A systemic review of studies validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in antepartum and postpartum women
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). We systematically reviewed the published evidence on its validity in detecting PPD and antepartum depression (APD) up to July 2008. Systematic review of validation studies of the EPDS included 1987-2008. Cut-off points of 9/10 for possible PPD, 12/13 for probable PPD and 14/15 for APD were used. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points showed marked heterogeneity between different studies. Sensitivity results ranged from 34 to 100% and specificity from 44 to 100%. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 1.61 to 78. Heterogeneity among study findings may be due to differences in study methodology, language and diagnostic interview/criteria used. Therefore, the results of different studies may not be directly comparable and the EPDS may not be an equally valid screening tool across all settings and contexts.
Get notified about updates to this publicationFollow publication
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), originally developed in Britain, is one of the most widely used screening instruments for assessing symptoms of the Perinatal Common Mental Disorders (PCMDs) of depression and anxiety. However, its potential to detect PCMDs in culturally diverse low- and lower-middle income countries (LALMICs) is unclear. This systematic review aimed to appraise formally validated local language versions of the EPDS from these resource-constrained settings. Methods Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched MEDLINE-OVID, CINAHL-Plus and PUBMED to identify studies reporting translation, cultural adaptation and formal validation of the EPDS to detect PCMDs among women in LALMICs. The quality of the studies meeting inclusion criteria was assessed using standard criteria and a new process-based criteria; which was developed specifically for this study. Results We identified 1281 records among which 16 met inclusion criteria; three further papers were identified by hand-searching reference lists. The publications reported findings from 12 LALMICs in14 native languages. Most of these local language versions of the EPDS (LLV-EPDS) had lower precision for identifying true cases of PCMDs among women in the general perinatal population compared to the original English version. Only one study met all criteria for culturally sensitive translation, the others had not established the comprehensibility of the local version amongst representative groups of women in pre-testing. Many studies tested the LLV-EPDS only amongst convenience samples recruited at single health facilities. Diagnostic interviews for confirmation of mental disorders could have been influenced by the mental health professionals’ lack of blinding to the initial screening results. Additionally, even when diagnostic-interviews were carried out in the local language, questions might not have been understood as most studies followed standard diagnostic protocol which had not been culturally adapted. Conclusions Most of the LLV-EPDS from non-English speaking low- and middle-income-countries did not meet all criteria for formal validation of a screening instrument. Psychometric properties of LLV-EPDS could be enhanced by adopting the new process-based criteria for translation, adaptation and validation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12884-016-0859-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
- "In this study, the LLV-EPDS had high sensitivity (86.7 %) and specificity (91.5 %), even though it didn't meet most of our recommended steps for culturally sensitive translation processes . This suggests that these highly educated participants having greater emotional literacy [3, 23] and familiarity with test-taking , but does not provide evidence that this LLV-EPDS will be useful for the majority who have not had opportunities for education and social participation. Further areas of inconsistency and suboptimal practice appeared to have occurred during the process of formal validation against a diagnostic interview (Fig. 1, criteria: 22–28). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n = 102, father reports n = 62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits.
- "The EPDS, a widely used and sensitive measure of postnatal depression (Cox et al., 1987), consists of 10 items rated from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicative of more depressive symptoms. A continuous total sum score was used in the lack of definitive cut-point for clinical depression in pregnant women (Gibson, McKenzie-McHarg, Shakespeare, Price, & Gray, 2009). The State Anxiety measure of The State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983), a reliable and valid measure of anxiety in both clinical and general population screening, was used to measure anxiety symptoms 3 months postpartum. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal depression, including antepartum and postpartum depression, is a neglected public health issue with potentially far-reaching effects on maternal and child health. We aimed to measure the burden of antepartum depression and identify risk factors among women in a peri-urban community in Swaziland. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the context of a community outreach peer support project involving "Mentor Mothers". We used of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to screen women for depression during the third trimester of pregnancy, using a cut-off score of ≥13 to indicate depression. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic factors, and assessed the association of these factors with EPDS score using logistic regression models. A total of 1038 pregnant women were screened over a period of 9 months. Almost a quarter (22.7 %) had EPDS scores ≥13 and 41.2 % were HIV positive. A fifth, 17.5 % were teenagers and 73.7 % were unemployed. Depression was not associated with HIV status, age or employment status. However, women with multiple socioeconomic stressors were found to be more likely to score highly on the EPDS. Depression was common among pregnant women in the peri-urban areas of Swaziland. Screening for depression using the EPDS is feasible and can be included in the community health worker standard tool box as a way to improve early detection of depression and to highlight the importance of maternal mental health as a core public health concern.
- "The scale includes ten questions about symptoms of depression and the total score ranges from 0 to 30. Several cut off scores have been used to indicate depression , but a cut-off of 15 or higher has been suggested for antepartum depression depression . Previous studies in South Africa used a score of 13 or above, a cut-off with a sensitivity of 0.69 and specificity of 0.78 for the detection of antenatal depression [30, 31]. "