Article

Attitudinal Dissociation: What Does it Mean?

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Abstract

Many recent experiments have used parallel Implicit Association Test (IAT) and self- report measures of attitudes. These measures are sometimes strongly correlated. However, many of these studies find apparent dissociations in the form of (a) weak correlations between the two types of measures, (b) separation of their means on scales that should coincide if they assess the same construct, or (c) differing correlations with other variables. Interpretations of these empirical patterns are of three types: single-representation — the two types of measures assess a single attitude, but under the influence of different extra-attitudinal process influences; dual-representation — the two types of measures assess distinct forms of attitudes (e.g., conscious vs. unconscious; implicit vs. explicit); and person vs. culture — a variant of the dual- representation view in which self-report measures reflect personal attitudes, whereas IAT measures reflect non-attitudinal cultural or semantic knowledge. Proponents sometimes interpret evidence for single versus dual constructs as evidence for single versus dual structural representations. Behavioral evidence can establish the discriminant validity of implicit and explicit attitude phenomena (dual constructs), but cannot choose among single- vs. dual-representation interpretations because the distinct constructs remain susceptible to interpretation in terms of either one or two representations. Selecting among representational accounts must therefore be based on considerations of explanatory power or parsimony.

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... see Greenwald et al., 2009), even if these correlations varied widely across studies, depending on the topic being investigated. Moreover, a multitraitmultimethod study (Nosek & Smyth, 2007) demonstrated that IATs and self-report measures of attitudes refer to distinct but related constructs (see also Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). As mentioned before, in accordance with dual models, IAT and self-report measures were shown to be best predictors of spontaneous and deliberative behaviours, respectively (Perugini et al., 2010). ...
... The internal consistencies of the AB-IAT and of the other value-IATs were calculated using split-half estimations. In accordance with Greenwald and Nosek (2008), the degree implicit-explicit dissociation was investigated examining (1) the location of means with respect to the neutral scale point and (2) the size of implicit-explicit correlations. Moreover, to investigate the construct validity of the AB-IAT and also to provide first evidence for the generalizability of Schwartz's circumplex model in the realm of implicit cognition, the pattern of intercorrelations among value-IATs was evaluated. ...
... To facilitate comparisons between implicit and explicit measures, we rescaled the explicit scales such that a score of zero indicates that the two antagonistic values are rated as equally important. Moreover, to express both IATs and self-report measures in standard units, we divided the observed scores by their sample standard deviation (as in Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). ...
Article
The construct and criterion validity of an Implicit Association Test designed to rate the importance ascribed to Achievement-Benevolence oriented goals (AB-IAT) according to Schwartz’s model were investigated. In a first study (N =113), the AB-IAT and three other value-IATs (Power-Universalism, Security-Self-direction, Tradition-Stimulation) were administered along with the corresponding self-report scales. The AB-IAT showed: (1) an adequate internal consistency; (2) a small correlation and a different pattern of means with respect to the corresponding self-report scale; (3) a pattern of correlations with the other value-IATs that is consistent with Schwartz’s model. In a second study (N=99), results showed that: (1) in contrast with self-report measures of values, the AB-IAT appeared unrelated to social desirability; (2) the AB-IAT was significantly correlated with an actual behaviour expressing benevolence values; (3) in accordance with a double-dissociation pattern of prediction, implicit and explicit values are best predictors of actual and self-rated behaviors, respectively. Overall, results of the studies support the construct and criterion validity of the AB-IAT. Moreover, they provide a first support for the generalizability of Schwartz’s model in the realm of implicit social cognition, and for the applicability of dual process models in value research.
... The findings also offer evidence that supports the convergent validity of the TLI-IAT, due to its positive association with a previously validated and direct measure of ethical integrity. Although demonstrating convergence between direct and indirect measures is notoriously difficult (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008), the results presented here suggest that TLI-IAT scores are moderately and positively related to the direct measure of ethical integrity. This finding provides initial evidence for the convergent validity of the TLI-IAT. ...
... Further, culture is thought to influence the relationship. For example, coaches and players may claim that there is a culture of unethical behavior within sport that, while separate from their view of how their respective sport should be played, still influences their attitude (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Finally, others such as Strack and Deutsch (2004) have suggested that directly and indirectly assessed attitudes may be distinct constructs. ...
... In contrast, direct assessment outperformed indirect when assessing mundane constructs. This further supports the position of Fazio and others (1990;Fazio & Olson, 2003;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008) that indirect assessments examine associative evaluations, while direct measures assess reflective or propositional attitudes. As previously stated, it is important to note that while access to, and the outcomes of, the assessments, may be different, the attitudes themselves are not thought to be separate (Hofmann, Friese, & Wiers, 2008). ...
Article
An indirect measure of transformational leadership integrity was developed across three studies. In Study 1, the transformational leadership integrity implicit association test (TLI-IAT) was developed and tested with 65 leaders across heterogeneous organizational contexts. Study 2 involved 51 coaches from 18 sports. Results from Studies 1 and 2 supported the construct validity of the instrument, providing evidence of the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 involved 32 coaches and 133 players from six sports. Findings supported the criterion validity of the measure, providing evidence for the instrument's predictive validity. In sum, evidence is presented that supports the TLI-IATs construct and criterion validity. As such, the present research has made significant advancements to the transformational leadership integrity literature and provides researchers with an indirect measure of automatic transformational leadership integrity self-attitudes.
... The first aim of this study was to investigate the internal consistency as well as the convergent and criterion validity of an SC-IAT devoted to measuring CF. Moreover, in line with the hypothesis that implicit and explicit theistic beliefs may be dissociated, especially in nonreligious groups (Uhlmann et al., 2008), a second aim was to assess the degree of implicit-explicit dissociation (see Greenwald & Nosek, 2008) examining (a) the different location of mean scores (expressed in standard units) with respect to zero (neutral scale point), in particular, considering the overwhelming role of Catholicism in the Roman context, a tendency for all participants to associate Catholic God more strongly to existent attributes than to nonexistent ones was hypothesized, with positive mean scores on CF-SC-IAT for all religious groups, and in contrast, only practitioner and nonpractitioner believers should exhibit a certain degree of faith in Catholic God at the explicit level, with positive mean scores on self-report scales expected only for them and not for agnostic and atheist groups; (b) eventual differences in the pattern of means across all religious groups between implicit and explicit measures (i.e., whether the mean differences among groups on the implicit measures are similar or not to the mean differences on the explicit ones); (c) the implicitexplicit relationship, a small correlation was expected; (d) the different contribution of implicit and explicit measures in the prediction of religion-related criteria (i.e., religiosity level, ritual participation frequency, and prayer frequency). ...
... Notably, the presence of a midpoint on the nonexistent-existent continuum (representing a neutral response option), increases the structural similarity between implicit and explicit measures, allowing a more valid comparison between the means, at least when they are expressed in standardized units (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Important to note, in another study (N ϭ 176), a large correlation (r ϭ .73) ...
... With regard to criterion validity (see Table 4), both implicit and explicit measures were significantly correlated with religiosity level, ritual and prayer frequency, but explicit-criteria r coefficients showed higher effects (large in terms of Cohen's standards) than did implicit-criteria rs (from small to moderate). Figure 1 shows mean scores of both implicit and explicit CF, broken down for practicing Catholics, nonpracticing Catholics, agnostics, and atheists As per Greenwald and Nosek (2008), to evaluate the dissociation in the mean locations between implicit and explicit measures, their scores were transformed in standardized units (dividing them by the SD of the variable), making CF-SC-IAT and self-report SDs equal to 1, but preserving the location of their means. Positive scores of the transformed variables represent the tendency to evaluate Catholic God as existent, 0 scores represent the neutral midpoint of the scale, and negative scores represent the tendency to evaluate Catholic God as nonexistent for both implicit and explicit measures. ...
Article
Recent theorists have argued that theistic cognitions are so deeply embedded in human cultures that nearly all people experience implicit religious thoughts, even those who consider themselves as atheists or agnostics. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a Catholic Faith Single Category Implicit Association Test (CF_SC-IAT), the degree of implicit-explicit dissociation across different religious groups (practicing and non-practicing Catholics, agnostics and atheists) as well as the relationships between automatic faith associations and well-being indices. The study was conducted using a Roman sample composed of 142 subjects (106 females) aged 24.74 years (SD=10.66). Results showed: (1) an adequate level of reliability, convergent and criterion validity; (2) a certain degree of implicit-explicit dissociation in terms of: a different localization of mean scores with respect to the neutral scale point, a different pattern of means across the religious groups, a small correlation between them, and independent contributions in the prediction of religion-related behaviors; (3) significant correlations between implicit catholic faith and three different indices of psychological well-being. Theoretical interpretations and limitations of the study were discussed.
... Finally, Groom et al. [89] show that embodying an outgroup member in a work interview leads to worse implicit attitudes but has no effect on explicit ones. No intervention study taking into consideration both implicit and explicit measures of prejudice has found converging results, but as already pointed out earlier, these two types of measurements are often discordant, most likely due to social desirability effects (for an overview of the discussion about the discordance between implicit and explicit measures, see e.g., [13,[98][99][100][101]). In addition, most studies employing implicit measures used embodiment of an outgroup member as an intervention which might be more likely to change implicit rather than explicit attitudes. ...
... [107,108] and relates to the general divergence of implicit and explicit attitudes and their relative contribution to behaviour, a much-debated issue in (social) psychology (see e.g. [13,[98][99][100][101]). It also underlines the importance of selecting outcome measures that align with specific research questions: if, for example, the main aim of an intervention is to combat discriminatory behavior, such behavior should also be the main outcome measure. ...
Article
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This systematic review provides an up-to-date analysis of existing literature about Virtual Reality (VR) and prejudice. How has VR been used in studying intergroup attitudes, bias and prejudice, are VR interventions effective at reducing prejudice, and what methodological advantages and limitations does VR provide compared to traditional methods are the questions we aim to answer. The included studies had to use VR to create an interaction with one or more avatars belonging to an outgroup, and/or embodiment in an outgroup member; furthermore, they had to be quantitative and peer-reviewed. The review of the 64 included studies shows the potential of VR contact to improve intergroup relations. Nevertheless, the results suggest that under certain circumstances VR contact can increase prejudice as well. We discuss these results in relation to the intergroup perspective (i.e., minority or majority) and target minority groups used in the studies. An analysis of potential mediators and moderators is also carried out. We then identify and address the most pressing theoretical and methodological issues concerning VR as a method to reduce prejudice.
... In light of the above, attitudes have been classified into two types: explicit or reflective attitudes, and implicit or automatic attitudes (Sherman et al., 2014). While explicit attitudes are formed through the individual's rational thinking, implicit attitudes develop through repeated exposure, a process sometimes called cultural osmosis (Banaji & Greenwald, 2013;Greenwald & Nosek, 2009). When explicit and implicit attitudes are not in agreement (e.g., proclaiming an egalitarian attitude explicitly, but favouring in-group members implicitly) dissociation takes place. ...
... However, investigations into the role of attitudes toward L2 speakers have primarily relied on conscious self-reports, such as questionnaires and interviews (Ushioda, 2013). It is possible that an individual might express positive attitudes explicitly, but at the same time harbour negative attitudes implicitly (Greenwald & Nosek, 2009). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, Al-Hoorie presents an overview of the role of unconscious motivation and its relationship to conscious motivation. The author reviews some interesting findings from mainstream psychology pointing to the pervasive role of unconscious processes in human motivation. The discussion is then linked to language learning, where comparable findings are found. These findings emerged from various instruments and methodologies, including the Match-Guise Technique, the Implicit Association Test, the Single-Target Association Test, as well as qualitative observation. Directions for future research are finally suggested.
... However, the question is, do the respondents of a self-reported method declare the same attitude they express when going under a real behavioral condition? Researchers observed a gap between the responses declared in a self-reported measure and the detected responses during a given task [2,[33][34][35], in particular with attitudes related to "green behavior". Several studies reported that people may exaggerate their attitudes and tend to appear "greener" than they actually are [2,33]. ...
... First, consumers would declare higher negative attitudes towards conventional food in a cognitive survey than their expressed attitudes in both informed and uninformed consumption experience. Our results confirm previous findings on how consumers may change their detected attitudes with different methods [2,[33][34][35]57]. ...
Article
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Emotions represent a major driver behind a consumption behavior. It may provide more important information beyond consumers’ preferences. This study contributes to a better understanding of the discrepancy in emotion attitudes towards organic versus conventional food using a cognitive survey and real food consumption experience. An emotional profiling under informed and uninformed condition, a cognitive survey, and a rapid forced-choice test were carried out with 46 consumers. Our work detected a yawning gap in consumers’ declared emotion attitudes in the cognitive survey and elicited emotion attitudes in the food consumption experience. Results showed that consumers exaggerate their positive emotion attitudes towards organic over conventional and their negative emotion attitudes towards conventional over organic. Even though consumers expressed higher negative emotion attitudes towards conventional food than organic in a cognitive survey, during the emotional profiling they had nearly equal emotion attitudes towards both conventional and organic samples. Moreover, positive declared emotions in a cognitive survey formed a good predictor of the final choice of conventional products over organic under time pressure. However, preferences, declared emotion, as well as elicited emotion attitudes were less useful as predictors of organic choice under time pressure. These results show the importance of taking into consideration the type of applied method when investigating consumers’ emotion attitudes towards organic and conventional products.
... p < .001. 3 This association, which is of comparable magnitude to associations between implicit and explicit measures in the social cognition literature (Kurdi et al., 2018), provides provisional evidence that the IAT can be used as an implicit measure of supernatural belief. 4 Research in the social cognition literature has revealed that implicit measures are only weakly correlated with one another, with explicit measures, and with overt behavior (Bar-Anan & Nosek, 2014), which has contributed to debates about whether implicit and explicit measures tap into a single, two, or multiple, representational structures (Bar-Anan & Vianello, 2018;Carruthers, 2018;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). By contrast, to date, careful probing of alternative implicit measures of supernatural belief and the extent to which they predict self-reported belief and overt behavior has yet to occur. ...
... Third, it has been argued that implicit and explicit measures might tap distinct representational structures rather than be different manners in which the same representational structures get expressed (Bar-Anan & Vianello, 2018;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). This possibility is particularly relevant in the context of religious cognition because there is ongoing debate about representational structures. ...
Article
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Asking about religious beliefs, or lack thereof, is a sensitive and complex issue. Due to cultural norms, people may be motivated to respond in a socially desirable way. In addition, deliberating about beliefs may yield different responses than intuition-based responses. To develop a better understanding of the relationship between intuition and self-reported belief, we developed a new implicit measure of supernatural belief. Specifically, we adapted the Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP) to measure supernatural belief. In a preregistered online study of 404 American participants, we found that the strength of associations between supernatural entities (e.g., god, devil, heaven) and the concept “real” (as opposed to the concept “imaginary”) predicted self-reported supernatural belief and self-reported religious behavior, and these associations were of comparable magnitude to those found in studies where supernatural belief was measured implicitly using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These results provide provisional evidence that the AMP can be used as an implicit measure of supernatural belief.
... The question of what cognitions are conscious (explicit) and what are not (implicit) is central to all areas of modern psychology. Developments in the area of implicit social cognition (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Wilson, et al., 2000) have brought about increasing interest in forms of selfknowledge that are inaccessible to consciousness, including our implicit social attitudes and the automatic effects they have on our thoughts and behaviors (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Many attitudes have been shown to exert influence outside of awareness, including unconscious biases toward racial groups (Berdik, Wax, & Tetlock, 2007;Sargent, Kahan, & Mitchell, 2007), political parties (Hawkins & Nosek, 2012), and implicit attitudes toward behaviors such as alcohol consumption (e.g., Palfai & Ostafin, 2003). ...
... 318). Such claims of unconscious representation are commonplace because they follow the cognitive theoretical tradition of dual processes (Evans, 2008;Kihlstrom, 1999;Wilson, et al., 2000) that assumes two kinds of mental representation in separate cognitive systems, one explicit and the other implicit (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). The usual dissociation of consciously explicit beliefs from the behavioral influence of attitudes outside of awareness (Garwonski & Bodehausen, 2006) is taken in support of the standard dual-processing cognitive model, and was repeated in the present data for environmental attitudes in particular. ...
Article
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Independent mood traits comprise three primary components – pleasure, arousal, and dominance (Mehrabian, 1996). Forecasting these traits is beneficial for several subjects, such as behavioral science, cognitive science, decision making, mood disorders treatment, and virtual character development in artificial intelligence. In this study, an extended model is proposed to predict independent mood components based on the emotion and mood history of 108 individuals with different backgrounds and personalities. Emotion history of all these individuals was recorded hourwise for six days, and their daily mood history obtained. The proposed model consists of various types of statistical forecasting methods, such as Holt-Winter’s additive model and seasonal time series model, by integrating current known appraisal theories and aided by mood history probability distribution. The predicted values for the seventh day and the trend of the outcome results reveal that: (1) Pleasure mood trait trend varies significantly between individuals, but it can be considered as predictable; (2) Arousal mood trait is unpredictable for a short time interval; however, it is possible to have close predictions over long time intervals. (3) Dominance mood trait can be predicted for a short time interval, but not for a long time interval. These findings can shed light on the way mood states and behavior of human beings can be predicted.
... The question of what cognitions are conscious (explicit) and what are not (implicit) is central to all areas of modern psychology. Developments in the area of implicit social cognition (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Wilson, et al., 2000) have brought about increasing interest in forms of selfknowledge that are inaccessible to consciousness, including our implicit social attitudes and the automatic effects they have on our thoughts and behaviors (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Many attitudes have been shown to exert influence outside of awareness, including unconscious biases toward racial groups (Berdik, Wax, & Tetlock, 2007;Sargent, Kahan, & Mitchell, 2007), political parties (Hawkins & Nosek, 2012), and implicit attitudes toward behaviors such as alcohol consumption (e.g., Palfai & Ostafin, 2003). ...
... 318). Such claims of unconscious representation are commonplace because they follow the cognitive theoretical tradition of dual processes (Evans, 2008;Kihlstrom, 1999;Wilson, et al., 2000) that assumes two kinds of mental representation in separate cognitive systems, one explicit and the other implicit (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). The usual dissociation of consciously explicit beliefs from the behavioral influence of attitudes outside of awareness (Garwonski & Bodehausen, 2006) is taken in support of the standard dual-processing cognitive model, and was repeated in the present data for environmental attitudes in particular. ...
Article
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Attitudes toward the environment are understood in psychological science as the result of separate mental systems, one conscious and the other unconscious and capable of affecting behaviour outside of awareness. For example, the common incongruity between what people say about global sustainability and what they do about the environment has been explicated by the influence of implicit environmental attitudes. This study examined the operational adequacy of the commonly used implicit association test (IAT) by directly asking participants to report their recognition of behavioural influences whilst performing an IAT. An analytic technique for awareness assessment was introduced to improve on traditional post-experimental questioning by requiring a constrained report that provided introspective access to task-related knowledge in awareness. Results revealed participants were very aware of their IAT response latencies, they accurately recognised IAT features that produced those latencies, and the validity of this awareness predicted their test scores, challenging the claim to attitude effects of which individuals are unaware. Thus, the critical evaluation showed the IAT method to be inadequate as a measure of environmental attitudes that are implicit. Applications of the awareness assessment technique are discussed for evaluating tests of implicit cognition and for promoting individual mindfulness of one’s own environmental attitude.
... 3) the convergence of (i) implicit and explicit measures of the same personality trait, and of (ii) the outcomes of different indirect measurement tasks assessing the same personality trait. The convergences between implicit and explicit measures of the same personality trait are inspected by looking at the inter-correlation between the outcomes of the two tests, and at other variables that correlate with both measures in a similar way (Greenwald & Nosek, 2009). The explicit measures are psychometrically validated trait questionnaire measures 5 and ratings of IAT attribute items. ...
... The three indicators of construct validity will be considered in every personality domain in which it has been studied. 4) evidence for statistically different correlations between explicit and implicit measures of the same personality trait on the one hand, and a theoretically meaningful third variable at the other hand (Greenwald & Nosek, 2009), for example social desirability. These correlations were reviewed (i) in studies in which no experimental manipulation or specific treatment was included, and (ii) in studies in which implicit-explicit consistency could be extracted from the baseline measures when the study did include a manipulation or treatment. ...
Article
This systematic review presents the current state of research investigating the implicit self-concept of personality. First, we present results on meta-analyses estimating internal consistency, reliability coefficients, the implicit–explicit consistency and the single association predictive effect of implicit self-concept of personality measures. To do this, studies were aggregated over personality domains. Second, for each of the Five Factor personality domains, different aspects of construct validity and predictive validity are reviewed in a narrative way. Results show that implicit self-concept of personality measures are reliable, and there is evidence for the construct and predictive validity of these implicit measures, especially in the extraversion and agreeableness domains of personality. However, it must be kept in mind that clear evidence for publication bias was found for studies examining the single association predictive pattern. Finally, this systematic review identifies some achievable improvements that are needed in future research. Large cross-lab efforts are important in this respect. Moreover, the implicit self-concept of personality field must move from an ‘ad hoc’ to a ‘validation’ approach in developing new indirect measurement tasks. By adopting these research objectives, the information processing account of personality will increase its potential to become integrated into mainstream personality theory and research. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
... The difference in time between intervals is referred to as the implicit association effect and is statistically calculated into standardized units known as the IAT D score [Gre03]. According to these measures, implicit bias is pervading [L + 07], significant in magnitude in relation to standardized measures of explicit bias [KL10], and independent of explicit biases (suggesting that they are separate mental constructs) [GN08]. It predicts reality-present behavior [KL10]. ...
... Com a primeira aplicação do Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), um vasto campo empírico foi aberto para estudos com procedimentos de medição de atitude implícita, especialmente em contextos socialmente relevantes (por exemplo, raça, sexo, orientação sexual). Juntamente com este crescente campo empírico, havia também o conceito de que as medidas implícitas seriam capazes de quantificar atitudes e crenças em condições que os psicólogos sociocognitivos descreveriam como automáticas (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Na psicologia comportamental, Mizael e De Rose (2017) sugerem a compreensão de atitudes como comportamento verbal controlado por contingências sociais em vigor e reafirmam a proposta de Guerin (1994) de que as atitudes envolvem operantes de tato do próprio comportamento, mando (quando a atitude produz um reforçador específico) e intraverbal (quando a atitude é controlada por uma resposta verbal). ...
Article
Este artigo descreve o uso do Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST; Teste de Velocidade de Aquisição de Função) para avaliar histórias de aprendizagem verbal com estímulos raciais em 81 estudantes universitários brasileiros com base em diferenças entre tons de pele. A Condição 1 comparou estímulos usando mulheres negras e brancas, enquanto a Condição 2 comparou estímulos usando mulheres com pele mais clara e mais escura. Assim, o principal objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o FAST é um procedimento experimental útil para medir histórias de aprendizagem verbal em questões que envolvem estímulos raciais com estudantes universitários brasileiros. Os estímulos experimentais usados foram imagens de rostos de mulheres com cor de pele mais escura ou mais clara e palavras escritas com significados positivos ou negativos. Os resultados indicaram que 51 dos 81 participantes (63%), sendo 28 dos 41 participantes (68%) na Condição 1 e 23 de 40 participantes (58%) na Condição 2, demonstraram taxas de aprendizagem mais rápidas no bloco consistente com estereótipos de raça em comparação com os blocos inconsistentes. Estes dados indicam moderadamente que o FAST parece ser sensível para quantificar relações entre estímulos raciais. As variáveis que podem ter influenciado estes resultados são discutidas.
... The topic of dissociations between conscious and unconscious attitudes has been widely researched in the context of intergroup attitudes because the complex dynamics involved in intergroup relations "have offered up a perfect place to observe disparities between expressed and elicited attitudes" (Banaji & Heiphetz, 2010, p. 373). Such dissociations between conscious and unconscious attitudes have been best demonstrated by studies that investigated a range of domains such as prejudice and stereotypes and the incongruence found in the two aspects of attitudes that emerged from such studies have been a key result of modern research (Fazio & Olson, 2003;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). ...
Article
The field’s current understanding of L2 motivation is largely reliant on explicit self- reports (e.g. questionnaires and interviews). While such means have provided the L2 motivation field with a wealth of understanding, the underlying assumptions are that such attitudes take place in a conscious manner and that such representations are adequate. Recent developments have discussed these limitations and have called for a more in-depth and holistic understanding of the motivational psyche of L2 learners (e.g. Al-Hoorie, 2016a; Dörnyei, 2020). This thesis seeks to address this research lacuna by arguing for the inclusion of an implicit dimension into L2 motivation research, using the case of Hong Kong as an illustration. This thesis is first made up of a systemic literature review which provided an empirical understanding of the unprecedented boom in published studies that occurred between 2005 – 2014. Studying the dataset that was made up of 416 publications allowed for an understanding of the L2 methodological and theoretical trends in the literature. While there were several key findings from this empirical review, specific to this thesis, the most significant lies in the identification of the lack of an implicit dimension in the field. Consequently, this shaped the premise for this thesis, namely to set forth the case for a subconscious dimension of L2 motivation research. The selection of Hong Kong as a research location was motivated by its unique linguistic landscape. In order to better understand the situation, a qualitative pilot study that sought to determine Hong Kong’s viability as a location for unconscious motivation research was carried out. The qualitative results show that indeed, Hong Kong is loaded with ethnolinguistic tension. Regarding the participants’ attitudes towards the three languages, Cantonese was found to be synonymous with the Hong Kong identity and English was seen as a superior language that was associated with prestige and professional opportunities. In comparison, Mandarin held little relevance to the participants’ everyday lives. Upon further investigation, it was found that Fear of Assimilation was the main reason behind the participants’ lacklustre attitudes towards Mandarin. Overall, this qualitative pilot study offered an insight into the complexities underscoring Hong Kong’s unique, and loaded, linguistic environment; confirming Hong Kong’s suitability as a research location for this implicit line of research.
... Therefore, implicit measures are useful for researchers interested in predicting incremental variance beyond explicit measures (Chong, Djurdjevic, & Johnson, 2017) and are not contaminated with issues inherent to self-report measures of personality such as social desirability and evaluation apprehension (e.g. Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Thus, it seems worthwhile to identify the cognitive biases of DL and specific personalities observed with destructive leaders (i.e. ...
... Therefore, implicit measures are useful for researchers interested in predicting incremental variance beyond explicit measures (Chong, Djurdjevic, & Johnson, 2017) and are not contaminated with issues inherent to self-report measures of personality such as social desirability and evaluation apprehension (e.g. Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Thus, it seems worthwhile to identify the cognitive biases of DL and specific personalities observed with destructive leaders (i.e. ...
... Although implicit and explicit measures tend to show positive correlations, they can display a large degree of dissociation (e.g., age attitudes; Nosek and Smyth, 2007;Greenwald and Nosek, 2008) or even opposite effects (e.g., weight attitudes; Marini et al., 2013;Marini, 2017). These findings suggest that implicit and explicit measures assess related but distinct constructs . ...
Chapter
Social groups are ubiquitous. They reflect the need of humans to belong, to identify as members of collectives for fundamental social and economic benefits, as well as for survival. The many positive aspects of belonging are off-set by intergroup conflict that results from group membership. We focus on psychological analyses of intergroup thoughts, feelings, and actions that include group favoritism, implicit stereotyping and attitudes, and unintended discrimination. We do so with a special focus on the neural mechanisms that have emerged and been identified. Understanding neural processes alongside implicit social cognition can provide relevant data regarding the foundations of the full-blown phenomenon of intergroup conflicts among humans.
... However, research in the field of social cognition has shown that attitudes can be grouped in two different forms: On the one hand, there are conscious and reflective so-called explicit attitudes and on the other hand, there are mainly unconscious implicit attitudes (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Although there is an ongoing debate whether implicit attitudes are unconscious or partly unconscious (Berger, 2020;, most researchers affirm the existence of these two structurally distinctive attitudes (Greenwald & Nosek, 2009). Traditionally, researchers have studied explicit attitudes of employees by using questionnaires (e.g., Cox & Cox, 1991;Rundmo, 2000). ...
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The present paper investigates the changeability of safety culture elements such as explicit and implicit safety attitudes by training. Therefore, three studies with different time frames, training durations, and settings will be presented. In the first study, the short‐term attitude change of students from an international environmental sciences study program was measured after safety training in a chemical laboratory. In the second study, the medium‐term attitude change was assessed after a Crew Resource Management training for German production workers in the automotive industry. In the third study, the long‐term attitude changes were measured after safety ethics training in a sample of German occupational psychology and business students. Different self‐report measures were used to evaluate the training effectiveness of explicit safety attitudes. The change of implicit safety attitudes was assessed by Implicit Association Tests. The results of all three studies revealed a significant training effect on the explicit safety attitudes, but not on the implicit ones. Besides the training effect on the explicit attitudes, there was no effect of time frame (short‐, medium‐, long‐term), training duration (2 h, 2 days, 12 weeks), and setting (chemical laboratory, automotive industry, safety ethics study program) on the attitude change. Based on the results, conceptual, methodological, and practical implications for training effectiveness and safety culture transformation are discussed.
... Was the implicit-explicit dissociation observed because the link between intelligence and gender is a sensitive topic and people are unwilling to publicly report their stereotyped beliefs on this topic, or because explicit gender-brilliance stereotypes truly differ in content from explicit ones? More generally, questions about how best to account for dissociations between implicit and explicit measures continue to be conceptually and methodologically debated (e.g., Greenwald & Nosek, 2008;Nosek, 2007) and remain unresolved in the literature, not only with respect to gender-brilliance stereotypes. Finding ways to resolve these differences and fully understand how gender-brilliance stereotypes operate at the implicit and explicit level is an important direction for future research. ...
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Women are underrepresented in careers where success is perceived to depend on high levels of intellectual ability (e.g., brilliance, genius), including those in science and technology. This phenomenon may be due in part to a gender-brilliance stereotype that portrays men as more brilliant than women. Here, we offer the first investigation of whether people implicitly associate brilliance with men more than women. Implicit measures are absent from prior research on the gender-brilliance stereotype, despite having the potential to contribute unique information about the prevalence of this stereotype. Across 5 studies (N = 3,618) with 17 Implicit Association Tests using 6 distinct comparison traits (e.g., creative, funny), we found consistent evidence for an implicit gender-brilliance stereotype favoring men. Indeed, for 5 out of 6 comparison traits (even the male-typed trait funny), male was associated with brilliant and female with the comparison trait. Only a physical trait (strong) showed a stronger association with male than brilliant did; none of the psychological traits used as comparisons rivaled brilliant in their association to male. Evidence for the implicit gender-brilliance stereotype was consistently observed whether the male and female targets were represented with verbal labels or pictures, and whether the pictures depicted White or Black targets. Moreover, the results were robust in both men and women, children and adults, across different regions of the U.S. as well as internationally. This pervasive implicit association of brilliance with men is likely to hold women back in careers perceived to require brilliance.
... In contrast to explicit responses, implicit associations are often considered to reflect personal attitudes, though there is some debate regarding the role of extra-personal and cultural factors in the IAT (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). For example, it is sometimes unclear whether the association of negative attributes with the faces of black people in a race IAT reflect personal racist attitudes or cultural attitudes unrelated to personal feelings, judgments, and behaviors (Uhlmann, Poehlman, & Nosek, 2012). ...
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There is a growing interest in the study of the cognitive processes underpinning New Age and Paranormal beliefs (NAPBs). However, there is a scarcity of research on this topic using non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic) populations. The main purpose of this study was to develop an implicit association test (IAT) of NAPBs using a non-WEIRD sample (from a general Brazilian population). In addition, the studyalsoexplorediftheassociation between implicit and explicit beliefs wouldbestrongerthanpreviously reported for studies conducted with WEIRD populations. The sample consisted of 615 respondents, 65.2% male, with a mean age of 36.5. As expected, the IAT correlated positively with a self-report scale of NAPBs and of spiritual practices, but it presented a higher correlation coefficient (r=.45, p < .001) than usually found with WEIRD populations. Additionally, the IAT was able to discriminate between believers and skeptics. The paper ends by addressing the cultural implications of the present findings.
... The issue has been widely researched and debated in the field of social cognition, rarely in relation to language attitudes, but largely in the perspective of determining the existence of a double cognitive process -an automatic (associative) process yielding implicit attitudes and a controlled (deliberative) process yielding explicit attitudes (e.g. Greenwald and Nosek 2008) -and furthermore in the perspective of determining the nature of explicit and implicit attitudes in terms of consciousness or awareness (e.g. Gawronski and Bodenhausen 2006). ...
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The paper discusses the relation between direct/indirect methods and explicit/implicit attitudes against the background of how the issue of consciousness (or awareness) is understood and treated in a great deal of research. We focus on the use of techniques that purport to probe the implicit language attitudes held by respondents, and discuss some recent suggestions to modifications of traditional indirect methods. Our main point is that the use of indirect methods does not per se tap into implicit language attitudes in the sense of unconscious language attitudes. In that regard, aspects of how the indirect elicitation is designed and conducted are of pivotal importance. Our insistence on adding the consciousness perspective to the methods-and-attitudes issue derives from our experiences with describing and explaining the recent radical linguistic transformation (homogenization) of the Danish language and speech community. We have found unconscious attitudes – or what we prefer to call subconsciously offered attitudes – to have been a main driving force in that transformation. In investigations with other research interests than sociolinguistic change, an insistence on the importance of securing subconsciously offered attitudes in addition to the consciously offered ones may be of less relevance.
... As Cunningham et al. (2001) note, such results have important theoretical implications, to the extent that they may "contradict the idea of a complete dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes" (p. 17; see also Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). ...
Chapter
Social cognition refers to a discipline in which researchers seek to understand social phenomena in terms of models which emphasize the role of cognitive processes (e.g., attention, encoding, cognitive organization, storage, memory) in mediating social thought and action. Although social cognition is a relatively new field, it is important to note that social psychologists have long been concerned with many of the same issues that are central to cognitive science, such as how people store and retrieve information about their environment in memory. Thus, it would be inaccurate to portray the emergence of social cognition as the first time that social psychologists have focused on the role of cognition in mediating social behavior. Nevertheless, it is true that in the mid‐to‐late 1970s, a branch of social psychology emerged which was unique in the extent to which it overlapped with the theoretical orientation of, and the methodological tools employed by, cognitive psychologists. It is this time period that most scholars peg as the era in which social cognition grew and matured as a discipline in its own right.
... Conceptions of these measures vary across paradigms. Social-cognitive theorists have argued that implicit measures are indicative of evaluative associations between mental representations, but have also been relatively conservative in precisely defining evaluative associations (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). EAB may offer a more fine-grained, empirically-based, functional account of implicit measure methodologies by appealing to well-understood behavioral processes, such as derived relational responding and stimulus class compatibilities (see Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, Stewart, & Boles, 2010;Cartwright, Roche, Gogarty, O'Reilly, & Stewart, 2016;Gavin, Roche, & Ruiz, 2008). ...
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Implicit measures have been hypothesized to allow researchers to ascertain the existence and strength of relations between stimuli, often in the context of research on attitudes. However, little controlled behavioral research has focused on whether stimulus relations, and the degree of relatedness within such relations, are indexed by implicit measures. The current study eamined this issue using a behavior‐analytic implicit‐style stimulus relation indexing procedure known as the Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST). Using a matching‐to‐sample (MTS) procedure to train stimulus equivalence relations between nonsense syllables, the number of iterations of the procedure was varied across groups of participants, hence controlling stimulus relatedness in the resulting equivalence relations. Following final exposure to the MTS procedure, participants completed a FAST. Another group of participants was exposed to a FAST procedure with word pairs of known relatedness. Results showed that increasing relatedness resulted in a linear increase in FAST effect size. These results provide the first direct empirical support for a key process‐level assumption of the implicit literature, and offer a behavior‐analytic paradigm within which to understand these effects. These results also suggest that the FAST may be a viable procedure for the quantification of emergent stimulus relations in stimulus equivalence training.
... From a theoretical perspective, these different values can be caused by (1) distinct mental entities (dualrepresentation theories), suggesting distinct processing of explicit and implicit cognitive representations, such as attitudes (Strack and Deutsch 2004;Wilson et al. 2000) or (2) distinct types of measures (single-representation theories, e.g., Fazio and Olson 2003;Kruglanski and Thompson 1999). As the empirical validity of representation theories has not yet been resolved, Greenwald and Nosek (2008) treat explicit and implicit measures as two empirically distinct constructs (Greenwald et al. 2009, p. 28f). Karpinski and Hilton (2001) provided strong evidence that explicit measures (i.e., self-reporting) are different from implicit measures (i.e., the IAT), conducting three different studies to investigate theories of dual attitudes toward objects. ...
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Recent research on implicit cognition supports that a person’s explicitly self-reported attitude may not necessarily be consistent with their implicit attitude. However, in sustainability research, implicit cognitive measures are still at their early stages, considering primarily single aspects of sustainability only. Here, we pose that the degree of congruence of individuals’ implicit and explicit attitudes represents the foundation of any organization’s sustainability culture. Although many organizations assert that sustainable development represents an important dimension of their vision and strategy, in reality, sustainable development often translates simply into explicit self-presentation and reputation. Traditional methods such as surveys lack information on implicit measures and – since they collect data based solely on the explicit knowledge of the respondents only, which may be biased by social desirability and impression management – cannot measure the congruence between explicit and implicit attitudes. We implemented a browser-based application of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) regarding sustainability as a reaction time based cognitive measure supported by an interactive and activating process that was completed by 114 (prospective) executives. Additionally, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among them in order to investigate their explicit attitudes. We calculated Pearson correlations and conducted repeated measures MANOVA and principle component analysis. Our data analysis demonstrated low congruence between explicit and implicit sustainability orientations (Pearson’s r ranging from -0.10 to 0.31). Potential explanations for our findings relate to the effects of impression management, or individuals’ lack of cognitive processing of their own sustainability orientation. In sum, exploring the potential incongruence between explicit and implicit sustainability orientations helps narrow an important knowledge gap and provides a basis for rethinking the impact of internal and external learning processes within and between organizational systems, society, and science.
... These studies have examined evaluations of a range of attitudinal objects and the results suggest relatively low correlations between explicit and implicit measures, including the IAT, and especially for socially sensitive topics such as minority group prejudice (for a meta-analysis see Hofmann et al. 2005). The generally low correlations found between these explicit and implicit measures point to the existence of implicit and explicit attitudes as structurally distinct (Greenwald and Nosek 2009) and imply that individuals can hold different implicit and explicit attitudes about an attitude object (Rydell and McConnell 2006;Wilson, Lindsey, and Schooler 2000). From this perspective, implicit attitude measures are thus better able to tap into more deeply embedded evaluations, activated from memory when the individual is exposed to the stimulus in question. ...
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Socio-psychological research has frequently reported low correlations between explicit and implicit attitude measures for a range of socially sensitive topics. There is mounting evidence that implicit and explicit evaluations do not change at the same rate and thus any implicit–explicit attitudinal discrepancy (IED) may indicate attitude change in progress. However, researchers have yet to investigate whether differences between implicit and explicit attitudes towards language use can determine the direction of any language attitude change underway; somewhat surprising given recent evidence indicating that community language attitude change can result in micro-level language change over time. The present study employed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and self-report attitude scale to measure the relationship between 90 English nationals’ implicit and explicit ratings of Northern English and Southern English speech in England. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant IED, providing evidence of language attitude change in progress, led by younger females, with explicit attitudes changing more rapidly towards a greater tolerance of the English spoken in the north of England. The paper discusses the potential contribution of investigating implicit and explicit language attitudes to help account for the persistence of deeply embedded linguistic prejudice, as well as to measure language attitude change in progress.
... First, implicit bias is sometimes defined as an attitude about a social category that is unconscious in the sense that it cannot be accessed through introspection (i.e., bias that people do not know they have; Kang et al., 2012). The disso- ciation sometimes observed between implicit and explicit meas- ures of attitudes is cited as evidence for this view (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Although this perspective remains popular (e.g., Capers, Clinchot, McDougle, & Greenwald, 2017), its appropri- ateness has been questioned. ...
... Zároveň by nárůst flexibility měl znamenat, že dítě samo si vybírá hračky podle aktuálního zájmu, nikoliv s ohledem na jejich spojení s genderem. Výzkumy ovšem ukazují, že navzdory zvyšující se mentální flexibilitě nemusí docházet ke změnám v chování, zvláště v případě behaviorálních projevů automaticky aktivovaných stereotypů (Greenwald, Nosek, 2008 (Martin, Dinella, 2001;Freeman, 2007). Hlavní činností předškolního období je hra, která stimuluje vývojové změny v kognitivní, sociální, motorické i identitní oblasti. ...
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A number of researches proved that toys are gender polarized. However, a relationship between conceptions of toys and own choice of toys for playing is not quite clear. This paper presents results of research focused on observation and interviews with 453 children in the age of 3 to 7 years. Each child was observed while playing freely during one week, and consequently the child was asked several questions. The questions were: which toys are used by boys and girls; if certain toys are for girls and boys inappropriate; and which toy does the asked child personally prefer. Analyses confirmed that children consider toys on the basis of gender. When it comes to boys, mostly cars and boxes of bricks are associated with them, whereas, girls are associated with dolls and animals. Girls more often used negative demarcation of masculinity by stating that dolls are inappropriate toys for boys. As far as personal preferences and also real plays, these beliefs are followed by children at large, however, the relationships is stronger at boys than at girls. In reality, girls play with a greater repertoire of toys and actually, they use toys that are labelled as boyish.
... Debate related to understanding the dissociation between implicit and explicit measures is ongoing (compare Greenwald & Nosek, 2009). Some researchers consider implicit versus explicit attitude measures as tapping into different kinds of attitudes (i.e., implicit attitudes versus explicit attitudes that are represented separately in memory; e.g., Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000, or result from different processes, e.g., Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006;Rydell, McConnell, Mackie, & Strain, 2006). ...
... However, it is common to find weak correlations between explicit measures (Cameron et al., 2012;Eves, Scott, Hoppé, & French, 2007;Fazio et al., 1995;Gawronski, Bodenhausen, & Becker, 2007). Greenwald and Nosek (2009) attributed said results to social desirability. ...
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The present investigation aims to inquire about the capacity of three implicit instruments to measure the attitude toward natural and urban environments. One hundred and three students from a Mexican public university participated in the investigation. The implicit instruments used were the affective priming technique, the implicit association test, and the affect misattribution procedure. Further, an explicit scale was used for comparison. The results showed that all instruments converge in the same way; the nature images were viewed as more pleasant compared to the city images. Also, most results indicated good effect size values, observed power, and reliability, with the exception of the affective priming technique, which established low values. In addition, all instruments indicated weak correlations between each other. The results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the instruments to measure environmental attitudes, and also possible theoretical and methodological implications.
... As Nosek (2005) discussed, there are two distinct views within the psychological literature on the explicit-implicit relation: (a) the view that explicit and implicit measures assess distinct constructs, and (b) the view that both measure a single attitude construct, with divergence in responses being due to different levels of conscious or controlled processing (see also Fazio, 2007;Hofmann, Gawronski, Gschwendner, Le, & Schmitt, 2005). Although evidence in support of both views has been offered, according to Greenwald and colleagues (Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, & Banaji, 2009, p. 32), "the question of single versus dual representations appears empirically irresolvable" (see also Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). If this epistemological stance is correct, then it casts doubt on the many distinctions drawn within and outside academic psychology between explicit and implicit prejudice. ...
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Scholarly discussions of prejudice fail to agree on how implicit prejudice connects to other forms of prejudice; it is unclear whether different measures of implicit prejudice measure the same thing; the meaning of “implicit” in the phrase “implicit prejudice” is contested; and implicit measures of prejudice are no better at predicting behavior, even “microaggression”, than are traditional explicit measures of prejudice. The attention paid to the implicit prejudice construct illustrates how success in social science can depend less on theoretical clarity or predictive success and on how skillfully like-minded researchers can use a paradigm to generate statistically significant but substantively insignificant results that they can then package into sound bites that support a particular worldview or political agenda. This chapter discusses several reasons why the implicit prejudice construct is in need of renovation, why the implicit prejudice meme should be retired, and why it is so difficult to combat politically seductive ideas within social psychology.
... This kind of categorizing may lead people to see those from different social groups as all the same, exemplifying the out-group homogeneity effect (Ryan, Park, & Judd, 1996). Another cognitive tendency is to make linkages (or associations)-which become automatic-between negative attributes or events (e.g., violence, aggression) and socially determined categories, such as minority groups, including those with mental disorders (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008;Haghighat, 2001;Stroessner & Mackie, 1993). In short, some roots of prejudice and stigma do not require grossly unequal social conditions or discriminatory practices to be realized. ...
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Mental health stigma is arguably the fundamental issue in the entire mental health field, including developmental psychopathology, given its impact on every participant in the enterprise: scientists, clinicians, social theorists, policymakers, and those contending with mental disorder as well as their many associates. This chapter synthesizes core findings in mental health stigma research and articulates strategies to strengthen its explanatory and applied reach. Specifically, topics include theoretical perspectives on stigma (including social psychological and evolutionary approaches), historical accounts, empirical and cultural evidence for stigma, intersecting developmental themes, future research directions, and strategies to overcome mental health stigma. The chapter includes an integrative theoretical model, incorporating the vantage point of the social perceiver (the person doing the stigmatizing) and the target (the experiencer) of that stigma. It is concluded that although stigma processes may be universal—given evidence that stigma is pancultural and even evolutionarily wired into the mind/brain as an “us” versus “them” module—it can nevertheless be meaningfully reduced. Stigma reduction efforts must consist of multilevel interventions that leverage psychological, family, community, and policy factors.
... Explicit attitudes have primarily been measured using selfreport scales (Hendrick, Fischer, Tobi, & Frewer, 2013). Self-report scales typically report explicit attitudes, because filling out the scales requires cognitive elaboration (Bohner & Dickel, 2011;Eagly & Chaiken, 2007;Gawronski, 2007;Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Implicit attitudes on the other hand, are measured with response time based measurement methods (Gawronski, 2007). ...
Article
Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat.
... Alternatively, when automatic and deliberate processes are aligned, these processes mutually reinforce each other to guide behavior. Consistent with this claim, representations or active constructions (Greenwald & Nosek, 2008). Likewise, we use "association" with a theoryuncommitted view (Greenwald et al., 2005). ...
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Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds| < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior.
... In some domains, consciously reported explicit attitudes and implicit attitudes measured through speed of association are correlated (although the size of the correlation does vary), but in other domains, there seems to be little or no correlation between the two measures and this has led Greenwald and Nosek (2008) to suggest that explicit and implicit attitudes can be "dissociated." When it comes to climate change, there appears to be no significant correlation between explicit and implicit measures, here in terms of attitude to carbon footprint (Beattie and Sale 2009). ...
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There is clear evidence that human beings have contributed to climate change through their patterns of consumption, and, it could be argued that, since we are part of the problem then we must be part of the solution. The apparently good news is that people report that they have very positive attitudes to environmentally-friendly products and they also consistently say that they are prepared to adapt their behavior to ameliorate the effects of climate change. However, numerous studies have found little behavior change on the part of consumers. This study investigates this critical issue experimentally. It does this by exploring whether self-reported attitudes to low carbon products, or alternatively implicit attitudes to such products (measured using an associative task and not requiring self-report), predict consumer choice of products varying on a range of dimensions including environmental consequences, in an experimental context where time for selection was also systematically varied. We found firstly, in line with previous research, that human beings have explicit and implicit attitudes that are not correlated. Secondly, in terms of brand choice, we found that consumers are particularly sensitive to both brand information and value in their selection of products, particularly under time pressure. Organic/eco brands are, however, much less favoured, especially under any time pressure, where processes that are more automatic prevail. Thirdly, color-coded carbon footprint information can influence choice even under time pressure but only for those consumers with a strong positive
... The study of horror movies provides a unique opportunity to contribute to the understanding of implicit cognition in general. Dissociations between implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes have long been a topic of interest in the implicit cognition literature (e.g., Greenwald & Nosek, 2008), and horror movies as an attitude object seem like a-pardon the pun-prime candidate for an area where explicit and implicit ratings diverge. Even among horror fans, it is plausible that their "gut reaction" toward horror films is negative, despite extremely positive explicit ratings. ...
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I sought to explain why many people willingly expose themselves to apparently unpleasant media, such as horror movies. Participants (N = 133) completed a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP; Payne et al., 2005), which assessed initial affective reactions to screenshots from movies that were either frightening or neutral. The time between exposure to the screenshots and assessment of affect was either short (100 ms) or long (1000 ms). Explicit attitudes about the movies and about the horror genre were also assessed, in addition to the following personality variables: The Big Five, Machiavellianism (from the Supernumerary Personality Inventory), Sensation Seeking, and Psychopathy. There was little evidence for a direct connection between implicit reactions and explicit attitudes, but I found overall support for an aftermath- based model of horror enjoyment, in which affect gets increasingly positive after a horrific stimulus has been removed from the screen. However, this relief-like pattern was moderated by Agreeableness and Sensation Seeking. Personality correlates of horror liking (both explicit and implicit) were examined. Furthermore, gender differences supported a gender socialization theory of reactions to frightening media. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed.
Chapter
Beliefs play a central role in our lives. They lie at the heart of what makes us human, they shape the organization and functioning of our minds, they define the boundaries of our culture, and they guide our motivation and behavior. Given their central importance, researchers across a number of disciplines have studied beliefs, leading to results and literatures that do not always interact. The Cognitive Science of Belief aims to integrate these disconnected lines of research to start a broader dialogue on the nature, role, and consequences of beliefs. It tackles timeless questions, as well as applications of beliefs that speak to current social issues. This multidisciplinary approach to beliefs will benefit graduate students and researchers in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, political science, economics, and religious studies.
Chapter
Beliefs play a central role in our lives. They lie at the heart of what makes us human, they shape the organization and functioning of our minds, they define the boundaries of our culture, and they guide our motivation and behavior. Given their central importance, researchers across a number of disciplines have studied beliefs, leading to results and literatures that do not always interact. The Cognitive Science of Belief aims to integrate these disconnected lines of research to start a broader dialogue on the nature, role, and consequences of beliefs. It tackles timeless questions, as well as applications of beliefs that speak to current social issues. This multidisciplinary approach to beliefs will benefit graduate students and researchers in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, political science, economics, and religious studies.
Article
Research in psychology has established that people have visceral positive and negative reactions to all kinds of stimuli—so-called implicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes are empirically distinct from explicit attitudes, and they appear to have separate consequences for political behavior. However, little is known about whether they change in response to different factors than explicit attitudes. Identifying distinct antecedents for implicit and explicit attitudes would have far-reaching implications for the study of political persuasion. We hypothesized that implicit attitudes would change primarily in response to political advertisements’ emotional valence, but this turned out to be wrong. In contrast, our next hypothesis that implicit (but not explicit) attitudes would improve in response to increased familiarity with an attitude object was supported across several tests. Aside from this finding, our studies illustrate how routine preregistration helps researchers convey what they learned from each test—including when predictions are not borne out.
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What is the mental representation that is responsible for implicit bias? What is this representation that mediates between the trigger and the biased behavior? My claim is that this representation is neither a propositional attitude nor a mere association (as the two major accounts of implicit bias claim). Rather, it is mental imagery: perceptual processing that is not directly triggered by sensory input. I argue that this view captures the advantages of the two standard accounts without inheriting their disadvantages. Further, this view also explains why manipulating mental imagery is among the most efficient ways of counteracting implicit bias.
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Las actitudes explícitas se refieren a la realización de juicios valorativos sobre determinados fenómenos sociales, caracterizándose estos por ser deliberativos, controlados y conscientes. Por otra parte, las actitudes implícitas hacen referencia igualmente a juicios valorativos, sin embargo, estos son rápidos, automáticos e inconscientes. La presente investigación se realizó con una muestra de 177 estudiantes de pregrado y tuvo como objetivo establecer la influencia del género y el nivel de conocimiento sobre la enfermedad, en las actitudes explícitas (medido a través de una escala tipo Likert) e implícitas (medido a través del test de asociación implícita, IAT), e igualmente se pretendió determinar la correlación existente entre estos últimos. Los resultados indicaron una influencia del conocimiento sobre las actitudes explícitas, lo cual, demuestra que mayores niveles de conocimiento se asocian con actitudes más favorables hacia las personas con SIDA (síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida). Igualmente, pudo comprobarse que el género no ejerce una influencia significativa sobre las actitudes, así como también la ausencia de resultados significativos en el modelo que incluía las actitudes implícitas. Por último, la correlación entre las mediciones (explícita e implícita) no resultó significativa, lo cual resulta concordante con lo planteado por el modelo MODE de Fazio (Fazio y Olson, 2003).
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La publicité sociale, que plusieurs inscrivent dans le domaine plus large du marketing social, occupe une part importante de l’industrie de la communication marketing au Québec : des dizaines de millions de dollars sont investis chaque année dans des campagnes publicitaires promouvant des causes sociales et environnementales multiples. Si les annonceurs sociaux choisissent cette forme de communication persuasive, c’est parce qu’ils sont animés de la conviction qu’elle est efficace pour susciter l’adoption de « bons » comportements ou l’abandon de « mauvais » comportements chez le public visé. Or, cette assertion soulève inévitablement des questions : l’efficacité des campagnes de publicité sociale est-elle évaluée? Le cas échéant, sur quels indicateurs et méthodes s’appuient ces évaluations? Sont-ils arrimés aux plus récentes connaissances issues de la recherche scientifique? Dans les écrits scientifiques, deux constats émergent : l’absence de consensus sur ce qui constitue une campagne efficace et sur la manière d’évaluer cette efficacité, ainsi que le manque de données empiriques sur les pratiques d’évaluation des professionnels. De tels constats conduisent naturellement à s’interroger sur la dynamique d’échange entre la recherche scientifique et les professionnels de la publicité sociale. Les données scientifiques sont-elles transférées aux professionnels? Dans l’affirmative, les intègrent-ils à leurs pratiques? Encore une fois, la revue de la littérature permet de constater que ces enjeux ont été peu documentés empiriquement jusqu’à présent. Dans ce contexte, l’étude s’est penchée sur l’enjeu général de l’arrimage entre les connaissances issues de la recherche scientifique (CIR) et les pratiques d’évaluation des campagnes de publicité sociale au Québec. S’appuyant sur un devis méthodologique mixte, un questionnaire a d’abord été soumis à soixante-deux professionnels de la publicité sociale oeuvrant au Québec, afin d’établir un portrait chiffré de leurs pratiques à l’égard de l’évaluation des campagnes ainsi que du transfert et de l’utilisation des connaissances scientifiques. Puis, vingt-trois professionnels ont participé à des entretiens individuels pour explorer plus en profondeur les raisons qui sous-tendent ces pratiques.
This study investigates the effect of ingredient images on implicit tasty–healthy associations for packaged products. An implicit association test (IAT) with 106 respondents reveals the impact of repeating ingredient images on the implicit healthy = tasty intuition; fewer ingredient images are linked to a stronger intuition. This study also considers explicit product packaging preferences and the number of ingredient images depicted. The implicit intuitions affect explicit preferences, such that packages depicting few ingredient images are preferred over those depicting many ingredient images for healthy products, but no significant effects emerge for unhealthy products.
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Objective: To investigate the effect of second-hand smoke exposure on explicit and implicit attitudes toward smoking. Methods: 104 non-smokers completed the questionnaires of attitude toward smoking and second-hand smoking and task of Implicit Association Test. Results: ①Compared to the non-smokers with less exposure of second hand smoking, the explicit attitude toward smoking was significantly less negative among non-smokers with higher second-hand smoking exposure. The implicit attitudes toward smoking were not significant different among non-smokers with different degree of second-hand smoke exposure. ②The relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes toward smoking was not significant. ③The relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes toward smoking was moderated by second-hand smoke exposure. The relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes was significant among non-smokers with the higher degree of second-hand smoke exposure rather than those with lower exposure. Conclusion: Second-hand smoke exposure might reduce the explicit negative attitudes toward smoking and strengthen the correspondence between explicit and implicit attitudes among non-smokers.
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What explains our attitudes towards the environment? Why do so many climate change initiatives fail? How can we do more to prevent humans damaging the environment? The Psychology of Climate Change explores the evidence for our changing environment, and suggests that there are significant cognitive biases in how we think about, and act on climate change. The authors examine how organisations have attempted to mobilise the public in the fight against climate change, but these initiatives have often failed due to the public’s unwillingness to adapt their behaviour. The book also explores why some people deny climate change altogether, and the influence that these climate change deniers can have on global action to mitigate further damage. By analysing our attitudes to the environment, The Psychology of Climate Change argues that we must think differently about climate change to protect our planet, as a matter of great urgency.
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Using a technique known as network meta-analysis that is new to psychological science, we synthesized evidence from 494 studies (80,356 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of different procedures to change implicit bias, and their effects on explicit bias and behavior. We found that implicit bias can be changed, but the effects are often weak (|ds| < .30). Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit bias the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit bias the least. Most procedures were brief and were tested within a single experimental session, and funnel plot analyses suggested that the effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Many procedures changed explicit bias, but to a smaller degree than they changed implicit bias. We found no evidence of change in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit bias did not mediate changes in explicit bias or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in measured implicit bias are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit bias or behavior. We discuss potential interpretations of these findings, including the possibility that current manipulations change non-associative aspects of implicit measures and the possibility that the automatic retrieved associations do not influence explicit biases or behavior.
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The field of language motivation is almost 60 years old. Throughout these decades, one idea has been persistent: Motivation is assumed to be a conscious process on which the learner can exert direct control. That this conscious conceptualization might not give the full picture has not been seriously entertained. An important consequence ensuing from this approach is the overreliance on self-report measures, such as questionnaires and interviews. Thus, in effect, the individual’s conscious reflection on their own attitudes and motivation has been the primary source of empirical data for our field. This thesis challenges this hegemony of conscious motivation. It provides an extensive review of the various paradigms of unconscious attitudes and motivation. It traces back their origins, highlights some of their major findings, and reviews the instruments used within each paradigm to circumvent direct self-report (as well as the controversies surrounding these instruments). The review also demonstrates that the adoption of an unconscious perspective is not inconsistent with major theoretical frameworks in the field. It then selects one of these paradigms, namely implicit attitudes, to apply in the context of language learning. Two studies were conducted on two independent samples (with almost 700 participants in total), in two different contexts (the UK and Saudi Arabia), and with different instruments of implicit attitudes (the Implicit Association Test and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Study 1 found that openness to language speakers at the implicit level is associated with more openness at the explicit level. Study 2 successfully replicated this finding, and extended it to language achievement—showing that learners with more favorable attitudes toward language speakers at the implicit level achieved higher grades in their English class. This finding could not be explained away by either social desirability or cognitive confounds. The results from these two studies were also meta-analyzed using Bayes factors in order to give an overall picture of the findings. The Discussion chapter wraps up this thesis by highlighting the relevance of this unconscious approach to the field more broadly. This chapter reviews a number of recent studies that have yielded similar findings to those from the current thesis. Some of these findings are then critically reanalyzed and reinterpreted in the context of unconscious motivation, thus demonstrating how adopting an unconscious approach helps view existing findings in a new light. In some cases, the analysis casts doubt on established ideas that have been taken for granted for decades. The overall message of this thesis is not that conscious motivation should be disregarded. Instead, conscious motivation should be complemented with a consideration of the role of unconscious motivation. A conscious-only approach would offer a limited window into human attitudes and motivation.
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Often, the career counseling process focuses on the conscious and explicit aspects of the evaluated people. The aim of this study was to develop a measure of implicit attitude towards areas of psychology and test its psychometric strength in order to provide tools to support career counseling. Two studies were conducted in different samples. It was identified that the instruments showed acceptable psychometric properties and favorable evidence of validity. It is considered that the developed IAT had acceptable psychometric properties and is a contribution to the study of career choice and career counseling, adding to the set of available techniques for psychological evaluation in this context.
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Implicit and explicit attitudes manifest themselves as distinct and partly dissociable behavioral dispositions. It is natural to think that these differences reflect differing underlying representations. The present article argues that this may be a mistake. Although non-verbal and verbal measures of attitudes often dissociate (and frequently conflict), this may be because the two types of outcome-measure are differentially impacted by other factors, not because they are tapping into distinct kinds of representation or distinct storage systems. I arrive at this view through closer consideration than is usual of the mechanisms and processes that underlie overt behavior.
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This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2) academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311) completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that attachment to the L1 community and the ought-to L2 self were negatively associated with achievement, while explicit attitudes toward the L2 course and implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers were positively associated with it. The relationship between implicit attitudes and achievement could not be explained either by social desirability or by other cognitive confounds, and remained significant after controlling for explicit self-report measures. Explicit–implicit congruence also revealed a similar pattern, in that congruent learners were more open to the L2 community and obtained higher achievement. The results also showed that neither the ideal L2 self nor intended effort had any association with actual L2 achievement, and that intended effort was particularly prone to social desirability biases. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Implicit and explicit indicators of attitudes or personality traits are positively, and variably, related. This review places the question of implicit ‐ explicit consistency into the tradition of attitude/trait ‐ behaviour consistency (e.g., Wicker, 1969). Drawing on dual-process models, such as the recent distinction between associative and propositional representations (Strack & Deutsch, 2004), we identify a working model of implicit ‐ explicit consistency that organises the empirical evidence on implicit ‐ explicit moderation into five factors: translation between implicit and explicit representations (e.g., representational strength, awareness), additional information integration for explicit representations (e.g., need for cognition), properties of explicit assessment (e.g., social desirability concerns), properties of implicit assessment (e.g., situational malleability), and research design factors (e.g., sampling bias, measurement correspondence).
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A joint aim of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology has been the decomposition of mental function—the isolation and characterization of basic processes underlying behavior. By convention, the principal techniques used to identify such processes are based on functional dissociation—the observation of selective effects of variables on tasks. Yet, despite their widespread use, the inferential logic associated with these techniques is flawed. The aims of this article are twofold: (a) to review and make explicit the inferential limits of single and double dissociation; and (b) to introduce a new technique that overcomes these limits. Called reversed association, this new technique is defined as any nonmonotonic relation between two tasks of interest. We argue that reversed association, in place of functional dissociation, offers a sounder basis for inferring the number of functionally independent processes underlying performance and, having fewer assumptions, offers researchers greater scope for discovering such processes and determining their nature and effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies examined the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit attitudes. In the 1st and all subsequent studies, the lack of any correlation between the IAT and explicitly measured attitudes supports the view that the IAT is independent from explicit attitudes. Study 2 examined the relationships among the IAT, explicit attitudes, and behavior and found that the explicit attitudes predicted behavior but the IAT did not. Finally, in Study 3 it was found that the IAT was affected by exposing participants to new associations between attitude objects, whereas the explicit attitudes remained unchanged. Taken together, these results support an environmental association interpretation of the IAT in which IAT scores reflect the associations a person has been exposed to in his or her environment rather than the extent to which the person endorses those evaluative associations.
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Using the trait of shyness as an example, the authors showed that (a) it is possible to reliably assess individual differences in the implicitly measured self-concept of personality that (b) are not accessible through traditional explicit self-ratings and (c) increase significantly the prediction of spontaneous behavior in realistic social situations. A total of 139 participants were observed in a shyness-inducing laboratory situation, and they completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. The IAT correlated moderately with the explicit self-ratings and uniquely predicted spontaneous (but not controlled) shy behavior, whereas the explicit ratings uniquely predicted controlled (but not spontaneous) shy behavior (double dissociation). The distinction between spontaneous and controlled behavior was validated in a 2nd study.
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In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
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The chapter presents the two very different basic processes that link attitudes and behavior, along with variants that amount to a mixture of the essentials of each process. Conditions that promote one process or the other also are discussed in the chapter. This discussion of mixed models illustrates the complexity of the role of spontaneous and deliberative processing to understand the manner in which attitudes influence behavior. The basic difference between the two types of models of the attitude-behavior process centers on the extent to which deciding on a particular course of action involves conscious deliberation about a spontaneous reaction to one's perception of the immediate situation. An individual may analyze the costs and benefits of a particular behavior and, in so doing, deliberately reflect on the attitudes relevant to the behavioral decision. These attitudes may serve as one of possibly many dimensions that are considered in arriving at a behavior plan, which may then be enacted.
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Theoretically, low correlations between implicit and explicit measures can be due to (a) motivational biases in explicit self reports, (b) lack of introspective access to implicitly assessed representations, (c) factors influencing the retrieval of information from memory, (d) method-related characteristics of the two measures, or (e) complete independence of the underlying constructs. The present study addressed these questions from a meta-analytic perspective, investigating the correlation between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-report measures. Based on a sample of 126 studies, the mean effect size was .24, with approximately half of the variability across correlations attributable to moderator variables. Correlations systematically increased as a function of (a) increasing spontaneity of self-reports and (b) increasing conceptual correspondence between measures. These results suggest that implicit and explicit measures are generally related but that higher order inferences and lack of conceptual correspondence can reduce the influence of automatic associations on explicit self-reports.
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Automatic and controlled modes of evaluation sometimes provide conflicting reports of the quality of social objects. This article presents evidence for 4 moderators of the relationship between automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) evaluations. Implicit and explicit preferences were measured for a variety of object pairs using a large sample. The average correlation was r=.36, and 52 of the 57 object pairs showed a significant positive correlation. Results of multilevel modeling analyses suggested that (a) implicit and explicit preferences are related, (b) the relationship varies as a function of the objects assessed, and (c) at least 4 variables moderate the relationship: self-presentation, evaluative strength, dimensionality, and distinctiveness. The variables moderated implicit-explicit correspondence across individuals and accounted for much of the observed variation across content domains. The resulting model of the relationship between automatic and controlled evaluative processes is grounded in personal experience with the targets of evaluation.
  • A G Greenwald
  • B A Nosek
  • N Sriram
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Sriram, N. (2006). Consequential validity of the Implicit Association Test: Comment on the article by Blanton and Jaccard. American Psychologist, in press.