The recent expansion of Typha domingensis (Typha) into areas of the Ev- erglades previously dominated by Cladium jamaicense (Cladium) communities has led to competing hypotheses about the importance of nutrient concentration vs. hydroperiod in controlling the distribution of these species. In this study, experimental mixtures of Typha domingensis, Cladium jamaicense, and Eleocharis interstincta (Eleocharis), a member of the Cladium community, were subjected to two levels of nutrient concentration and three contrasting hydroperiods to determine how these variables might affect Tjpha's ability to displace the Cladium community. Mixtures of the three species were established in outdoor tanks containing soil from the northern Everglades region where the experiment was con- ducted. Nutrient treatments consisted of nutrient additions to adjust ambient water con- centrations to either 50 pg/L phosphorus (P) or 100 pg/L P plus nitrogen (N). The three hydroperiods were achieved by maintaining water depths within ranges observed in the northern Everglades. Maximum water depths of 15,30, and 60 cm were established through- out the wet season (May-November) followed by lowering to 5 cm during the dry season. Over a 2-yr period, biomass was monitored nondestructively and aboveground material was harvested at the end of the experiment. Analysis of the biomass changes over time showed that differences between the species developed by the end of the first growing season. Typha and Eleocharis had initial growth rates substantially higher than those observed for Cladium. Typha's growth in mixtures responded positively to both elevated nutrients (by as much as 45%) as well as to increased water depth (by as much as 60%), while Cladium and Eleocharis did not increase in response to these variables. Tissue P concentrations were found to be higher for Typha and Eleocharis than for Cladium under nearly all conditions. Net accu- mulation of P in Typha shoots was 2-3 times greater than in the other species. The en- hancement of Typha by elevated nutrients and increased flooding is associated with a syndrome of life history characteristics that includes rapid growth rates, high tissue con- centrations of P, tall leaves, and a greater response to contrasting environmental conditions. Cladium, in contrast, showed a slow growth rate, low tissue concentrations of P, a greater capacity to resist invasion by Typha in shallow waters, and less of a growth response to contrasting environmental conditions, traits that would seem to be well suited to the nutrient- poor, hydrologically unstable conditions natural to the Everglades. Results from this study suggest that attempts to limit the spread of Typha should consider hydrologic restoration as well as reduction in surface water nutrients.